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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1370-1383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016447

RESUMO

Recent research on tile-drainage has placed emphasis on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) delivery and transport pathways but less emphasis on particulate P (PP), resulting in its exclusion from agricultural water management models. In this study, we quantified the fluxes, mechanisms, and factors driving PP delivery into tiles through statistical analysis of a long-term hydrologic and water quality dataset. The dataset includes 5 yr of surface and tile discharge, total P (TP), DRP, total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved inorganic N concentrations from two edge-of-field study sites with contrasting soil and management practices. Hydrograph recession techniques were coupled with multiple linear regression for understanding hydrologic flow pathways, and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) time-series analysis was used to determine the significance of PP seasonality processes and the effect of management practices. The analysis of hydrologic flow pathways demonstrated that quickflow contributed 66 and 36% of subsurface discharge in the clay and loam sites, respectively. Phosphorus loading analysis showed that macropore flow plays a significant role in PP delivery to subsurface P loading and that PP significantly contributed to TP and DRP delivery; however, greater PP loadings were observed at the clay site despite greater subsurface discharge and soil test P levels at the loam site. Furthermore, PP delivery was significantly affected by environmental conditions and management practices. We highlight the efficacy of hydrograph recession analysis for identifying macropore and diffuse drainage, of P/N ratios to characterize sediment delivery mechanisms in tiles, and of EMD to detect management impacts on TP and DRP at the field scale.


Assuntos
Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Hidrologia , Solo
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 165(1-3): 200-5, 2009 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19010596

RESUMO

A powerful microextraction technique was used for determination of cadmium in water samples using liquid phase microextraction (LPME) followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). In a preconcentration step, cadmium was extracted from a 2 ml of its aqueous sample in the pH 7 as 5,7-dibromoquinoline-8-ol (DBQ) complex into a 4 microl drop of benzyl alcohol. After extraction, the micro drop was retracted and directly transferred into a graphite tube modified by [W.Rh.Pd](c). Some effective parameters on extraction and complex formation, such as type and volume of organic solvent, pH, concentration of chelating agent, extraction time and stirring rate were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor and recovery were 450% and 90%, respectively. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.008-1 microg L(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9961 under the optimum conditions of the recommended procedure. The detection limit based on the 3Sb criterion was 0.0035 microg L(-1) and relative standard deviation (RSD) for eight replicate measurement of 0.1 microg L(-1) and 0.4 microg L(-1) cadmium was 5.2% and 4.5%, respectively. The characteristic concentration was 0.0032 microg L(-1) equivalent to a characteristic mass of 12.8 fg. In order to evaluate the accuracy and recovery of the presented method the procedure was applied to the analysis of reference materials and seawater.


Assuntos
Cádmio/isolamento & purificação , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cádmio/análise , Calibragem , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Substâncias Perigosas/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água do Mar , Espectrofotometria Atômica/normas
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