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F1000Res ; 9: 287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934801


Background: In Zimbabwe, Harare was the first province to implement "Treat All" for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Since its roll out in July 2016, no study has been conducted to assess the changes in key programme indicators. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake, time to ART initiation from diagnosis, and retention before and during "Treat All". Methods: We conducted an ecological study to assess ART uptake among all PLHIV newly diagnosed before and during "Treat All". We conducted a cohort study to assess time to ART initiation and retention in care among all PLHIV newly initiated on ART from all electronic patient management system-supported sites (n=50) before and during "Treat All". Results: ART uptake increased from 65% (n=4619) by the end of quarter one, 2014 to 85% (n=5152) by the end of quarter four, 2018.  A cohort of 2289 PLHIV were newly initiated on ART before (April-June 2015) and 1682 during "Treat all" (April-June 2017). Their age and gender distribution was similar. The proportion of PLHIV in early stages of disease was significantly higher during "Treat all" (73.2% vs. 55.6%, p<0.001). The median time to ART initiation was significantly lower during "Treat All" (31 vs. 88 days, p<0.001). Cummulative retention at three, six and 12 months was consistently lower during "Treat all" and was significant at six months (74.9% vs.78.1% p=0.022). Conclusion: Although there were benefits of early ART initiation during "Treat All", the programme should consider strategies to improve retention.

Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Zimbábue
J Trop Med ; 2020: 4761051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518566


Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged <15 years) is a neglected component of national TB programmes in high TB burden countries. Zimbabwe, a country in southern Africa, is a high burden country for TB, TB-HIV, and drug-resistant TB. In this study, we assessed trends in annual childhood TB notifications in Harare (the capital of Zimbabwe) from 2009 to 2018 and the demographic, clinical profiles, and treatment outcomes of childhood TB patients notified from 2015-2017 by reviewing the national TB programme records and reports. Overall, there was a decline in the total number of TB patients (all ages) from 5,943 in 2009 to 2,831 in 2018. However, the number of childhood TB patients had declined exponentially 6-fold from 583 patients (117 per 100,000 children) in 2009 to 107 patients (18 per 100,000 children) in 2018. Of the 615 childhood TB patients notified between 2015 and 2017, 556 (89%) patient records were available. There were 53% males, 61% were aged <5 years, 92% were new TB patients, 85% had pulmonary TB, and 89% were treated for-drug sensitive TB, 3% for drug-resistant TB, and 40% were HIV positive (of whom 59% were on ART). Although 58% had successful treatment outcomes, the treatment outcomes of 40% were unknown (not recorded or not evaluated), indicating severe gaps in TB care. The disproportionate decline in childhood TB notifications could be due to the reduction in the TB burden among HIV positive individuals from the scale up of antiretroviral therapy and isoniazid preventive therapy. However, the country is experiencing economic challenges which could also contribute to the disproportionate decline in childhood TB notification and gaps in quality of care. There is an urgent need to understand the reasons for the declining trends and the gaps in care.

J Health Commun ; 21(10): 1115-21, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668973


Tuberculosis (TB) contact tracing is typically conducted in resource-limited settings with paper forms, but this approach may be limited by inefficiencies in data collection, storage, and retrieval and poor data quality. In Botswana, we developed, piloted, and evaluated a mobile health (mHealth) approach to TB contact tracing that replaced the paper form-based approach for a period of six months. For both approaches, we compared the time required to complete TB contact tracing and the quality of data collected. For the mHealth approach, we also administered the Computer System Usability Questionnaire to 2 health care workers who used the new approach, and we identified and addressed operational considerations for implementation. Compared to the paper form-based approach, the mHealth approach reduced the median time required to complete TB contact tracing and improved data quality. The mHealth approach also had favorable overall rating, system usefulness, information quality, and interface quality scores on the Computer System Usability Questionnaire. Overall, the mHealth approach to TB contact tracing improved on the paper form-based approach used in Botswana. This new approach may similarly benefit TB contact tracing efforts in other resource-limited settings.

Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Criança , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo