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1.
Urol Oncol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumor patients with intermediate prognosis (IPGCT) according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) classification represent a heterogeneous group with different clinical features. This analysis was performed to investigate the prognostic impact of different tumor marker levels prior to first line chemotherapy within IPGCT. METHODS: For this study an international registry for IPGCT was established. Eligibility criteria were intermediate prognosis according to IGCCCG criteria, nonseminomatous histology, male sex, and age ≥ 16 years. Uni- and multivariate analysis were conducted to identify characteristics associated with survival outcomes. Receiver-Operating-Characteristic curve analysis was applied to find cut-off parameters. Five-year overall survival (OS) rate was the primary and 5-year progression-free survival rate the secondary endpoint. RESULTS: This database included 634 IPGCT with a median follow-up of 9.0 years (interquartile range: 14.35). Patients received first line treatment with platinum based chemotherapy, associated with a 5-year OS rate of 87%. The stratification of patients according to AFP levels revealed a correlation between AFP levels and outcome, associated with 5-year OS rates of 88% for AFP levels <1,000 IU/ml (n = 303), 89% for 1,000 to 2,000 IU/ml (n = 82), 87% for >2,000 to 6,000 IU/ml (n = 121), and 82% for >6,000 IU/ml (n = 57) prior first course of chemotherapy, respectively (P= 0.013). LDH levels prior fist course of chemotherapy also correlated with outcome associated with 5-year OS rates of 92% for <2 UNL (n = 271), 89% for ≥2 to 3 UNL (n = 85), 78% for >3 to 4 UNL (n = 34), and 77% for >4 UNL (n = 79), respectively (P= 0.03). Different HCG levels prior chemotherapy were not associated with outcome. In multivariable analysis AFP levels >6,000 IU/ml (P= 0.023; hazard ratio HR 2.263) or >1,982 IU/ml (P= 0.031; HR 1.722), and LDH levels >3 UNL (P< 0.001; HR 2.616) were independent prognosticators for OS. CONCLUSIONS: Prognostication according to LDH and AFP levels prior chemotherapy could offer a new approach to stratify patients within the intermediate prognosis cohort. According to our findings, patients with AFP values above 6,000 IU/ml or/and LDH > 3 UNL represent an independent high risk cohort. Our results need to be confirmed in the upcoming IGCCCG reclassification.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with residual muscle-invasive urinary tract cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have a high risk of recurrence. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate whether additional adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) improves outcomes compared with surveillance in patients with significant residual disease despite NAC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 474 patients who received NAC from the Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelium database, of whom 129 had adverse residual disease (≥ypT3 and/or ypN+). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Time to relapse (TTR) was the primary endpoint assessed starting from 2mo after surgery to minimize immortal time bias. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), incidence of AC use, and chemotherapy patterns. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models estimated TTR, OS, and associations with AC, adjusting for the type of NAC, age, and pathological stage in multivariable analyses. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 106 patients underwent surveillance, while 23 received AC. Gemcitabine-cisplatin was the most frequent regimen employed in both settings (30.4%), and the majority (82.6%) of the patients switched to a different regimen. Median follow-up was 30mo. Over 50% of patients developed a recurrence. Median TTR was 16mo (range: <1-108mo). Longer median TTR was observed with AC compared with surveillance (18 vs 10mo, p=0.06). Risk of relapse significantly decreased with AC when adjusted in multivariable analyses (p=0.01). The subgroup analyses of ypT4b/ypN+ patients (AC: 19; surveillance: 50) who received AC had significantly greater median TTR (20 vs 9mo; hazard ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.89). No difference in OS was found. Limitations include the retrospective design. CONCLUSIONS: The utilization of AC after NAC in patients with high-risk residual disease is not frequent in clinical practice but might reduce the risk of recurrence. Further investigation is needed in this high-risk population to identify optimal therapy and to improve clinical outcomes such as the ongoing adjuvant immunotherapy trials. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that administering additional chemotherapy in patients who had significant residual disease despite preoperative chemotherapy is not frequent in clinical practice. While it might reduce the risk of recurrence, it did not clearly increase overall survival. We encourage participation in the ongoing immunotherapy trials to see whether we can improve outcomes using a different type of therapy that stimulates the immune system.

3.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303258

RESUMO

The availability of new potent systemic therapies for urothelial carcinoma may change the way we use standard chemotherapy perioperatively. In particular, identifying which patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is compelling. From a multicenter database we selected 950 patients with cT2-4N0M0 MIBC treated with radical cystectomy (RC), with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and AC. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses to test 1-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates according to AC use. Nomogram-derived probabilities of 1-yr recurrence after RC were plotted against actual recurrence rates according to AC use. Overall, we did not see evidence of an AC effect on the 1-yr RFS rate (p=0.6). Conversely, the 1-yr RFS rate was higher among patients with pT3-4 or pN1 disease who received AC (75% vs 54%; p<0.001). We were unable to demonstrate a difference between AC and no AC among patients who received prior NAC (1-yr RFS 57% vs 76%; p=0.057). As the most important finding, AC was associated with incremental RFS benefits only for patients with a nomogram-derived 1-yr recurrence probability of >40%. Patient summary: Maximizing disease control with adjuvant chemotherapy was beneficial for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had a calculated recurrence risk of >40% and did not impact cancer recurrence in lower-risk disease. Therefore, patient stratification using the nomogram available for predicting recurrence is advisable pending external validation.

4.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272788

RESUMO

Prior studies have demonstrated that fibroblast receptor 3 (FGFR3)-mutant urothelial cancers (UCs) are associated with decreased T-cell infiltration. As FGFR3 mutations are enriched in luminal-like UC and luminal-like UC has been shown to be relatively less responsive to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition (checkpoint inhibition [CPI]), these data have led to the speculation that FGFR3 mutations may be causally related to poor T-cell infiltration and that UC patients harboring FGFR3 mutations may be suboptimal candidates for CPI. Using data derived from two clinical trials exploring CPI in metastatic UC, we demonstrate no statistically significant difference in response rates in patients with FGFR3-mutant versus wild-type UC. We present hypothesis-generating data, suggesting that similar response rates may be explained by a "balancing out" of previously identified independent positive and negative predictors of CPI sensitivity; that is, compared with FGFR3 wild-type UC, FGFR3-mutant UC is associated with a similar tumor mutational burden, lower T-cell infiltration, but also lower stromal/transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signals. Based on our findings, FGFR3 mutation status is not a biomarker of resistance to CPI. Indeed, the single-agent activity of both FGFR3 inhibitors and CPI in FGFR3-mutant UC, and potential non-cross resistance provide a strong pragmatic rationale for combination approaches. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we examined the impact of a mutated gene found in a subset of urothelial cancers on response to treatment with immunotherapy. We found that patients with tumors harboring mutations in the gene FGFR3 respond to immunotherapy similarly to patients without such mutations.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of local treatment on survival in advanced-stage patients has gained interest in several malignancies; however, limited data exist regarding urothelial carcinoma (UC). OBJECTIVE: To test the impact of surgery of the primary tumor site on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM) in patients affected by metastatic UC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient-level data from a multicenter collaboration, including metastatic UC patients treated with first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011 from hospitals in the USA, Europe, Israel, and Canada. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess the effect of surgery on CSM and OM in patients affected by metastatic UC using 3-mo landmark analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed on the basis of the number of metastasis sites involved and including only patients treated with surgery before the start of chemotherapy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 326 patients included in the study, 47 (14%) were treated with surgery of the primary tumor site. Median (interquartile range) follow-up was 43 (33-45)mo. Of the patients treated with surgery, 28 (60%) were affected by a primary bladder cancer and 19 (40%) by a primary upper urinary tract tumor. On multivariable analyses, surgery was associated with a protective effect on CSM (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, confidence interval [CI]: 0.35-0.98, p=0.04) and OM (HR: 0.45, CI: 0.37-0.99, p=0.04) compared with patients treated with chemotherapy only. Similar results were found considering patients only surgically treated before the start of chemotherapy. After stratifying according to the number of metastatic sites, surgery has an effect on survival in patients with only one metastatic site, while no survival benefit was observed in patients with two or more metastatic sites. The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSIONS: We found that surgery of the primary tumor site is associated with improved survival in patients with metastatic UC who received standard chemotherapy. This effect disappears in patients affected by two or more metastatic sites. Our results need to be validated in a high-quality prospective trial. PATIENT SUMMARY: In our multicenter, retrospective series, surgery in metastatic urothelial cancer patients improve survival compared with patients treated with chemotherapy only. This effect was evident in patients with limited disease extent, identified as one metastatic site.

6.
N Engl J Med ; 381(4): 338-348, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alterations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) are common in urothelial carcinoma and may be associated with lower sensitivity to immune interventions. Erdafitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FGFR1-4, has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models and in a phase 1 study involving patients with FGFR alterations. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with prespecified FGFR alterations. All the patients had a history of disease progression during or after at least one course of chemotherapy or within 12 months after neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. Prior immunotherapy was allowed. We initially randomly assigned the patients to receive erdafitinib in either an intermittent or a continuous regimen in the dose-selection phase of the study. On the basis of an interim analysis, the starting dose was set at 8 mg per day in a continuous regimen (selected-regimen group), with provision for a pharmacodynamically guided dose escalation to 9 mg. The primary end point was the objective response rate. Key secondary end points included progression-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients in the selected-regimen group received a median of five cycles of erdafitinib. Of these patients, 43% had received at least two previous courses of treatment, 79% had visceral metastases, and 53% had a creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml per minute. The rate of confirmed response to erdafitinib therapy was 40% (3% with a complete response and 37% with a partial response). Among the 22 patients who had undergone previous immunotherapy, the confirmed response rate was 59%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 5.5 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 13.8 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher, which were managed mainly by dose adjustments, were reported in 46% of the patients; 13% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The use of erdafitinib was associated with an objective tumor response in 40% of previously treated patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with FGFR alterations. Treatment-related grade 3 or higher adverse events were reported in nearly half the patients. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; BLC2001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02365597.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Quinoxalinas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Quinoxalinas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia , Urotélio
8.
BJU Int ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic impact of lymph node yield (LNY) on survival outcomes for penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 532 patients who underwent inguinal LN dissection (ILND) across tertiary referral centres from Europe, China, Brazil and North America were retrospectively evaluated. From this cohort, 198 patients received pelvic LND (PLND).We identified threshold values for ILND and PLND using receiver operating characteristic curves. We tested prognostic value of LNY for recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meir method and Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: The median (interquartile [IQR]) age was 59 (49-68) years and the median (IQR) follow-up after ILND was 28 (12-68.2) months. Overall, 85% of the patients had bilateral dissections. The median (IQR) number of inguinal LNs removed was 15 (10-22). Of those receiving PLND, The median (IQR) number of LNs was 13 (8-19). A LNY of ≥15 was used for dichotomisation of ILND patients, and a LNY of ≥9 was used in the PLND cohort. Patients with a LNY ≥15 had significantly better 5-year OS vs patients with a LNY <15 (70.1% vs 58.7%). On multivariable analyses, a LNY ≥15 was a predictor of OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, P = 0.029). For cN0 patients, a LNY ≥15 was an independent predictor of RFS (HR 0.52, P = 0.043) and OS (HR 0.53, P = 0.021). In the PLND cohort, a LNY ≥9 was a predictor of RFS (HR 0.53, P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Using one of the largest LND datasets to date, we found LNY to be a significant predictor of outcomes after lymphatic staging for penile SCC. Prospective validation is warranted.

9.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastatic testicular sex cord stromal tumors of the testis (MSCSTs) comprise an extremely uncommon form of genitourinary malignancy. OBJECTIVE: To perform comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) to enable the search for potential therapy targets. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with testicular Leydig cell tumors (LCTs), six with Sertoli cell tumors (SCTs), and three with undifferentiated sex cord stromal tumors (USCSTs) and a comparison group of 366 patients with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors (SCSTs) underwent hybrid-capture-based CGP to evaluate all classes of genomic alterations (GAs). The tumor mutational burden (TMB) was determined on 1.1 Mbp of sequenced DNA, and microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined on 114 loci. INTERVENTION: CGP on tumor samples. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive analyses and differences between histological subgroups were reported. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In these patients, all of whom had metastatic disease at the time of sequencing, the primary testis tumor was sequenced in six (32%) patients and a metastatic site in 13 (68%) patients. The overall frequencies of GAs were similar in LCTs, SCTs, and USCSTs, ranging from 3.0 to 3.5 GAs/tumor. The most frequent untargetable GAs included CTNNB1 and CDKN2A/B, both ranging from 20% to 33% of cases. Targetable GAs were uncommon in all MSCST subgroups, but several tumors showed potential for cell-cycle inhibitors (CDK4 in LCTs), mTOR inhibitors (RICTOR, NF2, and PTEN in all three tumor types), hedgehog inhibitors (PTCH1 in LCTs), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (BAP1 in SCTs). No MSI-high status was identified. The TMB was also low in all MSCST groups, and tumors featuring a TMB of ≥10 mutations/Mb were not identified. GA findings from ovarian SCSTs largely recapitulated those from MSCSTs. A lack of clinical outcome correlation is a limitation of the present analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Rare cases of testicular MSCSTs have GAs linked to potential targeted therapy benefits on CGP. In contrast, the lack of MSI-high status and an overall low TMB indicate a likely lack of benefit for immunotherapies. PATIENT SUMMARY: Genomic profiling can guide clinical research and disclose therapeutic opportunities for patients with rare testicular cancers for which standard therapies are lacking.

10.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2(3): 248-256, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several ongoing phase 2 trials are evaluating new neoadjuvant therapy regimens in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The 1-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) after radical cystectomy (RC), with or without perioperative chemotherapy, can be used to model statistical assumptions and interpret outcomes from these studies. OBJECTIVE: To provide a benchmark for predicting 1-yr RFS in patients with cT2-4N0 MIBC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We identified 950 patients with clinical stage T2-4N0 MIBC undergoing RC at 27 centers between 1990 and 2016. We assessed 1-yr RFS rates for patients managed with no perioperative chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), or NAC followed by AC. Cox regression analyses tested for 1-yr postsurgical RFS predictors. A Cox-based nomogram was developed to estimate 1-yr RFS and its accuracy was assessed in terms of Harrell's c-index, a calibration plot, and decision curve analysis. We report 1-yr RFS rates across the nomogram tertiles. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The 1-yr RFS rates were 67.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-72) after no perioperative chemotherapy, 76.9% (95% CI 72-83%) after NAC, 77.8% (95% CI 71-85%) after AC, and 57% (95% CI 37-87) after NAC+AC. On multivariable analysis, positive surgical margins (p=0.002), pT stage (p<0.0001), and pN stage (p<.0001) were significantly associated with RFS, while NAC was not (p=0.6). The model including all these factors yielded a c-index of 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.79), good calibration, and a high net benefit. The 1-yr RFS rates across nomogram tertiles were 90.5% (95% CI 87-94%), 73.4% (95% CI 68-79%), and 51.1% (95% CI 45-58%), respectively. The results lack external validation. CONCLUSIONS: Benchmark 1-yr RFS estimates for phase 2 design of new neoadjuvant trials are proposed and can be used for statistical assumptions, pending external validation. PATIENT SUMMARY: Our prognostic model predicting 1-yr survival free from recurrence of bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, with or without standard chemotherapy, could provide an improvement to the quality of phase 2 clinical trial designs and interpretation of their results.

11.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3155-3163, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving a pathologic complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been associated with improved overall survival (OS). This study was aimed at evaluating the impact of pathologic downstaging (pDS; ie, a pT stage at least 1 stage lower than the pre-NAC cT stage) on the OS of patients with MIBC treated with NAC. METHODS: The Retrospective International Study of Cancers of the Urothelial Tract (RISC) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were queried for cT2-4N0M0 patients treated with NAC. A multivariable Cox model including either pDS or pCR was generated. A nested model was built to evaluate the added value of pDS (excluding patients achieving a pCR) to a model including pCR alone. C indices were computed to assess discrimination. NCDB was used for validation. The treatment effect of NAC versus cystectomy alone in achieving pDS was estimated through an inverse probability-weighted regression adjustment. RESULTS: Overall, 189 and 2010 patients from the RISC and NCDB cohorts, respectively, were included; pDS and pCR were achieved by 33% and 35% and by 20% and 15% in RISC and NCDB, respectively. In both data sets, pDS and pCR were associated with better OS and C indices. Adding pDS excluding pCR to the model with pCR fit the data better (likelihood ratio, P = .019 for RISC and P < .001 for NCDB), and it yielded better discrimination (incremental C index, 4.2 for RISC and 1.6 for NCDB). The treatment effect of NAC in achieving pDS was 2.07-fold (P < .001) in comparison with cystectomy alone. CONCLUSIONS: A decrease of at least 1 stage from the cT stage to the pT stage is associated with improved OS in patients with MIBC treated with NAC.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 37(7): 403-408, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053523

RESUMO

Penile cancer is a rare, but increasingly more common diagnosis. Although more there are more cases of penile cancer being diagnosed (the incidence is increasing), mortality (or conversely overall survival) has not changed. A detailed discussion of current treatments, along with potential therapeutic targets, and ongoing clinical trials is presented. This review gives insight to treatment strategies and novel modalities to combat a disease with sparse therapeutic options.

13.
Semin Oncol ; 46(2): 107-111, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076171

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a group of neoplasms usually arising in the gonads, and very rarely in sites outside the gonads, mainly in the retroperitoneum, the anterior mediastinum, and pineal gland or the coccyx (mainly in childhood). The prognosis of nonseminoma primary mediastinal GCTs (PMGCTs), is considered to be poorer compared to its retroperitoneal or gonadal counterparts and, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group, it is considered by definition as a "poor risk" disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our review highlights the clinical features, prognostic factors, and therapeutic strategies in PMGCTs, as described in medical literature. So far available data were obtained through a Medline search of English-language papers. RESULTS: Due to the rarity of the disease, there are no prospective studies comparing different treatment strategies. For this reason, oncology societies recommend treating PMGCTs like other GCTs, according to general risk categories. CONCLUSION: Because of the rarity of the disease, poor categorization, and the lack of novel therapeutic strategies, an International database is required to obtain more information on these tumors. Additional efforts should be done, with the aims to find effective novel therapeutic agents.

14.
Urol Oncol ; 37(8): 531.e7-531.e15, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To improve the prognostic allocation of patients with penile squamous-cell carcinoma (PSCC) receiving regional lymph node dissection (LND). PATIENTS AND METHODS: An international, multicenter, retrospective study was performed on patients with PSCC who received regional LND, with or without perioperative therapy, from 1980 to 2017. We first used a random forest (RF) method with missing data imputation. Additionally, data were modeled using Cox proportional hazard regression, and a Cox model was also fit including prespecified variables. Based on the latter model, a nomogram for estimating 12-month and 24-month overall survival (OS) was developed. RESULTS: There were 743 patients who received LND at 7 referral centers from Europe, the USA, Brazil, and China. Of these patients, 689 were analyzed: 86 (12.5%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC); 171 (24.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), and 74 (10.7%) received adjuvant radiotherapy. The variables significantly associated with OS were age (P < 0.001), the pathologically involved/total removed LN ratio (P < 0.001), pN stage (overall P < 0.001), and NAC (P = 0.013). NAC and AC were ineffective in N1-2 patients (clinical and pathological, respectively), whereas they provided OS improvements in N3 patients. Finally, we developed a nomogram predicting 12- and 24-month OS based on prespecified variables (c-index: 0.75). The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a tool that can be offered as an aid to physicians to enhance decision-making, clinical research, and patient counseling whenever LND is needed for PSCC. Administration of NAC and AC should be restricted to clinical and pathological N3 patients, respectively.

16.
Oncologist ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of cisplatin use on long-term survival of unselected patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) has not been adequately investigated. We used a multinational database to study long-term survival and the impact of treatment type in unselected patients with aUTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,333 patients with aUTC (cT4bN0M0, cTanyN+M0, cTanyNanyM+), transitional-cell, squamous, or adenocarcinoma histology who received systemic chemotherapy and had available survival data were selected. Long-term survival was defined as alive at 3 years following initiation of first-line chemotherapy. Conditional overall survival (COS) analysis was employed to study change in prognosis given time survived from initiation of first-line chemotherapy. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 31.7 months. The combination of cisplatin use and cisplatin eligibility accurately predicted long-term survival. Eligible patients treated with cisplatin conferred a 31.6% probability of 3-year survival (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.1-38.3), and 2-year COS for patients surviving 3 years after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy was 83% (95% CI: 59.7-93.5). The respective probabilities for patients who were ineligible for cisplatin or not treated with cisplatin despite eligibility were 14% (95% CI: 10.8-17.6) and 49.3% (95% CI: 28.2-67.4). Two-year COS remained significantly different between these two groups up to 3 years after chemotherapy initiation. CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-based therapy was associated with the highest likelihood of long-term survival in patients with aUTC and should be used in patients who fulfill the established eligibility criteria. Novel therapies are necessary to increase long-term survival in cisplatin-ineligible patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Long-term, disease-free survival is possible in one in four eligible-for-cisplatin patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Therefore, deviations from eligibility criteria should be avoided. Consolidation surgery should be considered in responders. These data provide benchmarks for the study of novel therapies in aUTC.

17.
Eur Urol ; 76(1): 4-6, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833139

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated that immune checkpoint blockade has efficacy similar to chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting. Biomarkers such as PD-L1 expression levels can be used to rationally design clinical trials aimed at personalizing systemic therapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(11): 940-941, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811283
19.
Urol Oncol ; 37(4): 293.e25-293.e30, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of lymph node dissection (LND) during nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is controversial. We looked at the clinical usefulness of performing LND to stratify the risk of patients with RCC and select candidates for systemic treatment after nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 730 patients with nonmetastatic RCC treated with nephrectomy and LND at a single center. We compared the accuracy and clinical usefulness of a base model including factors defining high-risk patients according to the S-TRAC trial [(pT3 and Grade≥2 and performance status score ≥1) or pT4] relative to the base model plus pN stage for the prediction of early progression after surgery. RESULTS: LN invasion resulted the most informative predictor of early progression (odds ratio: 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.26, 12.54; P < 0.0001). The accuracy was higher (P = 0.008) for the model implemented with pN (area under the curve: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.80) as compared to the base model (area under the curve: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.76). Performing LND to select patients for postoperative systemic treatment, resulted in a slightly higher net benefit as compared to a strategy defining risk on the base of factors other than pN. Patients with high-risk disease showed a large difference in the risk of progression according to pN-status (1-year risk: 58% [95% CI: 45, 72] for pN1; 31% [95% CI: 25, 38] for pN0; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Performing LND at the time of nephrectomy improves risk stratification, resulting into a small but nonnegligible clinical advantage for selecting high-risk patients for further treatment after surgery. Further trials should investigate whether high-risk pN1 patients would benefit from a different postoperative management.

20.
Oncologist ; 24(4): e142-e145, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659078

RESUMO

Primary mediastinal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (PMNSGCT) frequently become refractory to chemotherapy, and no effective salvage therapy exists. We performed genomic profiling on a series of 44 PMNSGCT and compared the results with those from chemorefractory, metastatic pure seminomatous (Sem, n = 22) and nonseminomatous (NS, n = 86) testicular germ cell tumors. Archival tissues were sequenced by a hybrid capture-based technology (FoundationONE; Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, MA). Microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational burden (TMB, mutations [mut]/Mb) were determined.Statistically significant differences in genomic alterations (GA) of PMNSGCT versus NS included higher TP53 pathway GA (p < .0001), PIK3CA pathway GA (p < .0001), and lower cell-cycle pathway GA (p = .0004). There were no MSI-high PMNSGCT cases. Mean TMB was similar between the groups, but there were more ≥10 mut/Mb in the PMNSGCT group versus NS (11.4% vs. 4.6%).The GA identified in PMNSGCT were similar to the findings from NS, with differential opportunities for targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Further study of precision treatments appears warranted.

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