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1.
Chemistry ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608525

RESUMO

Three novel donor-π-bridge-donor (D-π-D) hole-transporting materials (HTMs) featuring triazatruxene electron-donating units bridged by different 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) π-conjugated linkers have been synthesized, characterized, and implemented in mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The opto-electronic properties of the new dumbbell-shaped derivatives (DTTXs) are highly influenced by the chemical structure of the EDOT-based linker. Red-shifted absorption and emission and a stronger donor ability were observed in passing from DTTX-1 to DTTX-2 due to the extended π-conjugation. DTTX-3 featured an intramolecular charge transfer between the external triazatruxene units and the azomethine-EDOT central scaffold, resulting in a more pronounced red shift. The three new derivatives have been tested in combination with the state-of-the-art triple-cation perovskite [(FAPbI3)0.87(MAPbBr3)0.13]0.92[CsPbI3]0.08 in standard mesoporous PSCs. Remarkable power conversion efficiencies of 17.48% and 18.30% were measured for DTTX-1 and DTTX-2, respectively, close to that measured for the benchmarking HTM spiro-OMeTAD (18.92%). PSCs with DTTX-3 reached a PCE value of 12.68%, which is attributed to the poorer film-formation in comparison to DTTX-1 and DTTX-2. These PCE values are in perfect agreement with the conductivity and hole mobility values determined for the new compounds and spiro-OMeTAD. Steady-state photoluminescence further confirm the potential of DTTX-1 and DTTX-2 for hole-transport applications as an alternative to spiro-OMeTAD.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2002632, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613758

RESUMO

The emerging inorganic CsPbI3 perovskites are promising wide-bandgap materials for application in tandem solar cells, but they tend to transit from a black α phase to a yellow δ phase in ambient conditions. Herein, a gradient grain-sized (GGS) CsPbI3 bilayer is developed to stabilize the α phase via a single-step film deposition process. The spontaneously upward migration of (adamantan-1-yl)methanammonium (ADMA) based on the hot-casting technique causes self-assembly of the hierarchical morphology for the perovskite layers. Due to the strong steric effect of the surficial ADMA cation, a self-assembly tiny grain-sized CsPbI3 layer is in situ formed at the surface site, which exhibits notably enhanced phase stability by its high surface energy. Meanwhile, a large grain-sized CsPbI3 layer is obtained at the bottom site with high charge mobility and low trap density of states, which benefits from the regulated growth rates by the interaction between ADMA and perovskites. The perovskite solar cell (PSC) based on the GGS CsPbI3 bilayer shows an efficiency of 15.5% and operates stably for 1000 h under ambient conditions. This work confirms that redistributing the surface energy of perovskite films is a facile strategy to stabilize metastable PSCs without the cost of efficiency loss.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585085

RESUMO

Four hole transport materials (HTMs) based on a benzothiadiazole (BT) central core have been synthesized and successfully employed in triple-cation mixed-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), reaching 18.05% solar to energy conversion efficiency. The synthesis of these HTMs follows the push-and-pull approach to modulate the HOMO energy level by combining the BT group as an electron acceptor and diphenyl- and triphenyl-amines as electron donors. Here we show that despite adjusting the HOMO energy level to that of the perovskite is a believed requisite to achieve efficient interfacial hole transfer, additional factors must be taken into account to design novel and efficient HTMs, such as a high hole mobility, solubility in organic solvents, and thermal stability.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 49(13): 4496-4526, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495754

RESUMO

Solar cells based on organo-metal halide perovskites have gained unprecedented research interest over the last few years due to their low-cost solution processability, high power conversion efficiency, which has recently reached a certified value of 25.2%, and abundance of raw materials. Nevertheless, the best efficiencies remain below the Shockley-Queisser theoretical limit of 32.5% due to several losses arising from either defect traps present in the bulk of the perovskite absorber or at the device heterointerfaces. While bulk defects are detrimental for the device performance by mainly limiting the open circuit voltage, interfacial layers are also crucial. They dictate the charge transfer/transport from the perovskite layer to the collecting electrodes, hence influencing the device photocurrent, but also act as protective barriers against oxygen and moisture penetration. Molecular materials and additives are widely used to improve the bulk properties of perovskite absorbers through the formation of high-quality perovskite films with superior optoelectronic properties, and improved crystallinity, and also of electronically clean interfaces with minimum losses during charge transfer/transport. In this review, we analyze the predominant pathways that contribute to voltage and current losses due to poor interfaces and also due to non-radiative recombination losses arising from inferior perovskite morphology and its inherent polycrystalline and highly defective nature. We then discuss strategies for achieving interfacial organic and inorganic molecular materials for application as electron and hole transport layers in perovskite solar cells with ideal energy levels, high charge mobilities and improved thermal, photo, and structural stability. Moreover, the prerequisites for molecular additives to achieve dimensionality engineering, defect passivation, molecular cross-linking, interfacial energy alignment and electronic doping are thoroughly discussed. Finally, we examine prospects for future research directions and commercialization.

5.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492348

RESUMO

Here we use triple-cation metal-organic halide perovskite single crystals for the transistor channel of a flash memory device. Moreover, we design and demonstrate a 10 nm thick single-layer nanofloating gate. It consists of a ternary blend of two organic semiconductors, a p-type polyfluorene and an n-type fullerene that form a donor:acceptor interpenetrating network that serves as the charge storage unit, and of an insulating polystyrene that acts as the tunneling dielectric. Under such a framework, we realize the first non-volatile flash memory transistor based on a perovskite channel. This simplified, solution-processed perovskite flash memory displays unique performance metrics such as a large memory window of 30 V, an on/off ratio of 9 × 107, short write/erase times of 50 ms, and a satisfactory retention time exceeding 106 s. The realization of the first flash memory transistor using a single-crystal perovskite channel could be a valuable direction for perovskite electronics research.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391696

RESUMO

The employment of 2D perovskites is a promising approach to tackling the stability and voltage issues inherent in perovskite solar cells. It remains unclear, however, whether other perovskites with different dimensionalities have the same effect on efficiency and stability. Here, we report the use of quasi-3D azetidinium lead iodide (AzPbI3) as a secondary layer on top of the primary 3D perovskite film that results in significant improvements in the photovoltaic parameters. Remarkably, the utilization of AzPbI3 leads to a new passivation mechanism due to the presence of surface dipoles resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.4%. The open-circuit voltage obtained is as high as 1.18 V, which is among the highest reported to date for single junction perovskite solar cells, corresponding to a voltage deficit of 0.37 V for a band gap of 1.55 eV.

7.
Nano Lett ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352798

RESUMO

Engineering 2D/3D perovskite interfaces is a common route to realizing efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. Whereas 2D perovskite's main function in trap passivation has been identified and is confirmed here, little is known about its 2D/3D interface properties under thermal stress, despite being one of the main factors that induces device instability. In this work, we monitor the response of two typical 2D/3D interfaces under a thermal cycle by in situ X-ray scattering. We reveal that upon heating, the 2D crystalline structure undergoes a dynamical transformation into a mixed 2D/3D phase, keeping the 3D bulk underneath intact. The observed 3D bulk degradation into lead iodide is blocked, revealing the paramount role of 2D perovskite in engineering stable device interfaces.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307499

RESUMO

The quest for lead-free light-absorbing perovskite materials has long been the target of researchers to make the 'star' material friendly to the commercial market. After a summary of different lead-free solar absorbers, we demonstrate a zero-dimensional iodobismuthate (MA)3[BiI6]·3MACl (MA: CH3NH3) featuring isolated hexaiodobismuthate(iii) anions in the crystal analysis. The unexpectedly formed material was made via an orthogonal solvent permeation method and the decomposition of the guest solvent. We compare the BiI63- containing compound with a series of more common iodobismuthates, especially the dinuclear Bi2I93- in terms of dimensionalities via single-crystal diffraction and DFT calculations, respectively. An undocumented second-order phase transition was found between 190 K and 160 K for the dimeric MA3Bi2I9. The photovoltaic device from a thermally reorganized polycrystalline film of (MA)3[BiI6]·3MACl, which resembled the structure of (MA)3[Bi2I9] gave a power conversion efficiency of 1.09%.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242411

RESUMO

A set of novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) based on π-extension through carbazole units was designed and synthesized via a facile synthetic procedure. The impact of isomeric structural linking on their optical, thermal, electrophysical, and photovoltaic properties was thoroughly investigated by combining the experimental and simulation methods. Ionization energies of HTMs were measured and found to be suitable for a triple-cation perovskite active layer ensuring efficient hole injection. New materials were successfully applied in perovskite solar cells, which yielded a promising efficiency of up to almost 18% under standard 100 mW cm-2 global AM1.5G illumination and showed a better stability tendency outperforming that of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene. This work provides guidance for the molecular design strategy of effective hole-conducting materials for perovskite photovoltaics and similar electronic devices.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172558

RESUMO

Antimony (Sb) has been identified as a promising candidate for replacing toxic lead (Pb) in perovskite materials because Sb-based perovskite-like halides exhibit not only intrinsic thermodynamic stability but also a unique set of intriguing optoelectronic characteristics. However, Sb-based perovskite-like halides still suffer from poor film morphology and uncontrollable halide constituents, which result from the disorder of the growth process. Herein, we propose a simple strategy to facilitate heterogeneous nucleation and control the dimension transformation by introducing bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium (LiTFSI), which produces high-quality two-dimensional MA3Sb2I9-xClx films. As the spacer molecule among Sb-based pyramidal clusters, LiTFSI plays a role in forming a zero-dimensional intermediate phase and retarding crystallization. The slower dimension transformation well stabilizes the band gap of perovskite-like films with a fixed Cl/I ratio (∼7:2) and avoids random "x" values in MA3Sb2I9-xClx films prepared from the conventional method. Based on this method, Sb-based perovskite-like solar cells (PLSCs) achieve the highest recorded power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.34% and retain 90% of the initial PCE after being stored under ambient conditions for over 1400 h. More importantly, semitransparent Sb-based PLSCs with PCEs from 2.62 to 3.06% and average visible transparencies from 42 to 23% are successfully obtained, which indicates the great potential of the emerging Pb-free halide semiconductor for broad photovoltaic applications.

11.
Nanoscale ; 12(14): 7641-7650, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207472

RESUMO

Organo-metal halide perovskite field-effect transistors present serious challenges in terms of device stability and hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. Migration of ions located at grain boundaries and surface defects in the perovskite film are the main reasons for instability and hysteresis issues. Here, we introduce a perovskite grain molecular cross-linking approach combined with amine-based surface passivation to address these issues. Molecular cross-linking was achieved through hydrogen bond interactions between perovskite halogens and dangling bonds present at grain boundaries and a hydrophobic cross-linker, namely diethyl-(12-phosphonododecyl)phosphonate, added to the precursor solution. With our approach, we obtained smooth and compact perovskite layers composed of tightly bound grains hence significantly suppressing the generation and migration of ions. Moreover, we achieved efficient surface passivation of the perovskite films upon surface treatment with an amine-bearing polymer, namely polyethylenimine ethoxylated. With our synergistic grain and surface passivation approach, we were able to demonstrate the first perovskite transistor with a complete lack of hysteresis and unprecedented stability upon continuous operation under ambient conditions. Added to the merits are its ambipolar transport of opposite carriers with balanced hole and electron mobilities of 4.02 and 3.35 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, its high Ion/Ioff ratio >104 and the lowest sub-threshold swing of 267 mV dec-1 reported to date for any perovskite transistor. These remarkable achievements obtained through a cost-effective molecular cross-linking of grains combined with amine-based surface passivation of the perovskite films open a new era and pave the way for the practical application of perovskite transistors in low-cost electronic circuits.

12.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202374

RESUMO

A general and straightforward way of preparing few-nanometer-sized well-separated MAPbIx Br3-x (MA=methylammonium) perovskite photosensitizers on the surface of an approximately 1 µm thick mesoporous TiO2 photoanode was suggested through a two-step sequential deposition of low-concentrated lead halides (0.10-0.30 m PbI2 or PbBr2 ) and methylammonium iodide/bromide (MAI/MABr). When those nanoscale MAPbIx Br3-x perovskites were incorporated as a photosensitizer in typical solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs), it could be verified clearly by the capacitance analysis that nano-particulate MAPbI3 perovskites play the same role as that of a typical dye sensitizer (MK-2 molecule) although their size, composition, and structure are different.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011851

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells have set a new milestone in terms of efficiencies in the thin film photovoltaics category. Long-term stability of perovskite solar cells is of paramount importance but remains a challenging task. The lack of perovskite solar cells stability in real-time operating conditions erodes and impedes commercialization. Further improvements are essential with a view to delivering longer-lasting photovoltaic (PV) performances. An ideal path in this direction will be to identify novel dopants for boosting the conductivity and hole mobility of hole transport materials (HTMs), and by so doing, the usage of hygroscopic and deliquescent additive materials can be avoided. The present work demonstrates the employment of ionic liquids into a dissymmetric fluorene-dithiophene, FDT (2',7'-bis(bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino) spiro[cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene]) based HTM to understand the doping mechanisms. N-Heterocyclic hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylpyidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyTFSI) as p-type dopant for FDT was found to increase the conductivity of FDT, to higher geometrical capacitance, to facilitate homogeneous film formation, and to enhance device stability. Our findings open up a broad range of hole-transport materials to control the degradation of the underlying water-sensitive active layer by substituting a hygroscopic element.

14.
Adv Mater ; : e1905502, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984596

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 25.2% with complex compositional and bandgap engineering. However, the thermal instability of methylammonium (MA) cation can cause the degradation of the perovskite film, remaining a risk for the long-term stability of the devices. Herein, a unique method is demonstrated to fabricate highly phase-stable perovskite film without MA by introducing cesium chloride (CsCl) in the double cation (Cs, formamidinium) perovskite precursor. Moreover, due to the suboptimal bandgap of bromide (Br- ), the amount of Br- is regulated, leading to high power conversion efficiency. As a result, MA-free perovskite solar cells achieve remarkable long-term stability and a PCE of 20.50%, which is one of the best results for MA-free PSCs. Moreover, the unencapsulated device retains about 80% of the original efficiencies after a 1000 h aging study. These results provide a feasible approach to enhance solar cell stability and performance simultaneously, paving the way for commercializing PSCs.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(3): 618-623, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904967

RESUMO

We report the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals of a novel fully inorganic lead-free zero-dimensional perovskite, Cs4SnBr6. Samples are made of crystals with an average size of ∼20 nm with green emission centered around 530 nm. Interestingly, both colloidal suspensions and thin films show an enhanced air stability with respect to that of any other previous tin-based nanocrystalline system, with emission persisting for tens of hours under laboratory air.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967379

RESUMO

Three hole transport materials (HTMs) based on a substituted triphenylamine moiety have been synthesized and successfully employed in triple-cation mixed-halide PSCs, reaching efficiencies of 19.4 %. The efficiencies, comparable to those obtained using spiro-OMeTAD, point them out as promising candidates for easily attainable and cost-effective alternatives for PSCs, given their facile synthesis from commercially available materials. Interestingly, although all these HTMs show similar chemical and physical properties, they provide different carrier recombination kinetics. Our results demonstrate that is feasible through the molecular design of the HTM to minimize carrier losses and, thus, increase the solar cell efficiencies.

17.
J Org Chem ; 85(1): 224-233, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760753

RESUMO

Three hole-transporting materials (HTMs) were prepared following a straightforward synthetic route by cross-linking arylamine-based ligands with a simple thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TbT) core. The novel HTMs were fully characterized with standard techniques to gain insight into their optical and electrochemical properties and were incorporated in solution-processed mesoporous (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15 perovskite-based solar cells. The similar molecular structure of the synthesized HTMs was leveraged to investigate the role that the bridging units between the conjugated TbT core and the peripheral arylamine units plays on their properties and thereby on the photovoltaic response. A remarkable power conversion efficiency exceeding 18% was achieved for one of the TbT derivatives, which was slightly higher than the value measured for the benchmark spiro-OMeTAD.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(4): 1792-1800, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865703

RESUMO

Four spirobisacridine (SBA) hole-transporting materials were synthesized and employed in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The molecules bear electronically inert alkyl chains of different length and bulkiness, attached to in-plane N atoms of nearly orthogonal spiro-connected acridines. Di-p-methoxyphenylamine (DMPA) substituents tailored to the central SBA-platform define electronic properties of the materials mimicking the structure of the benchmark 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD), while the alkyl pending groups affect molecular packing in thin films and affect the long-term performance of PSCs. Devices with SBA-based hole transporting layers (HTL) attain efficiencies on par with spiro-MeOTAD. More importantly, solar cells with the new HTMs are hysteresis-free and demonstrate good operational stability, despite being doped as spiro-MeOTAD. The best performing MeSBA-DMPA retained 88% of the initial efficiency after a 1000 h aging test under constant illumination. The results clearly demonstrate that SBA-based compounds are potent candidates for a design of new HTMs for PSCs with improved longevity.

19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(21): 1901213, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728283

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have witnessed astonishing improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE), more recently, with advances in long-term stability and scalable fabrication. However, the presence of an anomalous hysteresis behavior in the current density-voltage characteristic of these devices remains a key obstacle on the road to commercialization. Herein, sol-gel-processed mesoporous boron-doped TiO2 (B-TiO2) is demonstrated as an improved electron transport layer (ETL) for PSCs for the reduction of hysteresis. The incorporation of boron dopant in TiO2 ETL not only reduces the hysteresis behavior but also improves PCE of the perovskite device. The simultaneous improvements are mainly ascribed to the following two reasons. First, the substitution of under-coordinated titanium atom by boron species effectively passivates oxygen vacancy defects in the TiO2 ETL, leading to increased electron mobility and conductivity, thereby greatly facilitating electron transport. Second, the boron dopant upshifts the conduction band edge of TiO2, resulting in more efficient electron extraction with suppressed charge recombination. Consequently, a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) photovoltaic device based on B-TiO2 ETL achieves a higher efficiency of 20.51% than the 19.06% of the pure TiO2 ETL based device, and the hysteresis is reduced from 0.13% to 0.01% with the B-TiO2 based device showing negligible hysteresis behavior.

20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(21): 1901591, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728291

RESUMO

Formamidinium (FA) lead halide (α-FAPbI3) perovskites are promising materials for photovoltaic applications because of their excellent light harvesting capability (absorption edge 840 nm) and long carrier diffusion length. However, it is extremely difficult to prepare a pure α-FAPbI3 phase because of its easy transformation into a nondesirable δ-FAPbI3 phase. In the present study, a "perovskite" template (MAPbI3-FAI-PbI2-DMSO) structure is used to avoid and suppress the formation of δ-FAPbI3 phases. The perovskite structure is formed via postdeposition involving the treatment of colloidal MAI-PbI2-DMSO film with FAI before annealing. In situ X-ray diffraction in vacuum shows no detectable δ-FAPbI3 phase during the whole synthesis process when the sample is annealed from 100 to 180 °C. This method is found to reduce defects at grain boundaries and enhance the film quality as determined by means of photoluminescence mapping and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The perovskite solar cells (PSCs) fabricated by this method demonstrate a much-enhanced short-circuit current density ( J sc) of 24.99 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 21.24%, which is the highest efficiency reported for pure FAPbI3, with great stability under 800 h of thermal ageing and 500 h of light soaking in nitrogen.

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