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BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 697, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727609


BACKGROUND: Adolescents are still getting pregnant and contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in Rwanda as elsewhere. Quality and comprehensive SRH services and information for adolescents is valuable for adolescents' wellbeing. This study aimed at understanding SRH services providers' viewpoints on accessibility, availability, and quality of SRH services provided to adolescents in selected cities of Rwanda. METHOD: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted between May 2018 and May 2019 in six selected cities of Rwanda using a mixed-methods approach. A checklist was used to collect data from 159 conveniently selected SRH services providers. The survey tool was validated. SPSS version 20 was used to describe quantitative data and ATLAS TI version 5.2 was used to code and analyze the qualitative data thematically. RESULTS: Qualitatively, health care providers reported that the availability of adolescent SRHS are satisfactory with access to accurate SRH information, contraceptive methods, prevention and management of STIs and HIV services, and counselling. However, the accessibility of some services remains limited. According to respondents, some products such as female condoms are less in demand and often expire before they can be distributed. One nurse clarified that they render services at a low price if an adolescent has insurance medical coverture. Religious leaders and family members may hinder adolescents from health-seeking behavior by promoting abstinence and discouraging use of protective means. Quantitatively, we found that 94.3% of health facilities provide information to adolescents on SRH services that were available and 51.6% affirmed delivering services at a low cost. Only 57.2% of respondents mentioned that adolescents are involved in designing the feedback mechanisms at their facilities. CONCLUSION: SRH services in Rwanda are available for the general population and are not specifically designed for adolescents. These SRH services seem to be fairly accessible to adolescents with insufficient quality as adolescents themselves do not get to be fully involved in service provision among other aspects of quality SRH as stated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, there is a need to improve the present quality of these services to meet adolescents' needs in an urban setting.

Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Ruanda , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res ; 13(4): 201-207, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871595


Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem affectinga significant portion of population. Primary complications are Pulmonary Embolism (PE) in the short term and Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS) in the long term. Thrombolytic drugs act by activating plasminogen which in turn forms the enzyme plasmin. Plasmin consequently degrades blood clots by breaking down the fibrin molecules which make up the clots help to degrade the already formed clot. They can be used using different route of administration, doses and durations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the outcome of thrombolytic therapy in terms of the efficacy, safety and effectiveness of the medicines. Electronic searches of databases (MEDLINE and Google Scholar) were queried for articles written in English since 2000 GC. A total of 760 results were obtained using the search keys, and after excluding duplicates, 275 articles were selected. Finally, 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which met the language of publication, study design and exclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. The data were obtained from nine trials (6 countries), providing a study-level data of 1309 participants. Almost all studies revealed that thrombolytic treatment was effective in the management of acute DVT. In most of the studies, the rate of rethrombosis was lower in case of thrombolytic than standard management. Hence, addition of thrombolytic results in persistence and increases the clinical benefits. Thrombolytic therapy was very effective in reversing closed veins, in boosting the patency rate,whilereflux was higher in patients treated with anticoagulants. Thrombolytic offers potential advantages over the standard treatment of DVT by reducing the proportion of patients with chronic disabling leg symptoms (such as PTS) by triple in the longer term. However, the incident of major bleeding was higher in patients receiving thrombolytics than anticoagulants.

BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 571, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412944


BACKGROUND: The use of psychotropic substances is controlled in most parts of the world due to their potential of abuse and addiction. Diazepam is one of the psychotropic substances which can be dispensed in community pharmacies in Tanzania. As per good dispensing practices and pharmacy laws, diazepam in the community pharmacies should strictly be stored in a controlled box and dispensed only by prescription. However, to our understanding little had been reported on availability and dispensing practices of diazepam in Tanzania. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study which involved 178 randomly selected registered community pharmacies in Kinondoni district was conducted from January to March 2018. Simulated client approach was used to assess the availability and dispensers practice about dispensing of diazepam. Location of pharmacies was categorized as being at the centre or periphery of the Kinondoni district. Chi-squared test was used for the analysis of categorical data using SPSS version 23. The p-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULT: The total of 178 community pharmacies were visited, the majority of the dispensers (89.1%) encountered were female. Most (69.1%) of the studied pharmacies were located at the centre of Kinondoni district. Diazepam was available in 91% of community pharmacies and 70% of dispensers issued diazepam without prescription. CONCLUSION: Diazepam was available in most of the community pharmacies in Kinondoni district, and the majority of the dispensers dispensed diazepam without prescription. This calls for the regulatory authorities to be more vigilant on the availability of diazepam and enhance the provision of ethical pharmacy practice in the community pharmacies.

Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Diazepam , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Farmacêuticos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Diazepam/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/provisão & distribuição , Farmacêuticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia