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1.
N Engl J Med ; 382(26): 2524-2533, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyurea has proven safety, feasibility, and efficacy in children with sickle cell anemia in sub-Saharan Africa, with studies showing a reduced incidence of vaso-occlusive events and reduced mortality. Dosing standards remain undetermined, however, and whether escalation to the maximum tolerated dose confers clinical benefits that outweigh treatment-related toxic effects is unknown. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared hydroxyurea at a fixed dose (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) with dose escalation (approximately 30 mg per kilogram per day). The primary outcome was a hemoglobin level of 9.0 g or more per deciliter or a fetal hemoglobin level of 20% or more after 24 months. Secondary outcomes included the incidences of malaria, vaso-occlusive crises, and serious adverse events. RESULTS: Children received hydroxyurea at a fixed dose (94 children; mean [±SD] age, 4.6±1.0 years) or with dose escalation (93 children; mean age, 4.8±0.9 years); the mean doses were 19.2±1.8 mg per kilogram per day and 29.5±3.6 mg per kilogram per day, respectively. The data and safety monitoring board halted the trial when the numbers of clinical events were significantly lower among children receiving escalated dosing than among those receiving a fixed dose. At trial closure, 86% of the children in the dose-escalation group had reached the primary-outcome thresholds, as compared with 37% of the children in the fixed-dose group (P<0.001). Children in the dose-escalation group had fewer sickle cell-related adverse events (incidence rate ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.54), vaso-occlusive pain crises (incidence rate ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.56), cases of acute chest syndrome or pneumonia (incidence rate ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.56), transfusions (incidence rate ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.43), and hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.34). Laboratory-confirmed dose-limiting toxic effects were similar in the two groups, and there were no cases of severe neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Among children with sickle cell anemia in sub-Saharan Africa, hydroxyurea with dose escalation had superior clinical efficacy to that of fixed-dose hydroxyurea, with equivalent safety. (Funded by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation and the Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation; NOHARM MTD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03128515.).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Antidrepanocíticos/administração & dosagem , Hidroxiureia/administração & dosagem , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Antidrepanocíticos/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda
3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27807, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study provided evidence for a large sickle burden among HIV-exposed infants in Uganda. To date, however, no large scale screening program has been developed for Central or East Africa. METHODS: A 3-year targeted sickle cell screening project in Uganda was designed by the Ministry of Health to (1) determine sickle cell trait and disease prevalence within high-burden districts, (2) document the prevalence among HIV-exposed and nonexposed children, (3) confirm previously suggested HIV comorbidity, and (4) estimate the co-inheritance of known genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease. RESULTS: A total of 163 334 dried blood spot samples collected between April 2015 and March 2018 were analyzed, including 112 352 samples within the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis program. A high burden with >1% sickle cell disease was found within targeted East Central and Mid-Northern districts, in both HIV-exposed and nonexposed children. Based on crude birth-rate data, 236 905 sickle cell trait births and 16 695 sickle cell disease births will occur annually in Uganda. Compared to sickle cell disease without HIV, the odds ratio of having sickle cell disease plus HIV was 0.50 (95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.64, P < .0001). Alpha-thalassemia trait and G6PD deficiency were common with sickle cell disease, but with different geospatial distribution. CONCLUSIONS: High sickle cell burden and potential HIV comorbidity are confirmed in Uganda. Genetic modifiers are common and likely influence laboratory and clinical phenotypes. These prospective data document that targeted sickle cell screening is feasible and effective in Uganda, and support development of district-level comprehensive care programs.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Genes Modificadores , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/complicações , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , HIV/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Talassemia alfa/complicações , Talassemia alfa/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/genética
6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 52: 70-74, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). EBV control was improved by magnesium (Mg2+) supplementation in XMEN, an X-linked genetic disease associated with Mg2+ deficiency, high circulating EBV levels (viral loads), and EBV-related lymphomas. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between Mg2+ levels and EBV levels and eBL in Uganda. METHODS: Plasma Mg2+ was measured in 45 women with low or high circulating EBV levels, 40 pediatric eBL cases, and 79 healthy children. Mg2+ uptake by T-lymphocytes was evaluated in samples from healthy donors. RESULTS: Plasma Mg2+ deficiency (plasma level <1.8 mg/dl) was more likely in women with high- vs. low-EBV levels (76.0% vs. 35%; odds ratio [OR] 11.3, 95% CI 2.14-60.2), controlling for age, and in eBL cases than controls (42.0% vs. 13.9%; OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.32-9.88), controlling for sex, age group, and malaria status. Mg2+ uptake by T-lymphocytes was related to extracellular Mg2+ concentration. INTERPRETATION: Plasma Mg2+ deficiency is associated with high EBV levels and eBL.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/sangue , Linfoma de Burkitt/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Magnésio/sangue , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Linfoma de Burkitt/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Blood ; 130(24): 2585-2593, 2017 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051184

RESUMO

Hydroxyurea treatment is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) living in high-resource malaria-free regions, but its safety and efficacy in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest sickle-cell burden exists, remain unknown. In vitro studies suggest hydroxyurea could increase malaria severity, and hydroxyurea-associated neutropenia could worsen infections. NOHARM (Novel use Of Hydroxyurea in an African Region with Malaria) was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in malaria-endemic Uganda, comparing hydroxyurea to placebo at 20 ± 2.5 mg/kg per day for 12 months. The primary outcome was incidence of clinical malaria. Secondary outcomes included SCA-related adverse events (AEs), clinical and laboratory effects, and hematological toxicities. Children received either hydroxyurea (N = 104) or placebo (N = 103). Malaria incidence did not differ between children on hydroxyurea (0.05 episodes per child per year; 95% confidence interval [0.02, 0.13]) vs placebo (0.07 episodes per child per year [0.03, 0.16]); the hydroxyurea/placebo malaria incidence rate ratio was 0.7 ([0.2, 2.7]; P = .61). Time to infection also did not differ significantly between treatment arms. A composite SCA-related clinical outcome (vaso-occlusive painful crisis, dactylitis, acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, or blood transfusion) was less frequent with hydroxyurea (45%) than placebo (69%; P = .001). Children receiving hydroxyurea had significantly increased hemoglobin concentration and fetal hemoglobin, with decreased leukocytes and reticulocytes. Serious AEs, sepsis episodes, and dose-limiting toxicities were similar between treatment arms. Three deaths occurred (2 hydroxyurea, 1 placebo, and none from malaria). Hydroxyurea treatment appears safe for children with SCA living in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, without increased severe malaria, infections, or AEs. Hydroxyurea provides SCA-related laboratory and clinical efficacy, but optimal dosing and monitoring regimens for Africa remain undefined. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01976416.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Malária/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Antidrepanocíticos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Hemoglobina Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 4(3): e195-200, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease contributes substantially to mortality in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, 20,000 babies per year are thought to be born with sickle cell disease, but accurate data are not available. We did the cross-sectional Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study to assess the burden of disease. METHODS: The primary objective of the study was to calculate prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease. We obtained punch samples from dried blood spots routinely collected from HIV-exposed infants in ten regions and 112 districts across Uganda for the national Early Infant Diagnosis programme. Haemoglobin electrophoresis by isoelectric focusing was done on all samples to identify those from babies with sickle trait or disease. FINDINGS: Between February, 2014, and March, 2015, 99,243 dried blood spots were analysed and results were available for 97,631. The overall number of children with sickle cell trait was 12,979 (13·3%) and with disease was 716 (0·7%). Sickle cell numbers ranged from 631 (4·6%) for trait and 23 (0·2%) for disease of 13,649 in the South Western region to 1306 (19·8%) for trait and 96 (1·5%) for disease of 6581 in the East Central region. Sickle cell trait was seen in all districts. The lowest prevalence was less than 3·0% in two districts. Eight districts had prevalence greater than 20·0%, with the highest being 23·9%. Sickle cell disease was less common in children older than 12 months or who were HIV positive, which is consistent with comorbidity and early mortality. INTERPRETATION: Prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease were high in Uganda, with notable variation between regions and districts. The data will help to inform national strategies for sickle cell disease, including neonatal screening. FUNDING: Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Traço Falciforme/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Blood Adv ; 1(1): 93-100, 2016 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29296698

RESUMO

The Uganda Sickle Surveillance Study analyzed dried blood spots that were collected from almost 100 000 infants and young children from all 10 regions and 112 districts in the Republic of Uganda, with the primary objective of determining the prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease. An overall prevalence of 13.3% sickle cell trait and 0.7% sickle cell disease was recently reported. The isoelectric focusing electrophoresis technique coincidentally revealed numerous hemoglobin (Hb) variants (defined as an electrophoresis band that was not Hb A, Hb F, Hb S, or Hb C) with an overall country-wide prevalence of 0.5%, but with considerable geographic variability, being highest in the northwest regions and districts. To elucidate these Hb variants, the original isoelectric focusing (IEF) gels were reviewed to identify and locate the variant samples; corresponding dried blood spots were retrieved for further testing. Subsequent DNA-based investigation of 5 predominant isoelectric focusing patterns identified 2 α-globin variants (Hb Stanleyville II, Asn78Lys; Hb G-Pest, Asp74Asn), 1 ß-globin variant (Hb O-Arab, Glu121Lys), and 2 fusion globin variants (Hb P-Nilotic, ß31-δ50; Hb Kenya, Aγ81Leu-ß86Ala). Compound heterozygotes containing an Hb variant plus Hb S were also identified, including both Hb S/O-Arab and HbS/Kenya. Regional differences in the types and prevalence of these hemoglobin variants likely reflect tribal ancestries and migration patterns. Algorithms are proposed to characterize these Hb variants, which will be helpful for emerging neonatal hemoglobinopathy screening programs that are under way in sub-Saharan Africa.

10.
Afr Health Sci ; 15(2): 682-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26124820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico , Talassemia alfa/genética
11.
BMC Blood Disord ; 12: 11, 2012 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22958547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a major chronic health problem in Uganda. In patients with SCA, the level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) has been found to be important in influencing the clinical course of the disease. Thus populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a milder clinical course with fewer complications as compared to populations with lower levels. Disease modifying drugs can increase the Hb F levels and modify the presentation of SCA. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study in which we determined foetal haemoglobin levels and examined the relationship between HbF levels and disease severity in SCA patients in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. We consecutively enrolled 216 children aged 1 year to 18 years with SCA attending the Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago Hospital whose guardians had given consent. The history included age at onset of initial symptoms and diagnosis, number of hospitalisations and blood transfusions and other complications of SCA (cardiovascular accidents, avascular hip necrosis and priapism). A detailed physical examination was performed to assess the current state and help describe the disease severity for each patient. Blood samples were drawn for HbF levels. HbF levels ≥10% was defined as high. RESULTS: Of the 216 children, (80) 37% had HbF levels ≥10%. Significant correlations were observed between HbF level and several clinical parameters independent of age including age at diagnosis (p value 0.013), number of hospitalisations (p value 0.024) and transfusions (p value 0.018) since birth. CONCLUSION: A third of the children with SCA attending the Sickle cell clinic in Mulago Hospital have high HbF levels. Higher HbF level is associated with later onset of symptoms and presentation, and less severe disease characterised by fewer hospitalisations and blood transfusions. We suggest HbF levels should be determined at initial contact for patients with SCA to guide counselling and identify those who may need closer follow up and consideration for disease modifying drugs.

12.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 32(1): 14-21, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22525443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on the incidence and prevalence of diarrhoea in Ugandan HIV-infected children aged 1-5 years. METHODS: We enrolled 847 HIV-infected Ugandan children in a randomised trial of a supplement containing 14 micronutrients (MMS) given at twice the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) versus a six-multivitamin (MV) supplement given in one RDA as the 'standard of care'. The participants were stratified into a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) group of 85/847 (10%) and a non-HAART group of 762/847 (90%) participants. The supplements were given daily for 6 months. Episodes of diarrhoea assessed at routine visits, sick visits and those reported within 2 weeks before the routine visit were counted against weeks of observation for each participant. Diarrhoea incidence per child was calculated as the number of episodes per child year. Rate ratios were used to compare person-time rates in the two groups. RESULTS: The incidence of diarrhoea was 3·8 (95% CI 3·4-4·3) in the MMS and 3·5 (95% CI 3·1-4·0) in the MV group per child year. The rate ratio was 1·1 (0·9-1·3), similar in both strata, except that HAART-treated children had a lower incidence rate of diarrhoea. The prevalence of diarrhoea at 6 months was also similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: The 14-multiple-micronutrient supplement given in two RDA doses compared with a six-multivitamin 'standard of care' supplement given in one RDA dose did not reduce the incidence or prevalence of diarrhoea in HIV-infected children aged 1-5 years.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Morbidade , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
13.
Nutr J ; 10: 56, 2011 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21600005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. METHODS: Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B12 and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation. One hundred and four children were randomised to two times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a 14 multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS) and 114 to a 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins (MV). Serum vitamin B12 was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and folate by a competitive protein-binding assay using Modular E (Roche) automatic analyzer. Vitamin B12 concentrations were considered low if less than 221 picomoles per litre (pmol/L) and folate if < 13.4 nanomoles per litre (nmol/L). The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test was used to measure the difference between pre and post supplementation concentrations. RESULTS: Vitamin B12 was low in 60/214 (28%) and folate in 62/214 (29.0%) children. In the MMS group, the median concentration (IQR) of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 401.5 (264.3 - 518.8) pmol/L compared to the baseline of 285.5 (216.5 - 371.8) pmol/L, p < 0.001. The median (IQR) folate concentrations increased from 17.3 (13.5-26.6) nmol/L to 27.7 (21.1-33.4) nmol/L, p < 0.001. In the 'standard of care' MV supplemented group, the median concentration (IQR) of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 288.5 (198.8-391.0) pmol/L compared to the baseline of 280.0 (211.5-386.3) pmol/L while the median (IQR) folate concentrations at 6 months were 16.5 (11.7-22.1) nmol/L compared to 15.7 (11.9-22.1) nmol/L at baseline. There was a significant difference in the MMS group in both vitamin B12 and folate concentrations but no difference in the MV group. CONCLUSIONS: Almost a third of the HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years had low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate. Multiple micronutrient supplementation compared to the 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins improved the vitamin B12 and folate status of HIV infected children in Uganda. TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://ClinicalTrials.govNCT00122941).


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Micronutrientes/sangue , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Complexo Vitamínico B/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Política Nutricional , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/epidemiologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
14.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 5: 21, 2010 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21087485

RESUMO

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called Human herpesvirus 8 or HHV8) is a γ-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi sarcoma. KSHV seroprevalence rates vary geographically with variable rates recorded in different sub Sahara African countries, suggesting that effects of genetic and/or environmental factors may influence the risk of infection. One study conducted in South Africa, where KSHV seroprevalence is relatively low, found that carriage of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-A*6801, HLA-A*30, HLA-A*4301, and HLA-DRB1*04 was associated with increased shedding of KSHV DNA in saliva. Confirmation of those results would strengthen the hypothesis that genetic factors may influence KSHV distribution by modulating KSHV shedding in saliva. To explore these associations in another setting, we used high resolution HLA-A, B, and DRB1 typing on residual samples from the Uganda Sickle Cell Anemia KSHV study, conducted in a high KSHV seroprevalence region, to investigate associations between HLA and KSHV shedding in saliva or peripheral blood among 233 children and their mothers. HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles were not associated with KSHV shedding in our study, but our study was small and was not adequately powered to exclude small associations. In exploratory analyses, we found marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in saliva but not in peripheral blood among children carrying HLA- B*4415 and marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in peripheral blood but not in saliva among children carrying HLA- B*0801 alleles. The contribution of individual HLA polymorphisms to KSHV shedding is important but it may vary in different populations. Larger population-based studies are needed to estimate the magnitude and direction of association of HLA with KSHV shedding and viral control.

15.
BMC Pediatr ; 10: 68, 2010 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20858275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. METHODS: We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941). Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc < 10.0 µmol/L) and non deficient children. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of low serum zinc. RESULTS: Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3%) had low serum zinc (< 10.0 µmol/L). Of the 44 children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 13 (29.5%) had low zinc compared to 121/203 (59.6%) who were not on HAART. Overall, independent predictors of low zinc were fever (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1-4.6) and not taking HAART (OR 3.7; 95%CI 1.8-7.6). CONCLUSION: Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Micronutrientes/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Zinco/deficiência
16.
BMC Blood Disord ; 10: 5, 2010 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20569434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first survey on sickle cell disease (SCD) done in Uganda in 1949, reported the district of Bundibugyo in Western Uganda to have the highest sickle cell trait (SCT) prevalence (45%). This is believed to be the highest in the whole world. According to the same survey, the prevalence of SCT in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the East was 20-28%, whilst the districts of Mbarara and Ntungamo in the West had 1-5%. No follow-up surveys have been conducted over the past 60 years. SCA accounts for approximately 16.2% of all pediatric deaths in Uganda. The pattern of SCT inheritance, however, predicts likely changes in the prevalence and distribution of the SCT. The objective of the study therefore was to establish the current prevalence of the SCT in Uganda. METHODS: This study was a cross sectional survey which was carried out in the districts of Mbale and Sironko in the Eastern, Mbarara/Ntungamo and Bundibugyo in Western Uganda. The participants were children (6 months-5 yrs). Blood was collected from each subject and analyzed for hemoglobin S using cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. RESULTS: The established prevalence of the SCT (As) in Eastern Uganda was 17.5% compared to 13.4% and 3% in Bundibugyo and Mbarara/Ntungamo respectively. 1.7% of the children in Eastern Uganda tested positive for haemoglobin ss relative to 3% in Bundibugyo, giving gene frequencies of 0.105 and 0.097 for the recessive gene respectively. No ss was detected in Mbarara/Ntungamo. CONCLUSIONS: A shift in the prevalence of the SCT and ss in Uganda is notable and may be explained by several biological and social factors. This study offers some evidence for the possible outcome of intermarriages in reducing the incidence of the SCT.

17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 13: 18, 2010 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20525230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies compromise the survival of HIV-infected children in low-income countries. We assessed the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on the mortality of HIV-infected children in Uganda. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, 847 children aged one to five years and attending HIV clinics in Uganda were stratified by antiretroviral therapy (ART, n = 85 versus no ART, n = 762). The children were randomized to six months of either: twice the recommended dietary allowance of 14 micronutrients as the intervention arm (vitamins A, B1, B2, niacin, B6, B12, C, D and E, folate, zinc, copper, iodine and selenium); or the standard recommended dietary allowance of six multivitamins (vitamins A, D2, B1, B2, C and niacin) as a comparative "standard-of-care" arm. Mortality was analyzed at 12 months of follow up using Kaplan Meier curves and the log rank test. RESULTS: Mortality at 12 months was 25 out of 426 (5.9%) children in the intervention arm and 28 out of 421 (6.7%) in the comparative arms: risk ratio 0.9 (95% CI 0.5 - 1.5). Two out of 85 (2.4%) children in the ART stratum died compared with 51 out of 762 (6.7%) in the non-ART stratum. Of those who died in the non-ART stratum, 25 of 383 (6.5%) were in the intervention arm and 26 of 379 (6.9%) in the comparative arm; risk ratio 1.0 (95% CI 0.6 - 1.6). There was no significant difference in survival at 12 months (p = 0.64, log rank test). In addition, there was no significant difference in mean weight-for-height at 12 months; 0.70 +/- 1.43 (95% CI 0.52 - 0.88) for the intervention versus 0.59 +/- 1.15 (95% CI 0.45 - 0.75) in the comparative arm. The mean CD4 cell count; 1024 +/- 592 (95% CI 942 - 1107) versus 1060 +/- 553 (95% CI 985 - 1136) was also similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Twice the recommended dietary allowance of 14 micronutrients compared with a standard recommended dietary allowance of six multivitamins for six months was well tolerated, but it did not significantly alter mortality, growth or CD4 counts. Future intervention studies should carefully consider: (1) the composition and dosing of the supplements; and (2) the power needed to detect a difference between arms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00122941.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sobrevida , Uganda , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Malar J ; 8: 237, 2009 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19852829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria carries high case fatality among children with sickle cell anaemia. In Uganda, chloroquine is used for prophylaxis in these children despite unacceptably high levels of resistance. Intermittent presumptive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has shown great potential for reducing prevalence of malaria and anaemia among pregnant women and infants. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of monthly SP presumptive treatment, versus weekly chloroquine for malaria prophylaxis in children attending the Sickle Cell Clinic, Mulago Hospital. METHODS: Two hundred and forty two children with sickle cell anaemia were randomized to presumptive treatment with SP or weekly chloroquine for malaria prophylaxis. Active detection of malaria was made at each weekly visit to the clinic over one month. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of children with one malaria episode at one month follow-up. The secondary outcome measures included malaria-related admissions and adverse effects of the drugs. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent (114/122) of the children in the chloroquine group and 94% (113/120) in the SP group completed one month follow up. SP reduced prevalence of malaria by 50% compared to chloroquine [OR = 0.50, (95% CI 0.26-0.97)]; p = 0.042. Six percent (7/122) of the children receiving weekly chloroquine had malaria related admissions compared to 2.5% (3/120) on presumptive treatment with SP. No serious drug effects were reported in both treatment groups CONCLUSION: Presumptive treatment with SP was more efficacious than weekly chloroquine in reducing prevalence of malaria in children with sickle cell anaemia. Continued use of chloroquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis in children with sickle cell anaemia in Uganda does not seem to be justified.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 12(9): 1440-3, 2006 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17073099

RESUMO

In Kampala, Uganda, in 2001, hepatitis C virus antibodies were found in 27 (4%) of 603 children and in 62 (12%) of 525 of their mothers. However, only approximately 10% of positive results were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, which suggests frequent false-positive results or viral clearance. All sequenced types were genotype 4.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Mães , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reação Transfusional , Uganda/epidemiologia
20.
J Infect Dis ; 193(9): 1250-7, 2006 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16586362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-related herpesvirus (KSHV) indicate that having a KSHV-seropositive mother is a risk factor for KSHV infection in children. METHODS: We determined the KSHV K1 sequences in concordantly polymerase chain reaction-positive Ugandan mother-child pairs, to ascertain whether they shared the same viral strain. We also examined sequences amplified from saliva and buffy coat samples from the same subjects, to investigate potential intrasubject sequence differences. RESULTS: We obtained K1 sequences from 6 of 10 mother-child pairs. In 1 pair, the subtypes differed between mother and child. The mother and child in 2 other pairs shared the same subtype, but the sequences differed. The mother and child in 2 pairs shared KSHV strains with exact (100%) nucleotide homology. The last pair showed evidence of viral strain concordance between mother and child but also showed evidence of evolution of the viral sequence within the child. Of 26 study subjects, 19 showed no evidence of intrasubject K1 sequence variability, but, in 7 subjects, all of whom were children, amino acid variation of 1%-4% was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with KSHV transmission from maternal and nonmaternal sources in KS-endemic regions. Our results also provide evidence for ongoing evolution of the K1 gene in KSHV-infected children.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 8/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 8/patogenicidade , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Gravidez , Uganda/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/classificação
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