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1.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1859823, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446087

RESUMO

Background: Perinatal mortality in Uganda remains high at 38 deaths/1,000 births, an estimate greater than the every newborn action plan (ENAP) target of ≤24/1,000 births by 2030. To improve perinatal survival, there is a need to understand the persisting risk factors for death. Objective: We determined the incidence, risk factors, and causes of perinatal death in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a community-based prospective cohort study among pregnant women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. Female community volunteers identified pregnant women in each household who were recruited at ≥28 weeks of gestation and followed until 50 days postpartum. Information on perinatal survival was gathered from participants within 24 hours after childbirth and at 7 days postpartum. The cause of death was ascertained using verbal autopsies. We used generalized estimating equations of the Poisson family to determine the risk factors for perinatal death. Results: Of the 1,877 women enrolled, the majority were ≤30 years old (79.8%), married or cohabiting (91.3%), and had attained only a primary education (77.7%). There were 81 perinatal deaths among them, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 43/1,000 births [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 35, 53)], of these 37 were stillbirths (20 deaths/1,000 total births) and 44 were early neonatal deaths (23 deaths/1,000 live births). Birth asphyxia, respiratory failure, infections and intra-partum events were the major probable contributors to perinatal death. The risk factors for perinatal death were nulliparity at enrolment (adjusted IRR 2.7, [95% CI: 1.3, 5.6]) and maternal age >30 years (adjusted IRR 2.5, [95% CI: 1.1, 5.8]). Conclusion: The incidence of perinatal death in this region was higher than had previously been reported in Uganda. Risk factors for perinatal mortality were nulliparity and maternal age >30 years. Pregnant women in this region need improved access to care during pregnancy and childbirth.

2.
Trop Med Health ; 48(1): 89, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoglycemia is the most common endocrine abnormality in children, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The burden and risk factors of neonatal hypoglycemia in rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia in Lira District, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a community-based cross-sectional study, nested in a cluster randomized controlled trial designed to promote health facility births and newborn care practices in Lira District, Northern Uganda. This study recruited neonates born to mothers in the parent study. Random blood glucose was measured using an On Call® Plus glucometer (ACON Laboratories, Inc., 10125 Mesa Road, San Diego, CA, USA). We defined hypoglycemia as a blood glucose of < 47 mg/dl. To determine the factors associated with neonatal hypoglycemia, a multivariable linear regression mixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: We examined 1416 participants of mean age 3.1 days (standard deviation (SD) 2.1) and mean weight of 3.2 kg (SD 0.5). The mean neonatal blood glucose level was 81.6 mg/dl (SD 16.8). The prevalence of a blood glucose concentration of < 47 mg/dl was 2.2% (31/1416): 95% CI 1.2%, 3.9%. The risk factors for neonatal hypoglycemia were delayed breastfeeding initiation [adjusted mean difference, - 2.6; 95% CI, - 4.4, - 0.79] and child age of 3 days or less [adjusted mean, - 12.2; 95% CI, - 14.0, - 10.4]. CONCLUSION: The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was low in this community and was predicted by delay in initiating breastfeeding and a child age of 3 days or less. We therefore suggest targeted screening and management of neonatal hypoglycemia among neonates before 3 days of age and those who are delayed in the onset of breastfeeding.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sickle cell disease is an important public health issue that is increasingly recognized as a substantial contributor to morbidity and early childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to provide information from large-scale, long-term sickle cell screening efforts in Africa. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the centralized public health laboratory database in Uganda to examine epidemiological trends in sickle cell screening over a five-year period, comparing age and geographic adjustments to prevalence among different testing cohorts of children aged 0-24 months, and calculating screening coverage within high-burden districts. RESULTS: A total of 324,356 children aged 0-24 months were screened for sickle cell trait and disease from February 2014 to March 2019. A high national burden of sickle cell disease (0.9%) was confirmed among a cohort of samples co-tested with HIV. In the cohort of samples referred specifically for sickle cell testing, the overall prevalence of sickle cell disease was 9.7% and particularly elevated in high-burden districts where focused screening occurred. The majority of children were screened before age 4 months, but the sickle specific cohort had a larger proportion of affected children tested between age 5-9 months, coincident with onset of disease signs and symptoms. Successful screening coverage of sickle cell disease births was achieved in several high-burden districts. CONCLUSIONS: Examination and analysis of national sickle cell screening trends in Uganda documents the successes of focused screening strategies as an important step toward universal screening. With this evidence and increased healthcare provider knowledge, Uganda can optimize sickle cell diagnosis and management across the country.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110445

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol, substance use, and mental health disorders constitute major public health issues worldwide, including in low income and lower middle-income countries, and early initiation of use is an important predictor for developing substance use disorders in later life. This study reports on the existence of childhood alcohol abuse and dependence in a sub-study of a trial cohort in Eastern Uganda. Methods: The project SeeTheChild-Mental Child Health in Uganda (STC) included a sub-study of the Ugandan site of the study PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso. PROMISE SB was a follow-up study of a trial birth cohort (PROMISE EBF) that estimated the effect that peer counselling for exclusive breast-feeding had on the children's cognitive functioning and mental health once they reached 5-8 years of age. The STC sub-study (N = 148) used the diagnostic tool MINI-KID to assess mental health conditions in children who scored medium and high (≥ 14) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the PROMISE SB cohort N = (119/148; 80.4%). Another 29/148 (19.6%) were recruited from the PROMISE SB cohort as a comparator with low SDQ scores (< 14). Additionally, the open-ended questions in the diagnostic history were analysed. The MINI-KID comprised diagnostic questions on alcohol abuse and dependence, and descriptive data from the sub-study are presented in this paper. Results: A total of 11/148 (7.4%) children scored positive for alcohol abuse and dependence in this study, 10 of whom had high SDQ scores (≥ 14). The 10 children with SDQ-scores ≥ 14 had a variety of mental health comorbidities of which suicidality 3/10 (30.0%) and separation anxiety disorder 5/10 (50.0%) were the most common. The one child with an SDQ score below 14 did not have any comorbidities. Access to homemade brew, carer's knowledge of the drinking, and difficult household circumstances were issues expressed in the children's diagnostic histories. Conclusions: The discovery of alcohol abuse and dependence among 5-8 year olds in clinical interviews from a community based trial cohort was unexpected, and we recommend continued research and increased awareness of these conditions in this age group.Trial registration Trial registration for PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01882335), 20 June 2013. Regrettably, there was a 1 month delay in the registration compared to the commenced re-inclusion in the follow-up study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01882335?term=saving+brains&draw=2&rank=1.

5.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1820714, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complications due to prematurity are a threat to child survival and full developmental potential particularly in low-income settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes among preterm infants and identify any modifiable factors associated with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD). METHODS: We recruited 454 babies (242 preterms with birth weight <2.5 kg, and 212 term babies) in a cohort study at birth from Iganga hospital between May and July 2018. We followed up the babies at an average age of 7 months (adjusted for prematurity) and assessed 211 preterm and 187 term infants for neurodevelopmental outcomes using the Malawi Developmental Assessment tool. Mothers were interviewed on care practices for the infants. Data were analyzed using STATA version 14. RESULTS: The study revealed a high incidence of NDD of 20.4% (43/211) among preterm infants compared to 7.5% (14/187) among the term babies, p < 0.001, of the same age. The most affected domain was fine motor (11.8%), followed by language (9.0%). At multivariate analysis, malnutrition and Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) at home after discharge were the key factors that were significantly associated with NDD among preterm babies. The prevalence of malnutrition among preterm infants was 20% and this significantly increased the odds of developing NDD, OR = 2.92 (95% CI: 1.27-6.71). KMC practice at home reduced the odds of developing NDD, OR = 0.46, (95% CI: 0.21-1.00). Re-admission of preterm infants after discharge (a sign of severe illness) increased the odds of developing NDD but this was not statistically significant, OR = 2.33 (95% CI: 0.91-5.94). CONCLUSION: Our study has shown that preterm infants are at a high risk of developing NDD, especially those with malnutrition. Health system readiness should be improved to provide follow-up care with emphasis on improving nutrition and continuity of KMC at home.

6.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1833510, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is important for growth, development and survival of HIV exposed infants. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of morbidity, mortality and increases HIV free survival of infants. Evidence on risk factors for inappropriate breastfeeding in Northern Uganda is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the risk factors for non-exclusivity of breastfeeding in the first 14 weeks of life. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 466 mother-infant pairs between August 2018 and February 2020 in Lira district, Northern Uganda. HIV infected pregnant women were enrolled and followed up at delivery, 6- and 14- weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and exclusive breastfeeding. Data were analysed using Stata version 14.0 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA.). We estimated adjusted risk ratios using modified Poisson regression models. RESULTS: The proportion of HIV exposed infants that were exclusively breastfed reduced with increasing age. Risk factors for non-exclusive breastfeeding included infants being born to HIV infected women who: were in the highest socioeconomic strata (adjusted risk ratio = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.01- 2.1), whose delivery was supervised by a non-health worker (adjusted risk ratio = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.01- 2.7) and who had not adhered to their ART during pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.01- 1.7). CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected women: with highest socioeconomic status, whose delivery was not supervised by a health worker and who did not adhere to ART were less likely to practice exclusive breastfeeding. We recommend ART adherence and infant feeding counselling to be emphasised among HIV infected women who are at risk of having a home delivery, those with poor ART adherence and those of higher socioeconomic status. We also recommend integration of these services into other settings like homes, community and work places instead of limiting them to hospital settings. ABBREVIATIONS: HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus; ART: Antiretroviral therapy; HEI: HIV exposed infant; PMTCT: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; MTCT: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV; AFASS: Acceptable, Feasible, Affordable, Sustainable and Safe; LRRH: Lira regional referral hospital; CI: confidence interval; ARR: Adjusted risk ratio; SD: Standard deviation; PCA: Principal component analysis.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048971

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deaths during the perinatal period remain a big challenge in Africa, with 38 deaths per 1000 pregnancies in Uganda. The consequences of these deaths can be detrimental to the women; some ending up with postpartum depression. We examined the association between perinatal death and postpartum depression among women in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1,789 women. Trained research assistants screened women for postpartum depressive symptoms on day 50 postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Socio-demographic, economic, birth and survival status of the neonate were collected during pregnancy and within one week postpartum. We used generalized estimating equation for the Poisson family with a log link using Stata to estimate the prevalence ratio of the association between postpartum depressive symptoms (EPDS scores ≥14) and perinatal death. Mothers who lost their babies between 7-49 days postpartum were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 1,789 participants symptomatically screened for postpartum depression, 377 (21.1%) [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 17.2%, 23.0%] had probable depressive symptoms. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms among the 77 women who had experienced perinatal death (37 stillbirths and 40 early neonatal deaths (≤7 days of life)) was 62.3% [95% CI: 50.8%, 72.6%] compared to 19.2% [95% CI: 17.4%, 21.2%], among 1,712 with live infants at day 50 postpartum. Women who had experienced a perinatal death were three times as likely to have postpartum depressive symptoms as those who had a live birth [adjusted prevalence ratio 3.45 (95% CI: 2.67, 4.48)]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms, assessed by EPDS, was high among women who had had a perinatal death in Northern Uganda. Women experiencing a perinatal death need to be screened for postpartum depressive symptoms in order to intervene and reduce associated morbidity.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16319, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004969

RESUMO

Prevention of unintended pregnancies is a global strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Factors surrounding unintended pregnancy among women living with HIV are not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors for unintended pregnancy among these women in Northern Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 518 women using a structured questionnaire. We asked questions on socio-demographic, reproductive-related and HIV-related characteristics. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and reported adjusted odds ratios. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 41.1%. The predictors for unintended pregnancy were: being single (not living with a partner or being in a marital union), having five or more children and taking antiretroviral drugs for long periods of time. HIV counselling services should target women living with HIV who are not in a marital union, those having a higher parity and those who have taken ART for longer periods.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to infant prophylaxis has been associated with mother-to-child-transmission of HIV. However, the factors associated have not been well characterised in different settings. This study describes barriers and enablers of adherence to infant prophylaxis among 6-week-old HIV exposed infants in Lira district, Northern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted from 2018-2020 at the PMTCT clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and included 472 mother-infant pairs. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited, followed up at delivery and 6 weeks postpartum. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain data on socio-demographic, reproductive-related, HIV-related characteristics and adherence. Data were analysed using Stata to estimate adjusted risk ratios using Poisson regression models to ascertain barriers and enablers of adherence to infant nevirapine prophylaxis. RESULTS: Barriers to infant adherence are maternal characteristics including: younger age (≤20 years adjusted risk ratio (ARR) = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.1-2.2), missing a viral load test during pregnancy (ARR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and not receiving nevirapine syrup for the baby after childbirth (ARR = 6.2; 95% CI: 5.1-7.6). Enablers were: having attained ≥14 years of schooling (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), taking a nevirapine-based regimen (ARR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), long-term ART (≥ 60 months ARR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), accompanied by a husband to hospital during labour and childbirth (ARR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4-0.7) and labour starting at night (ARR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.8). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Despite mothers receiving nevirapine syrup from the health workers for the infant, non-adherence rates still prevail at 14.8%. The health system needs to consider giving HIV infected pregnant women the nevirapine syrup before birth to avoid delays and non-adherence. There is need to pay particular attention to younger women and those who recently started ART.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the third most common cause of death among neonates, with about 225,000 newborns dying every year globally. Data concerning the microbial etiology of neonatal sepsis and antimicrobial resistance profiles of its causative agents are necessary to inform targeted and effective treatment and prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of newborns with symptoms and signs of sepsis who had a positive blood culture, its bacterial etiology, the antimicrobial resistance patterns as well as the factors associated with culture-positivity and case fatality at Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 359 neonates with symptoms and signs of sepsis who presented to the pediatric emergency care unit of Mulago national referral hospital from mid-January to end of December 2018. We performed blood culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and conducted polymerase chain reaction to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between potential risk factors and culture-positive neonatal sepsis. FINDINGS: Of the 359 neonates recruited, 46 (12.8%; 95% CI 9.5%, 16.7%) had a positive blood culture. The predominant isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus in 29 (63.0%), Escherichia coli in seven (15.2%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae in five (10.9%). Of the 46 pathogens, 73.9% were resistant to ampicillin, 23.9% to gentamicin and 8.7% to ceftriaxone. We isolated MRSA from the blood specimens of 19 (5.3%) of the 359 neonates, while 3 (0.8%) grew extended spectrum beta lactamase producers. The case fatality risk among neonates with neonatal sepsis was 9.5% (95% CI: 6.6%, 13.0%). Cesarean section delivery was strongly associated with culture-positive sepsis (adjusted odds ratio 3.45, 95% CI: 1.2, 10.1). CONCLUSION: One in eight neonates with clinical signs of sepsis grew a likely causative bacterial pathogen. S. aureus was the main pathogen isolated and a third of these isolates were MRSA. A significant proportion of the isolated bacterial pathogens were resistant to the first and second line antibiotics used for the treatment of neonatal sepsis. There is need to revisit the current treatment guidelines for neonatal sepsis.


Assuntos
Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Sepse Neonatal/etiologia , Sepse Neonatal/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Uganda
11.
Int J MCH AIDS ; 9(2): 232-241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704410

RESUMO

Background / Objectives: Detectable HIV viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women remains a public health threat. We aimed to determine factors associated with detectable viral load among HIV-infected pregnant women in Lira, Northern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 420 HIV-infected pregnant women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital using a structured questionnaire and combined it with viral load tests from Uganda National Health Laboratories. We conducted multivariable logistic regression while adjusting for confounders to determine the factors associated with detectable viral load and we report adjusted odds ratios and proportion of women with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and above 1000 copies, respectively. Results: The prevalence of detectable viral load (>50 copies/ml) was 30.7% (95%CI: 26.3% - 35.4%) and >1000 copies/ml was 8.1% (95% CI: 5.7% - 11.1%). Factors associated with detectable viral load were not belonging to the Lango ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.92, 95%CI: 1.05 - 3.90) and taking a second-line (protease inhibitor-based) regimen (adjusted odds ratio = 4.41, 95%CI: 1.13 - 17.22). Conclusions and Global Health Implications: HIV-infected pregnant women likely to have detectable viral load included those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who were not natives of Lira. We recommend intensified clinical and psychosocial monitoring for medication compliance among HIV-infected pregnant women that are likely to have a detectable viral load to significantly lower the risk of vertical transmission of HIV in Lira specifically those taking a protease inhibitor-based regimen and those who are non-natives to the study setting. Much as the third 90% of the global UNAIDS 90-90-90 target has been achieved, the national implementation of PMTCT guidelines should be tailored to its contextual needs.

12.
Int J Reprod Med ; 2020: 8053939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685438

RESUMO

Background: Hookworm infection in expectant mothers has adverse health effects on both the mothers and their unborn babies. Foetal effects are known to include intrauterine growth retardation and physical and mental growth retardation, while the mothers may develop anemia which could potentially result in death. Unfortunately, little is known about factors that may predispose a pregnant woman to infection by hookworm. In this study, we strived to determine not only the prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit during the current pregnancy in a local health center in northern Uganda but also factors that might predispose them to hookworm infection. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 pregnant women from Ogur Health Center IV located in Lira district, northern Uganda. Stool samples were collected from each study participant and analyzed for hookworms. The independent variables listed in this study (participant's sociodemographic characteristics, preconception care, and sanitation factors) were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis, including calculation of adjusted ratios, was performed using STATA software (version 14). Results: Prevalence of hookworm infection among pregnant women who attended their first antenatal visit at Ogur Health Center IV was 11% (n = 38). After controlling for confounders, factors found to be significantly associated with this infection among pregnant women here were gardening barefooted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6 to 7.5; P < 0.001) and fetching unsafe water shared with animals for domestic uses (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.2; P value of 0.002). Conclusion: Hookworm infection among pregnant women at Ogur Health Center IV in Lira district, at 11%, is a public health concern and significantly associated with barefoot gardening and fetching water from unsafe sources shared with animals. We, therefore, recommend that special emphasis during routine prenatal health education be placed on the use of protective footwear during farming and fetching water for domestic use from protected safe sources. Author Summary. Hookworm infection is a parasitic condition that more often goes unnoticed, yet it presents immense detrimental effects, especially to pregnant women and their unborn children. It is a chronic disease with accruing effects of blood depletion resulting in anemia. Anemia is, by far, one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Pregnant women are more prone to hookworm infection by virtue of their compromised immunity, secondary to the physiological process of pregnancy. We demonstrated here that hookworm infection still exists among pregnant women in Uganda. We also showed that gardening barefooted and fetching water for domestic uses from unsafe sources shared with animals were major factors associated with this helminthic infection. This study provides evidence necessary to influence decision making on prevention of hookworm infection in the study area.

13.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1743496, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skilled birth attendants must be competent to provide prompt resuscitation to save newborn lives at birth. Both knowledge and skills (competence) decline with time after training but the optimal duration for refresher training among frontline-skilled birth attendants in low-resource settings is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of an innovative Helping-Babies-Breathe simulation-based teaching method using video-debriefing compared to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training on 1) neonatal resuscitation knowledge and skills attainment and 2) competence retention among skilled birth attendants in Northern Uganda. METHODS: A total of 26 health facilities with 86 birth attendants were equally randomised to intervention and control arms. The 2nd edition of the American Association of Pediatrics Helping-Babies-Breathe curriculum was used for training and assessment. Knowledge and skills were assessed pre- and post-training, and during follow-up at 6 months. A mixed effects linear regression model for repeated measures was used to assess the short and long-term effects of the intervention on neonatal resuscitation practices while accounting for clustering. RESULTS: Eighty-two (95.3%) skilled birth attendants completed follow-up at 6 months. Approximately 80% of these had no prior Helping-Babies-Breathe training and 75% reported practicing neonatal resuscitation routinely. Standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training with video-debriefing improved knowledge and skills attainment post-training [adjusted mean difference: 5.34; 95% CI: 0.82-10.78] and retention [adjusted mean difference: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.52-4.41] over 6 months post-training compared to standard training after adjusting for confounding and clustering. Factors that reduced knowledge and skills retention among birth attendants were monthly resuscitation of one neonate or more and being in service for more than 5 years. CONCLUSION: Adding video-debriefing to standard Helping-Babies-Breathe training had an effect on birth attendants' competence attainment and retention over 6 months in Uganda. However, more research is needed to justify the proposed intervention in this context.

14.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 43, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended but many women introduce alternative feeds early. Interventions to scale-up peer support provision for exclusive breastfeeding are limited. We explored the barriers, facilitators and solutions to scaling-up of peer counselling support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Mbale District and Kampala City between April and July 2014. Data were collected through 15 key informant interviews with health workers and managers of organizations involved in child and maternal health as well as seven focus group discussions with peer counsellors who took part in the PROMISE EBF Trial (2006-2008), VHT members, mothers and fathers of children aged 1 year and below. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. RESULTS: The need for peer support for exclusive breastfeeding, especially for young and first-time mothers, was highlighted by most study participants. While mothers, mothers-in-law, friends and husbands were mentioned as major stakeholders regarding infant feeding, they were perceived to lack adequate information on breastfeeding. Health workers were mentioned as a key source of support, but their constraints of heavy workloads and lack of education materials on breastfeeding were highlighted. High community expectations of peer counsellors, the perceived inadequacy of breast milk, general acceptability of complimentary feeding, household food insecurity, heavy workload for women and unsupportive 'work-places' were key barriers to scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. The peer counsellors who were part of the PROMISE EBF trial in Mbale, the village health team programme, health facilities, community groups, the media and professional associations emerged as potential facilitators that can aid the scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Peer support for breastfeeding is highly valued in this setting. The health system and health workers are regarded as the main facilitators to scaling-up of peer support for exclusive breastfeeding. Partnerships with village health teams (VHTs), community groups, role models, professional associations and the media are other potential facilitators to this scaling-up.

15.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 67, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies are persistently high among refugees. The pregnancies have been attributed to low contraceptive use in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with modern contraceptive use among female refugee adolescents in northern Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study using both descriptive and analytical techniques. The study was carried out in Palabek refugee settlement in Northern Uganda from May to July 2019. A total of 839 refugee adolescents who were sexually active or in-union were consecutively enrolled. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used for data collection. RESULTS: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.8). The injectable was the most commonly used modern contraceptive method [42.5% (95% CI: 31.5 to 54.3)], and most of the participants had used the contraceptives for 6 months or less (59.7%). Reasons for not using modern contraceptives included fear of side effects (39.3%), partner prohibition (16.4%), and the desire to become pregnant (7.0%). Participants who were married (OR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.35, p < 0.001), cohabiting (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.93, p = 0.032) or having an older partner (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.99, p = 0.046) were less likely to use modern contraceptives. CONCLUSION: Modern contraceptive use among female refugee adolescents was very low, and few reported a desire to become pregnant, leaving them vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies. Least likely to use modern contraceptives were participants who were married/cohabiting and those having older partners implying a gender power imbalance in fertility decision making. There is an urgent need for innovations to address the gender and power imbalances within relationships, which could shape fertility decision-making and increase modern contraceptive use among refugee adolescents.

16.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 18, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376892

RESUMO

Under-diagnosis of asthma in 'under-fives' may be alleviated by improved inquiry into disease history. We assessed a questionnaire-based screening tool for asthma among 614 'under-fives' with severe respiratory illness in Uganda. The questionnaire responses were compared to post hoc consensus diagnoses by three pediatricians who were guided by study definitions that were based on medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory and radiological tests, and response to bronchodilators. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were categorized as "asthma syndrome". Using this approach, 253 (41.2%) had asthma syndrome. History of and present breathing difficulties and present cough and wheezing was the best performing combination of four questionnaire items [sensitivity 80.8% (95% CI 77.6-84.0); specificity 84.7% (95% CI 81.8-87.6)]. The screening tool for asthma syndrome in 'under-fives' may provide a simple, cheap and quick method of identifying children with possible asthma. The validity and reliability of this tool in primary care settings should be tested.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. We explored maternal factors associated with EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants and the relationship between EBV infection and serious adverse events (SAE) during the first year of life. METHODS: Two hundred and one HEU infants from Uganda enrolled in the ANRS12174 trial were tested for anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies at week 50 of life. The date of infection was estimated by testing of EBV DNA at weeks 1, 6, 14, 26, 38 and 50 postpartum on dried blood spot (DBS). RESULTS: Eighty-seven (43%) infants were tested positive for anti-VCA IgG at week 50. Among the 59 infants positive for EBV DNA, 25% were infected within the first 26 weeks. Almost half of them (12%) were infected before week 14. Shedding of EBV in breast milk was associated with EBV DNA in maternal plasma (P=.009), HIV RNA detection (P=.039), lower CD4 count (P=.001) and was correlated with plasma EBV DNA levels (P=.002). EBV infant infection at week 50 was associated with shedding of EBV in breast milk (P=.009) and young maternal age (P=.029). Occurrence of a clinical SAE, including malaria and pneumonia, was associated with higher levels of EBV DNA in infants (P=.010). CONCLUSIONS: By assessing EBV infection in HEU infants we observed that infection during the first year of life is determined by HIV and EBV maternal factors and that EBV DNA levels was higher among infants with clinical SAE.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228856, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040542

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obstructed labour (OL) is an important clinical and public health problem because of the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for OL and its associated obstetric squeal are usually context specific. No epidemiological study has documented the risk factors for OL in Eastern Uganda. This study was conducted to identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Hospital. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for OL in Mbale Regional Referral and Teaching Hospital, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a case control study with 270 cases of women with OL and 270 controls of women without OL. We consecutively enrolled eligible cases between July 2018 and February 2019. For each case, we randomly selected one eligible control admitted in the same 24-hour period. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews and a review of patient notes. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for OL. RESULTS: The risk factors for OL were, being a referral from a lower health facility (AOR 6.80, 95% CI: 4.20-11.00), prime parity (AOR 2.15 95% CI: 1.26-3.66) and use of herbal medicines in active labour (AOR 2.72 95% CI: 1.49-4.96). Married participants (AOR 0.59 95% CI: 0.35-0.97) with a delivery plan (AOR 0.56 95% CI: 0.35-0.90) and educated partners (AOR 0.57 95% CI: 0.33-0.98) were less likely to have OL. In the adjusted analysis, there was no association between four or more ANC visits and OL, adjusted odds ratio [(AOR) 0.96 95% CI: 0.57-1.63)]. CONCLUSIONS: Prime parity, use of herbal medicines in labour and being a referral from a lower health facility were identified as risk factors. Being married with a delivery plan and an educated partner were protective of OL. Increased frequency of ANC attendance was not protective against obstructed labour.


Assuntos
Distocia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distocia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1711618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955672

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, perinatal mortality is 38 per 1000 pregnancies. One-third of these deaths are due to birth asphyxia. Adequate fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring during labor may detect birth asphyxia but little is known about monitoring practices in low resource settings.Objective: To explore FHR monitoring practices among health workers at a public hospital in Northern Uganda.Methods: A sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted by reviewing 251 maternal records and conducting 11 interviews and two focus group discussions with health workers complemented by observations of 42 women in labor until delivery. Quantitative data were summarized using frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was used for qualitative data.Results: FHR was assessed in 235/251 (93.6%) of records at admission. Health workers documented the FHR at least once in 175/228 (76.8%) of cases during the first stage of labor compared to observed 17/25 (68.0%) cases. Median intervals between FHR monitoring were 30 (IQR 30-120) minutes in patients' records versus 139 (IQR 87-662) minutes according to observations. Observations suggested no monitoring of FHR during the second stage of labor but records indicated monitoring in 3.2% of cases. Reported barriers to adequate FHR monitoring were inadequate number of staff and monitoring devices, institutional challenges such as few beds, documentation problems and perceived non-compliant women not reporting for repeated checks during the first stage of labor. Health workers demonstrated knowledge of national FHR monitoring guidelines and acknowledged that practice was different.Conclusions: When compared to national and international guidelines, FHR monitoring is sub-optimal in the studied setting. Approximately one in four women was not monitored during the first stage of labor. Barriers to appropriate FHR monitoring included shortage of staff and devices, institutional challenges and mother's negative attitudes. These barriers need to be addressed in order to reduce neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fetal/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/fisiologia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Uganda
20.
Trop Doct ; 50(1): 30-36, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594531

RESUMO

Information on major depressive disorder (MDD) in primary care settings in sub-Saharan Africa is limited, yet this is required to improve service development. We explored prevalence and factors associated with MDD among adolescents attending a primary care facility in urban Uganda. At Naguru Teenage Information and Health Centre, 281 adolescents were assessed for MDD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-Kid). Prevalence and risk factors were determined using frequencies and regressions, respectively. The prevalence of adolescent MDD was 18.2 %. Vulnerability factors were orphanhood, childhood trauma (particularly emotional abuse and physical neglect) while social support was protective. Considerable burden of clinically significant depression exists in primary care settings in Uganda; this may well contribute to a poor quality of life.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
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