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1.
Mil Med ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The battalion aid station (BAS) has historically served as the first stop during which combat casualties would receive care beyond a combat medic. Since the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, many combat casualties have bypassed the BAS for treatment facilities capable of surgery. We describe the care provided at these treatment facilities during 2007-2020. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of previously described data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. We included encounters with the documentation of an assessment or intervention at a BAS or forward operating base from January 1, 2007 to March 17, 2020. We utilized descriptive statistics to characterize these encounters. RESULTS: There were 28,950 encounters in our original dataset, of which 3.1% (884) had the documentation of a prehospital visit to a BAS. The BAS cohort was older (25 vs. 24, P < .001) The non-BAS cohort saw a larger portion of pediatric (<18 years) patients (10.7% vs. 5.7%, P < .001). A higher proportion of BAS patients had nonbattle injuries (40% vs. 20.7%, P < .001). The mean injury severity score was higher in the non-BAS cohort (9 vs. 5, P < .001). A higher proportion of the non-BAS cohort had more serious extremity injuries (25.1% vs. 18.4%, P < .001), although the non-BAS cohort had a trend toward serious injuries to the abdomen (P = .051) and thorax (P = .069). There was no difference in survival. CONCLUSIONS: The BAS was once a critical point in casualty evacuation and treatment. Within our dataset, the overall number of encounters that involved a stop at a BAS facility was low. For both the asymmetric battlefield and multidomain operations/large-scale combat operations, the current model would benefit from a more robust capability to include storage of blood, ventilators, and monitoring and hold patients for an undetermined amount of time.

2.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(3): 66-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: United States Africa Command (US AFRICOM) is one of six US Defense Department's geographic combatant commands and is responsible to the Secretary of Defense for military relations with African nations, the African Union, and African regional security organizations. A full-spectrum combatant command, US AFRICOM is responsible for all US Department of Defense operations, exercises, and security cooperation on the African continent, its island nations, and surrounding waters. We seek to characterize blood product administration within AFRICOM using the in-transit visibility tracking tool known as TRAC2ES (TRANSCOM Regulating and Command & Control Evacuation System). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of TRAC2ES medical evacuations from the AFRICOM theater of operations conducted between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018. RESULTS: During this time, there were 963 cases recorded in TRAC2ES originating within AFRICOM, of which 10 (1%) cases received blood products. All patients were males. One was a Department of State employee, one was a military working dog, and the remainder were military personnel. Of the ten humans, seven were the result of trauma, most by way of gunshot wound, and three were due to medical causes. Among human subjects receiving blood products for traumatic injuries, a total of 5 units of type O negative whole blood, 29 units of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), and 9 units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were transfused. No subjects underwent massive transfusion of blood products, and only one subject received pRBCs and FFP in 1:1 fashion. All subjects survived until evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Within the TRAC2ES database, blood product administration within AFRICOM was infrequent, with some cases highlighting lack of access to adequate blood products. Furthermore, the limitations within this database highlight the need for systems designed to capture medical care performance improvement, as this database is not designed to support such analyses. A mandate for performance improvement within AFRICOM that is similar to that of the US Central Command would be beneficial if major improvements are to occur.


Assuntos
Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Transfusão de Sangue , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Plasma , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
3.
South Med J ; 114(9): 597-602, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens vulnerable patient populations, resulting in immense pressures at the local, regional, national, and international levels to contain the virus. Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that masks may offer benefit in reducing the spread of droplet-based illnesses, but few data are available to assess mask effects via executive order on a population basis. We assess the effects of a county-wide mask order on per-population mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and ventilator utilization in Bexar County, Texas. METHODS: We used publicly reported county-level data to perform a mixed-methods before-and-after analysis along with other sources of public data for analyses of covariance. We used a least-squares regression analysis to adjust for confounders. A Texas state-level mask order was issued on July 3, 2020, followed by a Bexar County-level order on July 15, 2020. We defined the control period as June 2 to July 2 and the postmask order period as July 8, 2020-August 12, 2020, with a 5-day gap to account for the median incubation period for cases; longer periods of 7 and 10 days were used for hospitalization and ICU admission/death, respectively. Data are reported on a per-100,000 population basis using respective US Census Bureau-reported populations. RESULTS: From June 2, 2020 through August 12, 2020, there were 40,771 reported cases of COVID-19 within Bexar County, with 470 total deaths. The average number of new cases per day within the county was 565.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 394.6-736.2). The average number of positive hospitalized patients was 754.1 (95% CI 657.2-851.0), in the ICU was 273.1 (95% CI 238.2-308.0), and on a ventilator was 170.5 (95% CI 146.4-194.6). The average deaths per day was 6.5 (95% CI 4.4-8.6). All of the measured outcomes were higher on average in the postmask period as were covariables included in the adjusted model. When adjusting for traffic activity, total statewide caseload, public health complaints, and mean temperature, the daily caseload, hospital bed occupancy, ICU bed occupancy, ventilator occupancy, and daily mortality remained higher in the postmask period. CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in per-population daily mortality, hospital bed, ICU bed, or ventilator occupancy of COVID-19-positive patients attributable to the implementation of a mask-wearing mandate.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Governo Local , Máscaras , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiologia
4.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 25-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Battlefield first responders (BFR) are the first non-medical personnel to render critical lifesaving interventions for combat casualties, especially for massive hemorrhage where rapid control will improve survival. Soldiers receive medical instruction during initial entry training (IET) and unit-dependent medical training, and by attending the Combat Lifesaver (CLS) course. We seek to describe the interventions performed by BFRs on casualties with only BFRs listed in their chain of care within the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a dataset from the PHTR from 2003-2019. We excluded encounters with a documented medical officer, medic, or unknown prehospital provider at any time in their chain of care during the Role 1 phase to isolate only casualties with BFR medical care. RESULTS: Of the 1,357 encounters in our initial dataset, we identified 29 casualties that met inclusion criteria. Pressure dressing was the most common intervention (n=12), followed by limb tourniquets (n=4), IV fluids (n=3), hemostatic gauze (n=2), and wound packing (n=2). Bag-valve-masks, chest seals, extremity splints, and nasopharyngeal airways (NPA) were also used (n=1 each). Notably absent were backboards, blizzard blankets, cervical collars, eye shields, pelvic splints, hypothermia kits, chest tubes, supraglottic airways (SGA), intraosseous (I/O) lines, and needle decompression (NDC). CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited training, BFRs employ vital medical skills in the prehospital setting. Our data show that BFRs largely perform medical interventions within the scope of their medical knowledge and training. Better datasets with efficacy and complication data are needed.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Socorristas , Medicina Militar , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Torniquetes
5.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 36-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended Focused Assessment with Ultrasonography in Trauma (eFAST) reliably identifies noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH), a major cause of battlefield death. Increased portability of ultrasound enables eFAST far forward on the battlefield, and published data demonstrate combat medics can learn and reliably perform ultrasound exams. One medical company developed an ultrasound device with an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and novel, finger-worn transducer with built-in linear and phased arrays, referred to as the novel device. We evaluated combat medic eFAST performance between the novel and conventional device. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, crossover trial completed at a single US military installation. Subjects were US Army combat medics with no previous ultrasound experience. Subjects performed an eFAST on a live human and a simulation model with both devices after a brief training intervention. Our primary outcome was time in seconds for eFAST completion, limited to 600 seconds. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic accuracy, technical adequacy using a validated task-specific checklist, and end-user appraisal of device ease-of-use with 5-point Likert items. This study was approved by the local institutional review board. RESULTS: Forty subjects volunteered, most were male (67.5%), less than 36 years old (95.0%), and grade E-4 or below (75.0%). Subjects performed a total of 160 eFAST scans (80 novel, 80 conventional). We found no significant difference in time for eFAST completion between the novel and conventional devices (391 seconds [95% CI 364, 417] versus 352 seconds [95% CI 325, 379]; p = 0.71). We also found no significant differences between the novel and conventional devices with respect to diagnostic accuracy (91.5% versus 89.2%; p = 0.28) and technical adequacy (75.0% versus 72.5%; p = 0.28). However, we did find that subjects favored the image quality of the novel device (4.3 versus 3.6; p is less than 0.01), while favoring the conventional transducer (3.8 versus 4.3; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Combat medic eFAST performance utilizing both devices did not differ with respect to time to completion, diagnostic accuracy, and technical adequacy. Medics with limited ultrasound experience performed diagnostically accurate eFAST after a brief training intervention. Future research should assess learning gaps and skill retention in order to guide development of US military ultrasound training programs for combat medics.


Assuntos
Militares , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
6.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 44-49, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most battlefield deaths occur in the prehospital setting prior to reaching surgical and hospital care. Described are casualties captured by the Joint Trauma System (JTS) in the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) module of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR), from inception through May 2019. METHODS: The JTS was queried for all PHTR encounters and associated data from inception (January 2003) through May 2019. The PHTR captures data on Role 1 prehospital care which encompasses treatment prior to arrival at a Role 2 with or without forward surgical team or Role 3 combat support hospital. Two unique patient identifiers were used to link DODTR outcome data to each PHTR encounter. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: We obtained a total of 1,357 encounters from the PHTR. Of these encounters, we successfully linked 52.2% (709/1357) to the DODTR for outcome data. Encounters spanned from 2003 to 2019, with most (69.5%) occurring from 2012 to 2014. Many casualties were in the 18-25 (25.5%) or 26-33 (27.0%) age ranges, male (99.2%), injured by explosive (47.1%) or firearm (34.8%), enlisted (44.8%), and US military conventional (24.1%) and special operations (23.9%) forces. Of those linked to the DODTR, demographics were similar, most casualties sustained battle injuries (87.1%), the majority of which survived (99.1%). CONCLUSIONS: We described 1,357 encounters within the PHTR, most of which were US casualties and casualties injured by explosives. This renewed effort by the JTS to capture more casualties for inclusion into the registry has nearly doubled the proportion of available encounters for analysis. This analysis lays the foundation for in-depth analyses targeting areas for optimizing Role 1 prehospital combat casualty care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Militares , Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros
7.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-07/08/09): 81-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel video laryngoscope device, the i-view, may extend intubation capability to the lowest echelons of deployed military medicine. The i-view is a one-time use, disposable laryngoscope. We compared time to completion of endotracheal intubation (ETI) between the i-view and GlideScope among military emergency medicine providers in a simulation setting. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, crossover trial. We randomized participants to i-view or GlideScope first before they performed 2 ETI-1 with each device. The primary outcome was time to completion of ETI. Secondary outcomes included first-pass success, optimal glottic view, and end-user appraisal. We used a Laerdal Airway Management Trainer for all intubations. RESULTS: Thirty-three emergency medicine providers participated. ETI time was less with GlideScope than i-view (22.2 +/- 9.0 seconds versus 30.2 +/- 24.0 seconds; p=0.048). Optimal glottic views, using the Cormack-Lehan scale, also favored the GlideScope (2 [1,2] versus 2[2,2]; p=0.044). There was no difference in first-pass success rates (100% versus 100%). More participants preferred the GlideScope (24 versus 9; p=0.165); however, participants agreed that the i-view would be easier to use than the GlideScope in an austere environment (4[4,5]). CONCLUSIONS: We found the GlideScope outperformed the i-view with respect to procedural completion time. Participants preferred the GlideScope over i-view, but indicated the i-view would be easier to use than the GlideScope in an austere setting. Our findings suggest the i-view may be a suitable alternative to GlideScope for US military providers, especially for those in the prehospital setting.


Assuntos
Laringoscópios , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-04/05/06): 72-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is crucial to force protection and preservation. Innovation in PPE has shifted injury patterns, with protected body regions accounting for decreased proportions of battlefield trauma relative to unprotected regions. Little is known regarding the PPE in use by warfighters at the time of injury. METHODS: We queried the Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) for all encounters from 2003-2019. This is a sub-analysis of casualties with documented PPE at the time of medical encounter. When possible, encounters were linked to the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for outcome data. Serious injuries are defined as an abbreviated injury scale of 3 or greater. RESULTS: Of 1,357 total casualty encounters in the PHTR, 83 were US military with documented PPE. We link 62 of this cohort to DODTR. The median composite Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 6 (Interquartile range (IQR) 4-21), and 11 casualties (18%) had an ISS >25. The most seriously injured body regions were the extremities (21%), head/neck (16%), thorax (16%), and abdomen (10%). PPE worn at time of injury included helmet (91%), eye protection (73%), front (75%) and rear plates (77%), left/right plates (65%), tactical vest (46%), groin protection (12%), neck protection (6%), pelvic shield (3%), and deltoid protection (3%). CONCLUSION: Our data set demonstrates that the extremities were the most commonly injured body region, followed by head/neck, and thorax. PPE designed for the extremities and neck are also among the least commonly worn protective equipment.


Assuntos
Militares , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Sistema de Registros
9.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-15, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760684

RESUMO

Background: Most potentially preventable deaths occur in the prehospital setting before reaching a military treatment facility with surgical capabilities. Thus, optimizing the care we deliver in the prehospital combat setting represents a ripe target for reducing mortality. We sought to analyze prehospital data within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR). Materials and methods: We requested all encounters with any prehospital activity (e.g., interventions, transportation, vital signs) documented within the DODTR from January 2007 to March 2020 along with all hospital-based data that was available. We excluded from our search casualties that had no prehospital activity documented. Results: There were 28,950 encounters that met inclusion criteria. Of these, 25,897 (89.5%) were adults and 3053 were children (10.5%). There was a steady decline in the number of casualties encountered with the most notable decline occurring in 2014. U.S. military casualties comprised the largest proportion (n = 10,182) of subjects followed by host nation civilians (n = 9637). The median age was 24 years (interquartile range/IQR 21-29). Most were battle injuries (78.6%) and part of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (61.8%) and Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (24.4%). Most sustained injuries from explosives (52.1%) followed by firearms (28.1%), with serious injury to the extremities (24.9%) occurring most frequently. The median injury severity score was 9 (IQR 4-16) with most surviving to discharge (95.0%). A minority had a documented medic or combat lifesaver (27.9%) in their chain of care, nor did they pass through an aid station (3.0%). Air evacuation predominated (77.9%). Conclusions: Within our dataset, the deployed U.S. military medical system provided prehospital medical care to at least 28,950 combat casualties consisting mostly of U.S. military personnel and host nation civilian care. There was a rapid decline in combat casualty volumes since 2014, however, on a per-encounter basis there was no apparent drop in procedural volume.

10.
Mil Med ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioids carry high risk of dependence, and patients can rapidly build tolerance after repetitive dosing. Low-dose ketamine is an analgesic agent alternative that provides more hemodynamic stability. We sought to describe the effects of prolonged ketamine use in non-burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the electronic health system at the Brooke Army Medical Center for patient encounters with ketamine infusions lasting >72 hours. We abstracted data describing demographics, vital signs, ketamine infusion dose and duration, and discharge diagnoses potentially relevant to ketamine side effects. RESULTS: We identified 194 subjects who met the study inclusion criteria. The median age was 39 years, most were male (67.0%), and most were primarily admitted for a non-trauma reason (59.2%). The mean ketamine drip strength was 43.9 mg/h (95% CI, 36.7-51.1; range 0.1-341.6) and the mean drip length was 130.8 hours (95% CI, 120.3-141.2; range 71-493). Most subjects underwent mechanical ventilation (56.1%) at some point during the infusion and most survived to hospital discharge (83.5%). On a per-day basis, the average heart rate was 93 beats per minute, systolic blood pressure was 128 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure was 71 mmHg, oxygen saturation was 96%, and respiratory rate was 22 respirations per minute. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that continuous ketamine infusions provide a useful adjunct for analgesia and/or sedation. Further development of this adjunct modality may serve as an alternative agent to opioids.

11.
Mil Med ; 186(5-6): e474-e479, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169135

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Committee on Tactical Combat Casualty Care and Capabilities Development and Integration Directorate cite airway burn injuries as an indication for prehospital cricothyrotomy. We sought to build on previously published data by describing for the first time the incidence of prehospital airway interventions in combat casualties who received airway management in the setting of inhalational injuries.15,26 We hypothesized that (1) airway interventions in combat casualties who suffered inhalational injury would have a higher mortality rate than those without airway intervention and (2) prehospital cricothyrotomy was used with greater incidence than endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a previously described Department of Defense Trauma Registry dataset from January 2007 to August 2016, unique casualties with documented inhalational injury were identified. RESULTS: Our predefined search codes captured 28,222 (72.8% of all encounters in the registry) of those subjects. A total of 347 (1.2%) casualties had a documented inhalational injury, 27 (7.8%) of those with at least 1 prehospital airway intervention inhalational injuries (0.09% of our dataset [n = 28,222]). Within the subset of patients with an inhalation injury, 23 underwent intubation, 2 underwent cricothyrotomy, 3 had placement of an airway adjunct not otherwise specifically listed, and 1 casualty had both a cricothyrotomy and intubation documented. No casualties had a supraglottic, nasopharyngeal, or oropharyngeal airway listed. Contrary to our hypotheses, of those with an airway intervention, 74.0% survived to hospital discharge. In multivariable regression models, when adjusting for confounders, there was no difference in survival to discharge in those with an airway intervention compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: Casualties undergoing airway intervention for inhalation injuries had similar survival adjusting for injury severity, supporting its role when indicated. Without case-specific data on airway status and interventions, it is challenging to determine if the low rate of cricothyrotomy in this population was a result of rapid transport to a more advanced provider capable of performing intubation or cricothyrotomy may not be meeting the needs of the medics.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça , Ferimentos e Lesões , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Sistema de Registros , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/terapia
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 44: 423-427, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466872

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identifying patients at imminent risk of death is a paramount priority in combat casualty care. This study measures the vital sign values predictive of mortality among combat casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHODS: We used data from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007 to August 2016. We used the highest documented heart rate and the lowest documented systolic pressure in the emergency department for each casualty. We constructed receiver operator curves (ROCs) to assess the accuracy of these variables for predicting survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS: There were 38,769 encounters of which our dataset included 15,540 (40.1%). The median age of these patients was 25 years and 97.5% were male. The most common mechanisms of injury were explosives (n = 9481, 61.0%) followed by gunshot wounds (n = 2393, 15.3%). The survival rate to hospital discharge was 97.5%. The median heart rate was 94 beats per minute (bpm) with area under the ROC of 0.631 with an optimal threshold to predict mortality of 110 bpm (sensitivity 52.2%, specificity 79.2%). The median systolic blood pressure was 128 mmHg with area under the ROC of 0.790 with an optimal threshold to predict mortality of 112 mmHg (sensitivity 68.5%, specificity 81.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Casualties with a systolic blood pressure <112 mmHg, are at high risk of mortality, a value significantly higher than the traditional 90 mmHg threshold. Our dataset highlights the need for better methods to guide resuscitation as vital sign measurements have limited accuracy in predicting mortality.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Militares , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Sinais Vitais
13.
Mil Med ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway obstruction is the second leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Video laryngoscopy has improved airway management in the emergency setting for several decades, and technology continues to improve. Current technology in the supply chain is cost-prohibitive to incorporate at Role 1 facilities, which is where many intubations occur by novice intubators. The i-view is a novel video laryngoscopy device that is handheld, inexpensive, and disposable. The aim of this study was to determine if the i-view is suitable based on performance assessments by physician assistant trainees and survey feedback. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled physician assistant students at the Interservice Physician Assistant Program at Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston. We provided them structured training on how to use the device, and then, a board-certified emergency medicine physician or certified registered nurse anesthetist assessed their intubations performed on a SynDaver mannequin model. We surveyed the participants afterward. RESULTS: We enrolled 60 Interservice Physician Assistant Program students. Most participants were male (75%) with a median age of 32 years. Service affiliations included Army (50%), Navy (23%), Air Force (18%), and Coast Guard (8%). Most (70%) had previous deployment experience. All the participants successfully cannulated the mannequins and 98% achieved first-attempt success. Most participants (78%) reported a grade 1 view. On postprocedure survey, 91% strongly agreed with using this device in the deployed setting and 89% strongly agreed with finding it easy to use. CONCLUSIONS: All physician assistant trainees successfully and rapidly performed endotracheal intubation using the disposable i-view video laryngoscope. Study participants rated the device as easy to use and desirable for deployment. Further research is necessary to validate this novel device in the clinical setting before recommending dissemination to the deployed military medical force sets, kits, and outfits.

14.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(4): 53-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Role 1 care represents all aspects of prehospital care on the battlefield. Recent conflicts and military operations conducted on behalf of the Global War on Terrorism have resulted in medical officers (MOs) being used nondoctrinally on combat missions. We are seeking to describe Role 1 trauma care provided by MOs and compare this care to that provided by medics. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of previously described data from the Prehospital Trauma Registry and the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from April 2003 through May 2019. Encounters were categorized by type of care provider (MO or medic). If both were documented, they were categorized as MO; those without either were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: A total of 826 casualty encounters met inclusion criteria. There were 418 encounters categorized as MO (57 with MO, 361 with MO and medic), and 408 encounters categorized as medic only. The composite injury severity score (median, interquartile range) was higher for casualties treated by the medic cohort (9, 3.5-17) than for the MO cohort (5, 2-9.5; P = .006). There was no difference in survival to discharge between the MO and medic groups (98.6% vs. 95.6%; P = .226). More life-saving interventions were performed by MOs compared to medics. MOs demonstrated a higher rate of vital sign documentation than medics. CONCLUSION: More than half of casualty encounters in this study listed an MO in the chain of care. The difference in proportion of interventions highlights differences in provider skills, training and equipment, or that interventions were dictated by differences in mechanisms of injury.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medicina Militar , Ferimentos e Lesões , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Militares , Sistema de Registros , Terrorismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
15.
Mil Med ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Role 1 care is vital to patient survival and includes many echelons of care from point-of-injury first aid to medical attention at battalion aid stations. Many guidelines are written for Role 1 care providers to optimize care for different scenarios. Differences in the guidelines lead to confusion and discrepancies between the types of treatment medical care providers provide. Although the guidelines were written for different areas of care, uniformity between the guidelines is needed and will lead to a reduced mortality rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was determined that the Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guidelines, Prolonged Field Care Guidelines, Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, and Standard Medical Operating Guidelines from medical evacuation were the military medical guidelines most relevant to Role 1 care. These Guidelines were compared side by side to determine the differences between them. RESULTS: Although the guidelines were largely similar, many major differences were found between them. Our online tables contain large inconsistences between guidelines including direct contradictions in conversion of junctional tourniquets and the administration of tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Role 1 care is vital to patient survival, including care from point of injury to battalion aid stations, but the guidelines available to instruct this care and the guidance on which personnel should provide this care are conflicting. This lack of clarity and consistency may adversely impact treatment outcomes. The reduction or elimination of conflicting information across the various guidelines, augmentation of guidance for pediatric care, more specific guidance for unique levels of care, and clearer delineation of the Role 1 phases of care (as well as which guidelines are most appropriate to each) should be considered as urgent priorities within the military medical community.

16.
Mil Med ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Prehospital Trauma Registry (PHTR) captures after-action reviews (AARs) as part of a continuous performance improvement cycle and to provide commanders real-time feedback of Role 1 care. We have previously described overall challenges noted within the AARs. We now performed a focused assessment of challenges with regard to hemodynamic monitoring to improve casualty monitoring systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a review of AARs within the PHTR in Afghanistan from January 2013 to September 2014 as previously described. In this analysis, we focus on AARs specific to challenges with hemodynamic monitoring of combat casualties. RESULTS: Of the 705 PHTR casualties, 592 had available AAR data; 86 of those described challenges with hemodynamic monitoring. Most were identified as male (97%) and having sustained battle injuries (93%), typically from an explosion (48%). Most were urgent evacuation status (85%) and had a medical officer in their chain of care (65%). The most common vital sign mentioned in AAR comments was blood pressure (62%), and nearly one-quarter of comments stated that arterial palpation was used in place of blood pressure cuff measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Our qualitative methods study highlights the challenges with obtaining vital signs-both training and equipment. We also highlight the challenges regarding ongoing monitoring to prevent hemodynamic collapse in severely injured casualties. The U.S. military needs to develop better methods for casualty monitoring for the subset of casualties that are critically injured.

17.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 62-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969005

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Airway compromise is the second leading cause of potentially survivable death on the battlefield. Studies show that airway management is a challenge in prehospital combat care with high error and missed opportunity rates. Lacking is user information on the perceived reasons for the challenges. The US military uses several performance improvement and field feedback systems to solicit feedback regarding deployed experiences. We seek to review feedback and after-action reviews (AARs) from end-users with specific regard to airway challenges noted. METHODS: We queried the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), the Army Medical Department Lessons Learned (AMEDDLL), and the Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLLIS).Our queries comprised a series of search terms with a focus on airway management. Three military emergency medicine expert reviewers performed the primary analysis for lessons learned specific to deployment and predeployment training lessons learned. Upon narrowing the scope of entries to those relevant to deployment and predeployment training, a panel of eight experts performed reviews. The varied nature of the sources lent itself to an unstructured qualitative approach with results tabulated into thematic categories. RESULTS: Our initial search yielded 611 nonduplicate entries. The primary reviewers then analyzed these entries to determine relevance to the project-this resulted in 70 deployment- based lessons learned and four training-based lessons learned. The panel of eight experts then reviewed the 74 lessons learned. We categorized 37 AARs as equipment challenges/malfunctions, 28 as training/education challenges, and 9 as other. Several lessons learned specifically stated that units failed to prioritize medic training; multiple comments suggested that units should consider sending their medics to civilian training centers. Other comments highlighted equipment shortages and equipment malfunctions specific to certain mission types (e.g., pediatric casualties, extreme weather). CONCLUSIONS: In this review of military lessons learned systems, most of the feedback referenced equipment malfunctions and gaps in initial and maintenance training.This review of AARs provides guidance for targeted research efforts based the needs of the end-users.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Medicina Militar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Militares
18.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 76-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) military utilizes combat wound medication packs (CWMP) to provide analgesia and wound prophylaxis in casualties who are still able to fight. We compared characteristics of combat casualties receiving CWMP to those not receiving CWMP. We also describe the proportions of casualties with injury patterns consistent with Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guideline indications for CWMP use who received this intervention. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of Department of a Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) dataset of US military personnel from January 2007 to August 2016. We searched for all subjects with documented use of at least one medication from the CWMP (acetaminophen, meloxicam, moxifloxacin). RESULTS: Within our dataset, 11,665 casualties were US military Servicemembers. Overall, <1% (84) of our study population received the CWMP. The median age and mechanism of injuries were similar between CWMP nonrecipients versus recipients. Median composite injury scores were higher for nonrecipients than recipients (6 versus 4, P < .001). Proportions of casualties with injury patterns meeting TCCC guideline CWMP indications who received this intervention were low: gunshot wound, <1% (14 of 1805), tourniquet applied, <1% (11 of 1912), major amputation, <1% (5 of 803), and open fracture, <1% (10 of 2425). Based on serious injuries by body region, we had similar findings for the thorax (<1%; 3 of 1122), abdomen (<1%; 1 of 736), and extremities (<1%; 11 of 2699). CONCLUSIONS: Subjects receiving the CWMP were less severely injured compared to those who did not receive this intervention. The CWMP had very infrequent use among those casualties with injury patterns meeting indications specified in the TCCC Guidelines for use of this intervention.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medicina Militar , Militares , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Mil Med ; 185(11-12): e1903-e1907, 2020 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754740

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. The tactical combat casualty care guidelines recommend the use of the radial pulse strength to guide the administration of blood products or intravenous fluids when equipment for blood pressure monitoring is not available. Data supporting this measurement tool are limited. We sought to validate this method in a deployed trauma population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a previously published dataset from the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In this subanalysis, we focused on emergency department radial pulse strength documented in conjunction with systolic blood pressure readings. RESULTS: Our predefined search codes captured 28,222 Department of Defense Trauma Registry casualties. Of those, 22,192 casualties had at least 1 radial pulse strength documented, with a total of 27,366 documented measurements total among the 22,192. The median age of casualties was 25 years, most were male (96.8%), U.S. military made up the largest proportion (44.2%), most were injured by explosive (55.8%), and most were in Afghanistan (67.0%) with a median injury severity score of 9. Mean systolic blood pressures were significantly different based on radial pulse strength: strong (129.6), weak (107.5), and absent (85.1). However, when using a binary threshold of 80 mmHg, there were 615 documented instances of hypotension. Within that 615, 55.6% had a strong radial pulse, 29.3% had a weak radial pulse, and 15.1% had an absent radial pulse (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Although mean systolic blood pressure was associated with radial pulse quality, when using a binary measurement of hypotension (systolic < 80 mmHg) characterization of the radial pulse was not a reliable indicator of hypotension. Better methods for casualty monitoring must be employed to avoid missing opportunities for intervention.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Masculino , Militares , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
20.
Mil Med ; 185(9-10): e1810-e1816, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, and hemostasis is particularly challenging to achieve at junctional sites such as the axillary or inguinal regions. Mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) gear, as worn most recently in Syria to guard against chemical weapons, can make the performance of technical skills more challenging still. The objective of this study was to evaluate how wearing MOPP gear affects the application time of the SAM Medical Junctional Tourniquet (SJT) by U.S. Army combat medics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized control trial evaluating time for SJT application between participants wearing MOPP versus those not wearing MOPP. Secondary outcomes included SJT application success rate and participant appraisal of SJT application difficulty assessed with five-point Likert items, between groups. Participants placed SJTs on robotic simulation mannequins with a penetrating inguinal injury. RESULTS: In April 2019, we enrolled 49 combat medics. Most participants were male (77.5%), had a median age of 25 (interquartile range 23-28), and in the grade of E4 or less (63.3%). Mean SJT application times in seconds were higher among those wearing MOPP versus those who were not (223.1 versus 167.2; 95% confidence interval for difference in means 5.293, 106.374; P = 0.03). Participants wearing MOPP had a less successful application rate overall, but this difference was not statistically significant (64.3% versus 81.0%, P = 0.34). Compared to participants not wearing MOPP, those wearing MOPP agreed that SJT application was difficult (4 versus 3, P = 0.03), what they were wearing affected SJT application (4 versus 2, P = 0.01), and it was difficult to use their hands during SJT application (4 versus 1, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Wearing military MOPP gear significantly prolongs the amount of time required for combat medics to apply an SJT on a simulated casualty with a penetrating inguinal injury. This study highlights the importance of incorporating MOPP gear into medical training scenarios to improve skills competency while wearing these protective garments.


Assuntos
Torniquetes , Virilha , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Estudos Prospectivos , Síria
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