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1.
Neurology ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognosis of ischemic stroke patients according to the timing of an atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis, we created an inception cohort of incident stroke events and compared the risk of death between stroke patients with a) sinus rhythm; b) known atrial fibrillation (KAF); and c) AF diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS). METHODS: We utilized the Penn AF Free study to create an inception cohort of patients with incident stroke. Mortality events were identified after linkage with the National Death Index through June 30, 2017. We also evaluated initiation of anticoagulants and antiplatelets across the study duration. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations between stroke subtypes and death. RESULTS: We identified 1,489 individuals who developed an incident ischemic stroke event: 985 did not develop AF at any point during the study period, 215 had KAF before stroke, 160 had AF detected ≤6 months after stroke and 129 had AF detected >6 months after stroke. After a median follow-up of 4.9 [IQR 1.9, 6.8] years, 686 deaths occurred. The annualized mortality rate was 8.8% in the stroke, no AF group; 12.2% in the KAF group, 15.8% in the AFDAS ≤6 months; and 12.7% in the AFDAS > 6 months. Patients in the AFDAS ≤6 months had the highest independent risk of all-cause mortality even after multivariable adjustment for demographics, clinical risk factors and the use of antithrombotic therapies [HR 1.62 (1.22, 2.14)]. Compared to the stroke, no AF group, those with KAF had a higher mortality risk that was rendered non-significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: The AFDAS group had the highest risk of death, which was not explained by comorbidities or use of antithrombotic therapies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe endoscopically detected esophageal thermal lesions (EDELs) have been associated with higher risk of progression to atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) following radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to evaluate safety and feasibility of active esophageal cooling using the Attune Medical Esophageal Heat Transfer Device (EnsoETM) to limit frequency or severity of EDELs. OBJECTIVE: We sought To evaluate safety and feasibility of active esophageal cooling using the Attune Medical Esophageal Heat Transfer Device (EnsoETM) to limit frequency or severity of EDELs METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing first-time RFCA were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to esophageal cooling (device group) or standard temperature monitoring (control group). Ablation on the posterior wall was performed with a maximum power of 30W for up to 20s. All patients underwent EGD within 48 h. Endoscopy findings were classified as 1, erythema-mild injury; 2, superficial ulceration-moderate injury; 3, deep ulceration-significant injury; and 4, fistula/perforation. Severe EDELs were defined as grade 3 or 4 lesions. RESULTS: Forty-four patients completed the study (22 device group, 22 control group). Adjunctive posterior wall isolation was performed more frequently in the device group (11/22, 50% vs. 4/22, 18%). EDELs were detected in 5/22 (23%) control group patients, with mild or moderate injury in 2/5 patients (40%) and severe thermal injury in 3/5 patients (60%). In the device group, EDELs were detected in 8/22 (36%) patients, with mild or moderate injury in 7/8 (87%) patients and severe thermal injury in 1/8 (12%) patients. There was no acute perforation or AEF during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Active esophageal cooling may reduce the occurrence of severe EDELs. A larger randomized study is warranted to further evaluate the benefit of this strategy.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595595

RESUMO

Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for many conditions. Conditional devices and novel protocols for imaging patients with legacy cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) have increased access to MRI in patients with devices. However, the presence of abandoned leads remains an absolute contraindication. Objective: To assess if the performance of an MRI in the presence of an abandoned CIED lead is safe and whether there are deleterious effects on concomitant active CIED leads. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included consecutive CIED recipients undergoing 1.5-T MRI with at least 1 abandoned lead between January 2013 and June 2020. MRI scans were performed at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. No patients were excluded. Exposures: CIEDs were reprogrammed based on patient-specific pacing needs. Electrocardiography telemetry and pulse oximetry were monitored continuously, and live contact with the patient throughout the scan via visual and voice contact was performed if possible. After completion of the MRI, CIED evaluation was repeated and programming returned to baseline or to a clinically appropriate setting. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variation in pre- and post-MRI capture threshold of 50% or more, ventricular sensing 40% or more, and lead impedance 30% or more, as well as clinical sequelae such as pain and sustained tachyarrhythmia were considered significant. Long-term follow-up lead-related data were analyzed if available. Results: A total of 139 consecutive patients (110 men [79%]) with a mean (SD) age of 65.6 (13.4) years underwent 200 MRIs of various anatomic regions including the thorax. Repeat examinations were common with a maximum of 16 examinations for 1 patient. There was a total of 243 abandoned leads with a mean (SD) of 1.22 (0.45) per patient. The mean (SD) number of active leads was 2.04 (0.78) and 64 patients (46%) were pacemaker dependent. A transmit-receive radiofrequency coil was used in 41 patients (20.5%), all undergoing MRI of the brain. There were no abnormal vital signs or sustained tachyarrhythmias. No changes in battery voltage, power-on reset events, or changes of pacing rate were noted. CIED parameter changes including decreased right atrial sensing in 4 patients and decreased left ventricular R-wave amplitude in 1 patient were transiently noted. One patient with an abandoned subcutaneous array experienced sternal heating that subsided on premature cessation of the study. Conclusions and Relevance: The risk of MRI in patients with abandoned CIED leads was low in this large observational study, including patients who underwent examination of the thorax. The growing aggregate of data questions the absolute contraindication for MRI in patients with abandoned CIED leads.

4.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(2): 174-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the impact of periprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI) in scar-related ventricular tachycardia (VT) patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) on short- and long-term outcomes. BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of periprocedural AKI in patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA has not been previously investigated. METHODS: This study included 317 consecutive patients with scar-related VT undergoing RFCA (age: 64 ± 13 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction: 33 ± 13%, 55% ischemic cardiomyopathy). Periprocedural AKI was defined as an absolute increase in creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl over 48 h or an increase of >1.5× the baseline values within 1 week post-procedure. RESULTS: Periprocedural AKI occurred in 31 patients (10%). Independent predictors of AKI included chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48 to 7.96; p = 0.004), atrial fibrillation (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.01 to 5.78; p = 0.047), and peri-procedural acute hemodynamic decompensation (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.17 to 13.52; p = 0.003). After a median follow-up of 39 months (interquartile range: 6 to 65 months), 95 patients (30%) died. Periprocedural AKI was associated with increased risk of early mortality (within 30 days; hazard ratio [HR]: 9.91; 95% CI: 2.87 to 34.22; p < 0.001) and late mortality (within 1 year) (HR: 4.57; 95% CI: 2.08 to 10.05; p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, AKI remained independently associated with increased risk of early and late mortality (HR: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.1 to 18.36; p = 0.04, and HR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.43 to 7.49; p = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Periprocedural AKI occurs in 10% of patients undergoing RFCA of scar-related VT and is strongly associated with increased risk of early and late post-procedural mortality.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) do not have scar detectable by cardiac magnetic resonance late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In these patients, the significance of diffuse fibrosis (DF) detected with T1 mapping has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between DF, the electroanatomic mapping (EAM) substrate, and outcomes of catheter ablation of VT in NICM. METHODS: This study included 51 patients with NICM and VT undergoing catheter ablation (median age 55 years; 77% male subjects) who had no evidence of LGE on pre-procedural cardiac magnetic resonance. Post-contrast T1 relaxation time determined on the septum was assessed as a surrogate of DF burden. The extent of endocardial low-voltage areas (LVAs) at EAM was correlated with T1 mapping data. RESULTS: Bipolar LVAs were present in 22 (43%) patients (median extent 15 [8 to 29] cm2) and unipolar LVA in all patients (median extent 48 [26 to 120] cm2). A significant inverse correlation was found between T1 values and both unipolar-LVA (R2 = 0.64; ß = -0.85; p < 0.01) and bipolar-LVA (R2 = 0.16; ß = -1.63; p < 0.01). After a median follow-up of 45 (22 to 57) months, 2 (4%) patients died, 3 (6%) underwent heart transplantation, and 8 (16%) experienced VT recurrence. Shorter post-contrast T1 time was associated with an increased risk of VT recurrence (hazard ratio: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 1.33 per 10 ms decrease; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NICM and no evidence of LGE undergoing catheter ablation of VT, DF estimated by using post-contrast T1 mapping correlates with the voltage abnormality at EAM and seems to affect post-ablation outcomes.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e018766, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442991

RESUMO

Background Left atrial (LA) function is important in stroke, but often poorly characterized. We evaluated the association of 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography LA variables with stroke subtype (cardioembolic stroke [CS] or cryptogenic stroke versus other). The hypothesis is worse LA active function is associated with CS, but not cryptogenic strokes. Methods and Results In this prospective cohort (2017-2019), left ventricular/LA structure and function were quantified by 2-dimensional and speckle tracking echocardiography in 151 patients with stroke. Strain/strain rate curves for the 3 components of the LA cycle, ie, (1) Reservoir (global longitudinal strain [Srmax]), (2) Conductive (early LA Sr [Sre]), and (3) Active (late LA strain [Sra]) were evaluated, masked to stroke subtype. Associations of cardiac features with stroke subtype were tested using multivariable logistic regressions. Odds of CS were increased in patients with a larger LA systolic diameter (odds ratio [OR], 2.96, 95% CI, 1.14-7.69) but reduced in patients with a higher Srmax (better reservoir) (OR, 0.80, 95% CI, 0.67-0.97). Lower Sra (worse function) was associated with an increased odds of CS (OR, 1.72, 95% CI, 1.07-2.76) but not independent of atrial fibrillation. Higher active LA emptying fraction (better active phase) was associated with reduced odds of CS (OR, 0.74, 95% CI, 0.57-0.95) or cryptogenic stroke (OR, 0.82, 95% CI, 0.68-0.98) versus other subtypes; other associations between cryptogenic stroke and speckle tracking echocardiography were not found. Conclusions Markers of LA structure and function were associated with CS. Similar associations were not found for cryptogenic stroke, which might suggest different underlying mechanisms, given study limitations. Further understanding could aid stroke diagnosis and secondary stroke prevention research.

7.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(2): 316-324, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation on the left atrium (LA) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine short- and long-term associations of AF catheter ablation with LA function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: Fifty-one AF patients (mean age 56 ± 8 years) underwent CMR at baseline, 1 day (n = 17) and 11 ± 2 months after ablation (n = 38). LA phasic volumes, emptying fractions (LAEF), and longitudinal strain were measured using feature-tracking CMR. LA fibrosis was quantified using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). RESULTS: There were no acute changes in volume; however, active, total LAEF, and peak LA strain decreased significantly compared to the baseline. During long-term follow-up, there was a decrease in maximum but not minimum LA volume (from 99 ± 5.2 ml to 89 ± 4.7 ml; p = .009) and a decrease in total LAEF (from 43 ± 1.8% to 39 ± 2.0%; p = .001). In patients with AF recurrence, LA volumes were unchanged. However, total LAEF decreased from 38 ± 3% to 33 ± 3%; p = .015. Patients without AF recurrence had no changes in LA functional parameters during follow-up. The amount of LA LGE at long-term follow-up was higher compared to the baseline, however, was significantly less compared to immediately post-procedure (37 ± 1.9% vs. 47 ± 2.8%; p = .015). A higher increase in LA LGE extent compared to the baseline was associated with a greater decrease in total LAEF (r = -.59; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: LA function is impaired acutely following AF catheter ablation. However, long-term changes of LA function are associated positively with the successful restoration of sinus rhythm and inversely with increased LA LGE.

8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(2): 345-353, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) based on estimated stroke risk is recommended following catheter ablation (CA) of atrial fibrillation (AF), regardless of the extent of arrhythmia control. However, discontinuing OAC in selected patients may be safe. We sought to evaluate a strategy of OAC discontinuation following AF ablation guided by continuous rhythm monitoring. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied AF ablations performed at our institution from June 2015 to December 2019. Patients that had pre-existing cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) or underwent insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) implantation immediately following AF ablation were included. OAC was continued for 6 weeks following CA in all patients, following which OAC management was guided by CHA2 DS2 -VASc score and continuous rhythm monitoring results, according to a prespecified protocol. AF recurrence was defined as ≥30 s (CIEDs) or ≥2 min (ICM). We studied 196 patients (mean age 64.7 ± 11.3 years, 66.8% male, 85.7% ICM, 14.3% CIEDs). Mean CHA2 DS2- VASc score was 2.2 ± 1.5. One-year AF-free survival following CA was 83% for paroxysmal AF and 63% for persistent AF patients. Over 3 year follow-up, OAC was discontinued in 57 (33.7%) patients, mean 7.4 ± 7.1 months following ablation. Following discontinuation, OAC was restarted for AF recurrence in 9 (15.8%) patients, mean 11.7 ± 6.8 months after stopping. This discontinuation protocol led to a 21.9% reduction in overall time exposed to OAC. There were no thromboembolic or major bleeding events. CONCLUSION: OAC can be discontinued in a significant percentage of patients following CA of AF. When guided by continuous rhythm monitoring, this practice does not unacceptably increase the risk of thromboembolic events.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301361

RESUMO

Background - We have previously shown that the presence of dual muscular coronary sinus (CS) to left atrial (LA) connections, coupled with rate-dependent unidirectional block in one limb, is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) induction. This study sought to examine whether ablation of distal CS to LA connections at a first AF ablation reduces arrhythmia recurrence during follow-up. Methods - In this single center, randomized, controlled trial, 35 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF undergoing first time ablation between August, 2018 and August, 2019, were randomly assigned to (1) standard ablation (pulmonary vein [PV] isolation and non-PV trigger ablation), versus (2) standard ablation plus elimination of distal CS to LA connections targeting the earliest LA activation during distal CS pacing with a deca-polar catheter placed with its proximal electrode at the ostium. Change of the local CS atrial electrogram and LA activation sequence to early activation of the LA septum or roof during distal CS pacing were the endpoint for CS-LA connection elimination. Results - Thirty patients completed 6 months study follow-up (15 patients in each group). Demographic characteristics including age and AF persistence were similar in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 170±22 days, there were 7 atrial arrhythmia recurrences in the standard group and 1 recurrence in the CS-LA connection elimination group (46.7% vs 6.7%, HR 0.12, P=0.047). Conclusions - Elimination of distal CS to LA connections reduced atrial arrhythmia recurrences compared to standard PV isolation and non-PV trigger ablation in patients undergoing a first AF ablation procedure in a small randomized study.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e018866, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222587

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was first described as a right ventricular disease that is an important cause of death in young adults. However, with the advent of advanced imaging, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has been found to commonly have biventricular involvement, and a small portion of patients have left ventricular-dominant forms. On the other hand, a number of primarily left ventricular disease such as sarcoid and myocarditis can be arrhythmogenic and have right ventricular involvement. A few recent publications on arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy cohorts have average left ventricular functions that are comparable to sarcoid or myocarditis cohorts. We review the current literature and compare these cohorts of patients, and call for left ventricular functional criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy as inherited arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198484

RESUMO

Background - Infiltrating adipose tissue (inFAT) is a newly recognized pro-arrhythmic substrate for post-infarct ventricular tachycardias (VT) identifiable on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT). This study presents novel digital-heart technology that incorporates inFAT from CE-CT to non-invasively predict VT ablation targets and assesses the capability of the technology by comparing its predictions with VT ablation procedure data from patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Methods - Digital-heart models reflecting patient-specific inFAT distributions were reconstructed from CE-CTs. The Digital-heart Identification of Fat-based Ablation Targeting (DIFAT) technology evaluated the rapid-pacing-induced VTs in each personalized inFAT-based substrate. DIFAT targets that render the inFAT substrate non-inducible to VT, including VTs that arise post-ablation, were determined. DIFAT predictions were compared to corresponding clinical ablations to assess the capabilities of the technology. Results - DIFAT was developed and applied retrospectively to 29 ICM patients with CE-CTs. DIFAT ablation volumes were significantly less than the estimated clinical ablation volumes (1.87±0.35 cm3 vs. 7.05±0.88 cm3, p<0.0005). DIFAT targets overlapped with clinical ablations in 79% of patients, mostly in the apex (72%) and inferior/inferolateral (74%). In 3 patients, DIFAT targets co-localized with redo ablations delivered years after the index procedure. Conclusions - DIFAT is a novel digital-heart technology for individualized VT ablation guidance designed to eliminate VT inducibility following initial ablation. DIFAT predictions co-localized well with clinical ablation locations but provided significantly smaller lesions. DIFAT also predicted VTs targeted in redo procedures years later. As DIFAT uses widely accessible CT, its integration into clinical workflows may augment therapeutic precision and reduce redo procedures.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on the mechanisms of atrial arrhythmias (AAs) and outcomes of catheter ablation (CA) in lung transplantation (LT) patients are insufficient. We evaluated the electrophysiologic features and outcomes of CA of AAs in LT patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of all the LT patients who underwent CA for AAs at our institution between 2004 and 2019. A total of 15 patients (43% males, age: 61 ± 10 years) with a history of LT (60% bilateral and 40% unilateral) were identified. All patients had documented organized AA on surface electrocardiogram and seven patients also had atrial fibrillation (AF; 47% with >1 clinical arrhythmia). At electrophysiological study, 19 organized AAs were documented (48% focal and 52% macro-re-entrant). Focal atrial tachycardias/flutters were targeted along the pulmonary vein (PV) anastomotic site at the left inferior PV (n = 2), ridge and carina of the left superior PV (n = 2), left atrium (LA) posterior wall (n = 3), LA roof (n = 1), and tricuspid annulus (n = 1). Macro-re-entrant AAs included cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter (n = 2), incisional LA flutter (n = 4), LA roof-dependent flutter (n = 1), and mitral annular flutter (n = 3). In patients with LA mapping (n = 13), PV reconnection on the side of the LT was found in six patients (40%, all with clinically documented AF), with a mean of 2.1 ± 0.9 PVs reconnected per patient. Patients with AF underwent successful PV isolation. After a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 6-86 months), 75% of patients remained free from recurrent AAs. No procedural major complications occurred. CONCLUSION: In patients with prior LT, recurrent AAs are typically associated with substrate surrounding the surgical anastomotic lines and/or chronically reconnected PVs. CA of AAs in this population is safe and effective to achieve long-term arrhythmia control.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation of septal substrate-associated ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is challenging. We sought to standardize the characterization of septal substrates on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and to examine the association of that substrate with VT exit and isthmus sites on invasive mapping. METHODS: LGE-CMR was performed before electroanatomic mapping and ablation for VT in 20 NICM patients. LGE extent and distribution were quantified using myocardial signal-intensity Z scores (SI-Z). The SI-Z thresholds correlating to previously validated voltage thresholds, for abnormal tissue and dense scar were defined. RESULTS: Bipolar and unipolar (electrogram) voltage amplitude measurements from the LV and RV were negatively associated with SI-Z from LGE-CMR imaging (p < .05). SI-Z thresholds for appropriate CMR identification of septal substrates were determined to be greater than -.15 for border zone and greater than .03 for a dense scar. Among all patients, 34 critical VT sites were identified with SI-Z distribution in the range of -.97 to .06. Thirty (88.2%) critical sites were located in the dense LGE, 1 (2.9%) in the border zone, and 3 (8.9%) in healthy tissue but within 7 mm of LGE. Of note, critical VT sites were all located at the basal septum close to valves (distance to aortic valve: 17.5 ± 31.2 mm, mitral valve: 21.2 ± 8.7 mm) in nonsarcoidosis cases. CONCLUSIONS: Critical sites of septal VT in NICM patients are predominantly in the CMR defined dense scar when using standardized signal-intensity thresholds.

14.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(11): 1381-1392, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to address whether technological innovations such as contact force sensing (CFS) can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of left ventricular papillary muscle (LV PAP) ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation of LV PAP VAs has been less efficacious than another focal VAs. It remains unclear whether technological innovations such as CFS can improve acute and long-term ablation outcomes of LV PAP VA. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2019, a total of 137 patients underwent LV PAP VA ablation. VA site of origin (SOO) was identified using activation and pace-mapping guided by intracardiac echocardiography. Radiofrequency energy (20 to 50 W for 60 to 90 s) was delivered by irrigated catheter with or without CFS. We defined acute success as complete suppression of targeted VA ≥30 min post ablation and clinical success as ≥80% VA burden reduction at outpatient follow-up. RESULTS: VA manifested as premature ventricular complexes in 98 (71%), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 18 (13%), sustained ventricular tachycardia in 12 (9%) and premature ventricular complexes induced ventricular fibrillation in 9 (7%). VA SOO was anterolateral PAP in 51 (37%), posteromedial PAP in 73 (53%), and both PAPs in 13 (10%). VAs were targeted using CFS in 97 (71%) and non-CFS in 40 (29%). After a single procedure, acute success was achieved in 130 (95%) and clinical success was achieved in 112 (82%); neither was impacted by VA SOO and/or CFS. Complications occurred in 5 patients (3.6%). CONCLUSION: Independent of CFS technology, intracardiac echocardiography-guided catheter ablation is highly efficacious and may be considered as first-line therapy in the management of LV PAP VA.

15.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified height as a strong risk factor for atrial fibrillation, but this finding may be limited by residual confounding. We aimed to examine genetic variation in height within the Mendelian randomization (MR) framework to determine whether height has a causal effect on risk of atrial fibrillation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In summary-level analyses, MR was performed using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of height (GIANT/UK Biobank; 693,529 individuals) and atrial fibrillation (AFGen; 65,446 cases and 522,744 controls), finding that each 1-SD increase in genetically predicted height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.40; p = 5 × 10-42). This result remained consistent in sensitivity analyses with MR methods that make different assumptions about the presence of pleiotropy, and when accounting for the effects of traditional cardiovascular risk factors on atrial fibrillation. Individual-level phenome-wide association studies of height and a height genetic risk score were performed among 6,567 European-ancestry participants of the Penn Medicine Biobank (median age at enrollment 63 years, interquartile range 55-72; 38% female; recruitment 2008-2015), confirming prior observational associations between height and atrial fibrillation. Individual-level MR confirmed that each 1-SD increase in height increased the odds of atrial fibrillation, including adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic confounders (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40; p = 0.007). The main limitations of this study include potential bias from pleiotropic effects of genetic variants, and lack of generalizability of individual-level findings to non-European populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed evidence that height is likely a positive causal risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Further study is needed to determine whether risk prediction tools including height or anthropometric risk factors can be used to improve screening and primary prevention of atrial fibrillation, and whether biological pathways involved in height may offer new targets for treatment of atrial fibrillation.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(9): 1089-1102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the incidence, clinical characteristics, and electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of LVA VA in the absence of CAD and to describe the experience with catheter ablation (CA) in this group. BACKGROUND: The left ventricular apex (LVA) is a well-described source of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and history of apical infarction but is a rare source of VA in the absence of CAD. METHODS: Patients referred for CA of VA at our institution were retrospectively reviewed, and those with LVA VA in the absence of CAD were identified. RESULTS: Of 3,710 consecutive patients undergoing VA ablation, CA of LVA VA was performed in 24 patients (20 with monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, 4 with premature ventricular contractions or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia; 18 men; mean age: 54 ± 15 years). These cases comprised 10 of 35 (29%) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 9 of 789 (1.2%) nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 5 of 1,432 (0.4%) idiopathic VA ablation procedures. VA QRS morphology was predominantly right bundle with slurred upstroke and right superior frontal plane axis with precordial transition ≤V3. Epicardial ablation was performed in 14 of 24 (58%). After a median of 1 procedure (range 1 to 4) at this institution and median follow-up of 47 months (range 0-176), VA recurred in 1 patient (4%). CONCLUSIONS: LVA VA in the absence of CAD is unusual and may occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic cardiomyopathy or, rarely, in the absence of structural heart disease. It can be recognized by characteristic ECG features. CA of LVA VA is challenging; multiple procedures, including epicardial approaches, may be required to achieve VA control over long-term follow-up.

20.
J Innov Card Rhythm Manag ; 11(7): 4172-4178, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724708

RESUMO

Since the introduction of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation in the 1990s, the procedure has continuously evolved, with gradual improvements in outcomes and safety. Recent technological advancements include the introduction of contact force catheters and high-resolution electroanatomical mapping systems, while imaging modalities including transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy have become integral parts of AF ablation procedures. Further, intraprocedural intracardiac echocardiography and the integration of cardiac magnetic resonance and computed tomography images with electroanatomical mapping have shown promise to improve procedural outcomes by reducing radiation exposure and procedural times. However, available data on procedural utility and the reduction in AF recurrence rates associated with these modalities are mixed. This review therefore aims to discuss the current common imaging modalities used in AF ablation and their potential impact on outcomes. In particular, imaging is discussed with respect to the important information it offers before, during, and after the procedure. Perspectives on the future of imaging in AF ablation are also shared.

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