Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 263
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 83: 114-121, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585363

RESUMO

Locus coeruleus (LC) tau accumulation begins early. Targeting LC (dys)function might improve early identification for Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Pupillary responses during cognitive tasks are driven by the LC and index cognitive effort. Despite equivalent task performance, adults with mild cognitive impairment have greater pupil dilation/effort during digit span than cognitively normal (CN) individuals. We hypothesized that AD polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs) would be associated with pupillary responses in middle-aged CN adults. Pupillary responses during digit span tasks were heritable (h2 = 0.30-0.36) in 1119 men aged 56-66 years. In a CN subset-all with comparable span capacities (n = 539)-higher AD-PRSs were associated with greater pupil dilation/effort in a high (9-digit) cognitive load condition (Cohen's d = 0.36 for upper vs. lower quartile of AD-PRS distribution). Results held up after controlling for APOE genotype. Results support pupillary response-and by inference, LC dysfunction-as a genetically mediated biomarker of early mild cognitive impairment/AD risk. In combination with other biomarkers, task-evoked pupillary responses may provide additional information for early screening of genetically at-risk individuals even before cognitive declines.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222664, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527893

RESUMO

Human postural sway during quiet standing has been characterized as a proportional-integral-derivative controller with intermittent activation. In the model, patterns of sway result from both instantaneous, passive, mechanical resistance and delayed, intermittent resistance signaled by the central nervous system. A Kalman-Filter framework was designed to directly estimate from experimental data the parameters of the model's stochastic delay differential equations with discrete dynamic switching conditions. Simulations showed that all parameters could be estimated over a variety of possible data-generating configurations with varying degrees of bias and variance depending on their empirical identification. Applications to experimental data reveal distributions of each parameter that correspond well to previous findings, suggesting that many useful, physiological measures may be extracted from sway data. Individuals varied in degree and type of deviation from theoretical expectations, ranging from harmonic oscillation to non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics.

3.
Multivariate Behav Res ; : 1-20, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362529

RESUMO

Studies have used the latent differential equation (LDE) model to estimate the parameters of damped oscillation in various phenomena, but it has been shown that correct, non-zero parameter estimates are only obtained when the latent series exhibits little or no process noise. Consequently, LDEs are limited to modeling deterministic processes with measurement error rather than those with random behavior in the true latent state. The reasons for these limitations are considered, and a piecewise deterministic approximation (PDA) algorithm is proposed to treat process noise outliers as functional discontinuities and obtain correct estimates of the damping parameter. Comprehensive, random-effects simulations were used to compare results with those obtained using a state-space model (SSM) based on the Kalman filter. The LDE with the PDA algorithm (LDEPDA) successfully recovered the simulated damping parameter under a variety of conditions when process noise was present in the latent state. The LDEPDA had greater precision and accuracy than the SSM when estimating parameters from data with sparse jump discontinuities, but worse performance for diffusion processes overall. All three methods were applied to a sample of postural sway data. The basic LDE estimated zero damping, while the LDEPDA and SSM estimated moderate to high damping. The SSM estimated the smallest standard errors for both frequency and damping parameter estimates.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aggregation of neurocognitive deficits among the non-psychotic first-degree relatives of adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia patients suggests that there may be a common etiology for these deficits in childhood- and adult-onset illness. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in the presentation of neurobiological abnormalities, and whether there are differences in the extent of familial transmission for specific domains of cognitive function has not been systematically addressed. METHODS: We employed variance components analysis, as implemented in SOLAR-Eclipse, to evaluate the evidence of familial transmission for empirically derived composite scores representing attention, working memory, verbal learning, verbal retention, and memory for faces. We contrast estimates for adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families and matched community control pedigrees, and compare our findings to previous reports based on analogous neurocognitive assessments. RESULTS: We observed varying degrees of familial transmission; attention and working memory yielded comparable, significant estimates for adult-onset and community control pedigrees; verbal learning was significant for childhood-onset and community control pedigrees; and facial memory demonstrated significant familial transmission only for childhood-onset schizophrenia. Model-fitting analyses indicated significant differences in familiality between adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia for attention, working memory, and verbal learning. CONCLUSIONS: By comprehensively assessing a wide range of neurocognitive domains in adult- and childhood-onset schizophrenia families, we provide additional support for specific neurocognitive domains as schizophrenia endophenotypes. Whereas comparable estimates of familial transmission for certain dimensions of cognitive functioning support a shared etiology of adult- and childhood-onset neurocognitive function, observed differences may be taken as preliminary evidence of partially divergent multifactorial architectures.

5.
Neuroimage ; 202: 116091, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415884

RESUMO

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is an ongoing, nationwide study of the effects of environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in adolescents. The main objective of the study is to recruit and assess over eleven thousand 9-10-year-olds and follow them over the course of 10 years to characterize normative brain and cognitive development, the many factors that influence brain development, and the effects of those factors on mental health and other outcomes. The study employs state-of-the-art multimodal brain imaging, cognitive and clinical assessments, bioassays, and careful assessment of substance use, environment, psychopathological symptoms, and social functioning. The data is a resource of unprecedented scale and depth for studying typical and atypical development. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the baseline neuroimaging processing and subject-level analysis methods used by ABCD. Processing and analyses include modality-specific corrections for distortions and motion, brain segmentation and cortical surface reconstruction derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), analysis of brain microstructure using diffusion MRI (dMRI), task-related analysis of functional MRI (fMRI), and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI. This manuscript serves as a methodological reference for users of publicly shared neuroimaging data from the ABCD Study.

6.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272697

RESUMO

Understanding genetic influences on Alzheimer's disease (AD) may improve early identification. AD polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs) are associated with increased odds of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Additional sources of genetic risk may also contribute to disease outcomes. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a risk factor for AD, interacts with AD pathology, and is also heritable. We showed that incidence-based and prevalence-based CAD-PRSs moderate the association between the AD-PRS and MCI, but in opposing directions. Higher incidence-based CAD-PRSs interacted with the AD-PRS to further increase MCI risk. Conversely, the AD-PRS was predictive of MCI when prevalence-based CAD-PRSs were low. The latter finding is likely due to prevalent CAD cases being biased toward longer postevent survival times, perhaps selecting for protective loci that offset AD risk. These results demonstrate (1) the importance of examining multiple PRSs and their interactions; (2) how genetic risk for one disease can modify the impact of genetic risk for another; and (3) the importance of considering ascertainment procedures of GWAS used for genetic risk prediction.

7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(1): 107-120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large-scale brain networks such as the default mode network (DMN) are often disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous studies have examined DMN functional connectivity in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a presumed AD precursor, to discover a biomarker of AD risk. Prior reviews were qualitative or limited in scope or approach. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically and quantitatively review DMN resting state fMRI studies comparing MCI and healthy comparison (HC) groups. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant articles. Study characteristics were abstracted and the number of studies showing no group difference or hyper- versus hypo-connnectivity in MCI was tallied. A voxel-wise (ES-SDM) meta-analysis was conducted to identify regional group differences. RESULTS: Qualitatively, our review of 57 MCI versus HC comparisons suggests substantial inconsistency; 9 showed no group difference, 8 showed MCI > HC and 22 showed HC > MCI across the brain, and 18 showed regionally-mixed directions of effect. The meta-analysis of 31 studies revealed areas of significant hypo- and hyper-connectivity in MCI, including hypoconnectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (z = -3.1, p < 0.0001). Very few individual studies, however, showed patterns resembling the meta-analytic results. Methodological differences did not appear to explain inconsistencies. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of altered resting DMN function or connectivity in MCI is complex and variable across studies. To date, no index of DMN connectivity qualifies as a useful biomarker of MCI or risk for AD. Refinements to MCI diagnosis, including other biological markers, or longitudinal studies of progression to AD, might identify DMN alterations predictive of AD risk.

8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(1): 27-41, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944056

RESUMO

Structural equation modeling (SEM) is an important research tool, both for path-based model specification (common in the social sciences) and also for matrix-based models (in heavy use in behavior genetics). We developed umx to give more immediate access, relatively concise syntax and helpful defaults for users in these two broad disciplines. umx supports development, modification and comparison of models, as well as both graphical and tabular outputs. The second major focus of umx, behavior genetic models, is supported via functions implementing standard multigroup twin models. These functions support raw and covariance data, including joint ordinal data, and give solutions for ACE models, including support for covariates, common- and independent-pathway models, and gene × environment interaction models. A tutorial site and question forum are also available.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Software , Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Neurosci ; 39(16): 3028-3040, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833512

RESUMO

The genetics of cortical arealization in youth is not well understood. In this study, we use a genetically informative sample of 677 typically developing children and adolescents (mean age 12.72 years), high-resolution MRI, and quantitative genetic methodology to address several fundamental questions on the genetics of cerebral surface area. We estimate that >85% of the phenotypic variance in total brain surface area in youth is attributable to additive genetic factors. We also observed pronounced regional variability in the genetic influences on surface area, with the most heritable areas seen in primary visual and visual association cortex. A shared global genetic factor strongly influenced large areas of the frontal and temporal cortex, mirroring regions that are the most evolutionarily novel in humans relative to other primates. In contrast to studies on older populations, we observed statistically significant genetic correlations between measures of surface area and cortical thickness (r G = 0.63), suggestive of overlapping genetic influences between these endophenotypes early in life. Finally, we identified strong and highly asymmetric genetically mediated associations between Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient and left perisylvian surface area, particularly receptive language centers. Our findings suggest that spatially complex and temporally dynamic genetic factors are influencing cerebral surface area in our species.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Over evolution, the human cortex has undergone massive expansion. In humans, patterns of neurodevelopmental expansion mirror evolutionary changes. However, there is a sparsity of information on how genetics impacts surface area maturation. Here, we present a systematic analysis of the genetics of cerebral surface area in youth. We confirm prior research that implicates genetics as the dominant force influencing individual differences in global surface area. We also find evidence that evolutionarily novel brain regions share common genetics, that overlapping genetic factors influence both area and thickness in youth, and the presence of strong genetically mediated associations between intelligence and surface area in language centers. These findings further elucidate the complex role that genetics plays in brain development and function.

10.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715232

RESUMO

The neural substrates of intelligence represent a fundamental but largely uncharted topic in human developmental neuroscience. Prior neuroimaging studies have identified modest but highly dynamic associations between intelligence and cortical thickness (CT) in childhood and adolescence. In a separate thread of research, quantitative genetic studies have repeatedly demonstrated that most measures of intelligence are highly heritable, as are many brain regions associated with intelligence. In the current study, we integrate these 2 streams of prior work by examining the genetic contributions to CT-intelligence relationships using a genetically informative longitudinal sample of 813 typically developing youth, imaged with high-resolution MRI and assessed with Wechsler Intelligence Scales (IQ). In addition to replicating the phenotypic association between multimodal association cortex and language centers with IQ, we find that CT-IQ covariance is nearly entirely genetically mediated. Moreover, shared genetic factors drive the rapidly evolving landscape of CT-IQ relationships in the developing brain.

11.
Behav Genet ; 49(1): 99-111, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569348

RESUMO

For many multivariate twin models, the numerical Type I error rates are lower than theoretically expected rates using a likelihood ratio test (LRT), which implies that the significance threshold for statistical hypothesis tests is more conservative than most twin researchers realize. This makes the numerical Type II error rates higher than theoretically expected. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the observed and expected error rates increases as more variables are included in the analysis and can have profound implications for hypothesis testing and statistical inference. In two simulation studies, we examine the Type I error rates for the Cholesky decomposition and Correlated Factors models. Both show markedly lower than nominal Type I error rates under the null hypothesis, a discrepancy that increases with the number of variables in the model. In addition, we observe slightly biased parameter estimates for the Cholesky decomposition and Correlated Factors models. By contrast, if the variance-covariance matrices for variance components are estimated directly (without constraints), the numerical Type I error rates are consistent with theoretical expectations and there is no bias in the parameter estimates regardless of the number of variables analyzed. We call this the direct symmetric approach. It appears that each model-implied boundary, whether explicit or implicit, increases the discrepancy between the numerical and theoretical Type I error rates by truncating the sampling distributions of the variance components and inducing bias in the parameters. The direct symmetric approach has several advantages over other multivariate twin models as it corrects the Type I error rate and parameter bias issues, is easy to implement in current software, and has fewer optimization problems. Implications for past and future research, and potential limitations associated with direct estimation of genetic and environmental covariance matrices are discussed.


Assuntos
Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto/métodos , Viés , Biometria , Simulação por Computador , Genética Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multivariada , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Neuroimage ; 184: 871-880, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296555

RESUMO

Individual differences in white matter tract microstructure, measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), demonstrate substantial heritability. However, it is unclear to what extent this heritability reflects global genetic influences or tract-specific genetic influences. The goal of the current study was to quantify the proportion of genetic and environmental variance in white matter tracts attributable to global versus tract-specific influences. We assessed fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) across 11 tracts and 22 subdivisions of these tracts in 392 middle-aged male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). In principal component analyses of the 11 white matter tracts, the first component, which represents the global signal, explained 50.1% and 62.5% of the variance in FA and MD, respectively. Similarly, the first principal component of the 22 tract subdivisions explained 38.4% and 47.0% of the variance in FA and MD, respectively. Twin modeling revealed that DTI measures of all tracts and subdivisions were heritable, and that genetic influences on global FA and MD accounted for approximately half of the heritability in the tracts or tract subdivisions. Similar results were observed for the AD and RD diffusion metrics. These findings underscore the importance of controlling for DTI global signals when measuring associations between specific tracts and outcomes such as cognitive ability, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and brain aging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Anisotropia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal
13.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(12): 925-933.e3, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Youth with psychiatric disorders distinguished by irritability, including depression and associated trait neuroticism, show deficits in the ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion, particularly happiness. However, the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to this ability remains unknown. The present study examined this trait in twins to assess the genetic and environmental influences on face-emotion recognition abilities and their association with irritability, neuroticism, and depression. METHOD: Child and adolescent twins (N = 957 from 496 families) 9 to 17 years old rated their irritability (on the Affective Reactivity Index), neuroticism (on the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and depression (on the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire) and completed a face-emotion labeling task. Faces depicting anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise were morphed with a neutral face, yielding 10 levels of increasing emotional expressivity. Biometrical twin analyses evaluated contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the etiology of face-emotion recognition and its association with irritability, neuroticism, and depression. RESULTS: Recognition of each emotion was heritable; common and specific sets of genetic factors influenced all emotions and individual emotions, respectively. Irritability, neuroticism, and depression were modestly and negatively correlated with emotion recognition, particularly the recognition of happiness. For irritability and neuroticism, this correlation appeared largely due to genetic factors. CONCLUSION: This study maps genetic and environmental contributions to face-emotion recognition and its association with irritability, neuroticism, and depression. Findings implicate common genetic factors in deficits regarding the recognition of happiness associated with irritability and neuroticism in childhood and adolescence.

14.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vulnerability to depression can be measured in different ways. We here examine how genetic risk factors are inter-related for lifetime major depression (MD), self-report current depressive symptoms and the personality trait Neuroticism. METHOD: We obtained data from three population-based adult twin samples (Virginia n = 4672, Australia #1 n = 3598 and Australia #2 n = 1878) to which we fitted a common factor model where risk for 'broadly defined depression' was indexed by (i) lifetime MD assessed at personal interview, (ii) depressive symptoms, and (iii) neuroticism. We examined the proportion of genetic risk for MD deriving from the common factor v. specific to MD in each sample and then analyzed them jointly. Structural equation modeling was conducted in Mx. RESULTS: The best fit models in all samples included additive genetic and unique environmental effects. The proportion of genetic effects unique to lifetime MD and not shared with the broad depression common factor in the three samples were estimated as 77, 61, and 65%, respectively. A cross-sample mega-analysis model fit well and estimated that 65% of the genetic risk for MD was unique. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of genetic risk factors for lifetime MD was not, in the samples studied, captured by a common factor for broadly defined depression utilizing MD and self-report measures of current depressive symptoms and Neuroticism. The genetic substrate for MD may reflect neurobiological processes underlying the episodic nature of its cognitive, motor and neurovegetative manifestations, which are not well indexed by current depressive symptom and neuroticism.

15.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430703

RESUMO

The human hippocampus can be subdivided into subfields with unique functional properties and differential vulnerability to disease or neuropsychiatric conditions. Identifying genes that confer susceptibility to such processes is an important goal in developing treatments. Recent advances in automatic subfield segmentation from magnetic resonance images make it possible to use these measures as phenotypes in large-scale genome-wide association studies. Such analyses are likely to rely largely on standard resolution (~1 mm isotropic) T1 -weighted images acquired on 3.0T scanners. Determining whether the genetic architecture of subfields can be detected from such images is therefore an important step. We used Freesurfer v6.0 to segment hippocampal subfields in two large twin studies, the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging and the Human Connectome Project. We estimated heritability of subfields and the genetic overlap with total hippocampal volume. Heritability was similar across samples, but little genetic variance remained after accounting for genetic influences on total hippocampal volume. Importantly, we examined genetic relationships between subfields to determine whether subfields can be grouped based on a smaller number of underlying, genetically independent factors. We identified three genetic factors in both samples, but the high degree of cross loadings precluded formation of genetically distinct groupings of subfields. These results confirm the reliability of Freesurfer v6.0 generated subfields across samples for phenotypic analyses. However, the current results suggest that it will be difficult for large-scale genetic analyses to identify subfield-specific genes that are distinct from both total hippocampal volume and other subfields using segmentations generated from standard resolution T1 -weighted images.

16.
Struct Equ Modeling ; 25(6): 888-905, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416330

RESUMO

Damped Linear Oscillators estimated by 2nd-order Latent Differential Equation have assumed a constant equilibrium and one oscillatory component. Lower-frequency oscillations may come from seasonal background processes, which non-randomly contribute to deviation from equilibrium at each occasion and confound estimation of dynamics over shorter timescales. Boker (2015) proposed a model of individual change on multiple timescales, but implementation, simulation, and applications to data have not been demonstrated. This study implemented a generalization of the proposed model; examined robustness to varied timescale ratios, measurement error, and occasions-per-person in simulated data; and tested for dynamics at multiple timescales in experience sampling affect data. Results show small standard errors and low bias to dynamic estimates at timescale ratios greater than 3:1. Below 3:1, estimate error was sensitive to noise and total occasions; rates of non-convergence increased. For affect data, model comparisons showed statistically significant dynamics at both timescales for both participants.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368980

RESUMO

White matter (WM) microstructure, as determined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of cognitive function and is also altered in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about genetic and environmental influences on WM microstructure, especially in early childhood, an important period for cognitive development and risk for psychiatric disorders. We studied the heritability of DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) along 34 tracts, including 10 bilateral fiber pathways and the respective subdivision, using quantitative tractography in a longitudinal sample of healthy children at 1 year (N = 215) and 2 years (N = 165) of age. We found that heritabilities for whole brain AD, RD, and FA were 0.48, 0.69, and 0.72 at age 1, and 0.59, 0.77, and 0.76 at age 2 and that mean heritabilities of tract-averaged AD, RD, and FA for individual bundles were moderate (over 0.4). However, the heritability of DTI change between 1 and 2 years of age was not significant for most tracts. We also demonstrated that point-wise heritability tended to be significant in the central portions of the tracts and was generally spatially consistent at ages 1 and 2 years. These results, especially when compared to heritability patterns in neonates, indicate that the heritability of WM microstructure is dynamic in early childhood and likely reflect heterogeneous maturation of WM tracts and differential genetic and environmental influences on maturation patterns.

18.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

19.
Behav Genet ; 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882082

RESUMO

Although experimental studies are regarded as the method of choice for determining causal influences, these are not always practical or ethical to answer vital questions in health and social research (e.g., one cannot assign individuals to a "childhood trauma condition" in studying the causal effects of childhood trauma on depression). Key to solving such questions are observational studies. Mendelian Randomization (MR) is an influential method to establish causality in observational studies. MR uses genetic variants to test causal relationships between exposures/risk factors and outcomes such as physical or mental health. Yet, individual genetic variants have small effects, and so, when used as instrumental variables, render MR liable to weak instrument bias. Polygenic scores have the advantage of larger effects, but may be characterized by horizontal pleiotropy, which violates a central assumption of MR. We developed the MR-DoC twin model by integrating MR with the Direction of Causation twin model. This model allows us to test pleiotropy directly. We considered the issue of parameter identification, and given identification, we conducted extensive power calculations. MR-DoC allows one to test causal hypotheses and to obtain unbiased estimates of the causal effect given pleiotropic instruments, while controlling for genetic and environmental influences common to the outcome and exposure. Furthermore, the approach allows one to employ strong instrumental variables in the form of polygenic scores, guarding against weak instrument bias, and increasing the power to detect causal effects of exposures on potential outcomes. Beside allowing to test pleiotropy directly, incorporating in MR data collected from relatives provide additional within-family data that resolve additional assumptions like random mating, the absence of the gene-environment interaction/covariance, no dyadic effects. Our approach will enhance and extend MR's range of applications, and increase the value of the large cohorts collected at twin/family registries as they correctly detect causation and estimate effect sizes even in the presence of pleiotropy.

20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(3): 179-190, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable evidence from twin and adoption studies indicates that genetic and shared environmental factors play a role in the initiation of smoking behavior. Although twin and adoption designs are powerful to detect genetic and environmental influences, they do not provide information on the processes of assortative mating and parent-offspring transmission and their contribution to the variability explained by genetic and/or environmental factors. METHODS: We examined the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual differences for smoking initiation (SI) using an extended kinship design. This design allows the simultaneous testing of additive and non-additive genetic, shared and individual-specific environmental factors, as well as sex differences in the expression of genes and environment in the presence of assortative mating and combined genetic and cultural transmission, while also estimating the regression of the prevalence of SI on age. A dichotomous lifetime 'ever' smoking measure was obtained from twins and relatives in the 'Virginia 30,000' sample and the 'Australian 25,000'. RESULTS: Results demonstrate that both genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the liability to SI. Major influences on individual differences appeared to be additive genetic and unique environmental effects, with smaller contributions from assortative mating, shared sibling environment, twin environment, cultural transmission, and resulting genotype-environment covariance. Age regression of the prevalence of SI was significant. The finding of negative cultural transmission without dominance led us to investigate more closely two possible mechanisms for the lower parent-offspring correlations compared to the sibling and DZ twin correlations in subsets of the data: (1) age × gene interaction, and (2) social homogamy. Neither of the mechanism provided a significantly better explanation of the data. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed significant heritability, partly due to assortment, and significant effects of primarily non-parental shared environment on liability to SI.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA