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2.
Lancet Oncol ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erdafitinib, a pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was shown to be clinically active and tolerable in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma and prespecified FGFR alterations in the primary analysis of the BLC2001 study at median 11 months of follow-up. We aimed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of the selected regimen of erdafitinib determined in the initial part of the study. METHODS: The open-label, non-comparator, phase 2, BLC2001 study was done at 126 medical centres in 14 countries across Asia, Europe, and North America. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, at least one prespecified FGFR alteration, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and progressive disease after receiving at least one systemic chemotherapy or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy or were ineligible for cisplatin. The selected regimen determined in the initial part of the study was continuous once daily 8 mg/day oral erdafitinib in 28-day cycles, with provision for pharmacodynamically guided uptitration to 9 mg/day (8 mg/day UpT). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed confirmed objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1. Efficacy and safety were analysed in all treated patients who received at least one dose of erdafitinib. This is the final analysis of this study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02365597. FINDINGS: Between May 25, 2015, and Aug 9, 2018, 2328 patients were screened, of whom 212 were enrolled and 101 were treated with the selected erdafitinib 8 mg/day UpT regimen. The data cutoff date for this analysis was Aug 9, 2019. Median efficacy follow-up was 24·0 months (IQR 22·7-26·6). The investigator-assessed objective response rate for patients treated with the selected erdafitinib regimen was 40 (40%; 95% CI 30-49) of 101 patients. The safety profile remained similar to that in the primary analysis, with no new safety signals reported with longer follow-up. Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events of any causality occurred in 72 (71%) of 101 patients. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events of any cause were stomatitis (in 14 [14%] of 101 patients) and hyponatraemia (in 11 [11%]). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: With longer follow-up, treatment with the selected regimen of erdafitinib showed consistent activity and a manageable safety profile in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma and prespecified FGFR alterations. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.

3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35029306

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC) who progress after platinum-based chemotherapy have a poor prognosis, and there is a medical need to improve current treatment options. Ramucirumab plus docetaxel significantly improved progression-free survival but not overall survival (OS) in platinum-refractory advanced UC (RANGE trial; NCT02426125). Here, we report the exposure-response (ER) of ramucirumab plus docetaxel using data from the RANGE trial. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic (PK) samples were collected (cycle 1-3, 5 ,9 [day 1] and 30 days from treatment discontinuation), and PK data were analyzed using population PK (popPK) analysis. The minimum ramucirumab concentration after first dose administration (Cmin,1 ; or trough concentration immediately prior to the second dose) was derived by popPK analysis and used as the exposure parameter for ER analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression models and matched case-control analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between Cmin,1 and OS. Cmin,1 relationship with safety was assessed descriptively. RESULTS: Several poor prognostic factors (ECOG 1; hemoglobin concentration <100 g/L, and presence of liver metastases) appeared more frequently in the lower exposure quartiles; suggesting a possible disease-PK interaction. A significant association was identified between Cmin,1 and OS (P = 0.0108). Higher exposure quartiles were associated with longer survival and smaller hazard ratios compared to placebo. No new exposure-safety trends were observed within the exposure range (ramucirumab 10mg/kg once every three weeks). CONCLUSIONS: This prespecified ER analyses suggests a positive relationship between efficacy and ramucirumab exposure, with an imbalance associated with disease prognostic factors. Further investigation may elucidate possible disease-PK relationship.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 40(1): 10.e1-10.e6, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in neoadjuvant therapy for patients with localized, nonmetastatic, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: PURE-02 was a feasibility study enrolling individuals with UTUC, at clinical stage N0M0, with high-risk features according to the modified European Association of Urology definition, based on the presence of either: high-grade disease, multifocality, tumor size ≥2 cm, and/or hydronephrosis. The treatment consisted of 3 courses of 200 mg pembrolizumab, intravenously, every 3 weeks, followed by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). The endpoints were to assess the safety, pathological responses, and biomarkers. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled between August 2018 and November 2020, 9 (90%) completed the neoadjuvant course. One treatment-related death occurred as a complication of severe myocarditis, myasthenia gravis, hepatitis and myositis. One (14.3%) patient achieved a clinical complete response and refused to undergo RNU. Two (20%) had disease progression and received subsequent chemotherapy, prior to RNU. Overall, 7 patients underwent RNU: one (14.3%) achieved an ypT1N0 response, although this patient was reported to have a cT1 tumor at baseline imaging. The remaining patients were nonresponders. Circulating tumor DNA assay did not identify patients likely to achieve a complete pathologic response. CONCLUSION: Single-agent neoadjuvant pembrolizumab did not appear to be a promising treatment strategy for patients with biomarker-unselected, high-risk localized UTUC.

6.
Curr Opin Urol ; 32(1): 40-47, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608026

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a comprehensive overview of diagnosis, treatment, and screening for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) among Lynch syndrome patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from the germline mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) system. The Lynch syndrome predisposes to early onset of a broad spectrum of tumours, among which UTUC represents the third most frequent malignancy. Since up to 10% of UTUC can be attributed to Lynch syndrome, a correct recognition of this disease provides the opportunity for patients and their relatives to be properly treated for UTUC and to be followed up for other Lynch syndrome-related malignancies. SUMMARY: UTUC patients less than 65 years, or UTUC patients with personal history of Lynch syndrome-related cancer, or with one first-degree relative (FDR) less than 50 years with Lynch syndrome-related cancer, or two FDRs with Lynch syndrome-related cancer regardless of age should be referred to molecular testing and subsequent DNA sequencing to confirm Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Considering the increased risk of metachronous recurrence, treatments other than radical nephroureterectomy, such as ureteroscopic laser ablation may represent valuable therapeutic strategies. As Lynch syndrome patients exhibit an approximate 14-fold increased risk of developing UTUC compared with general population, expert recommendations are urgently required in order to point out appropriate screening protocols.

7.
Curr Opin Urol ; 32(1): 31-39, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783716

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the molecular and genetic bases of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease have been extensively investigated, limited evidence is available to guide diagnosis, local or systemic therapy, and follow-up. The aim of the current review is to summarize the ongoing trials both in preclinical and clinical setting regarding VHL disease management. RECENT FINDINGS: Although genotype/phenotype correlations have been described, there is considerable inter and intra-familiar heterogeneity in VHL disease. Genetic anticipation has been reported in VHL disease. From a clinical point of view, expert-opinion-based protocols suggest testing those patients with any blood relative of an individual diagnosed with VHL disease, those with at least 1 or more suggestive neoplasms or patients presenting with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosed at a less than 40 years old, and/or multiple ccRCC. Clinical research is focused on safety and efficacy of systemic agents for patients with VHL-related ccRCC, with the aim to possibly preserve kidney function and improve patient survival. SUMMARY: To date, preclinical and clinical research on the topic is scarce and clinical guidelines are not supported by strong validation studies.

8.
Nat Rev Urol ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937881

RESUMO

Rare tumours such as penile carcinoma have been largely neglected by the urology scientific community in favour of more common - and, therefore, more easily fundable - diseases. Nevertheless, penile cancer represents a rising burden for health-care systems around the world, because a lack of widespread expertise, ineffective centralization of care and absence of research funds have hampered our ability to improve the global care of these patients. Moreover, a dichotomy has arisen in the field of penile cancer, further impeding care: the countries that are mainly supporting research on this topic through the development of epidemiological studies and design of clinical trials are not the countries that have the highest prevalence of the disease. This situation means that randomized controlled trials in developed countries often do not meet the minimum accrual and are intended to close before reaching their end points, whereas trials are almost completely absent in those areas with the highest disease prevalence and probability of successful recruitment, such as Africa, South America and South Asia. The scientific and organizational inaction that arises owing to this mismatch translates into a burdensome cost for our patients. A global effort to gather experts and pull together scientific data from around the world may be the best way to boost clinical research, to change clinical practice and, ultimately, to improve care for patients and their families.

9.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896051

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents the third most frequent malignancy in Lynch syndrome (LS). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available literature focused on incidence, diagnosis, clinicopathological features, oncological outcomes, and screening protocols for UTUC among LS patients. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched up to May 2021. Risk of bias was determined using the modified Cochrane tool. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, 43 studies between 1996 and 2020 were included. LS patients exhibited a 14-fold increased risk of UTUC compared with the general population, which further increased to 75-fold among hMSH2 mutation carriers. Patients younger than 65 yr and patients with personal or family history of LS-related cancers should be referred to molecular testing on tumour specimen and subsequent genetic testing to confirm LS. Newly diagnosed LS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary management team including gastroenterologist and gynaecologist specialists, while genetic counselling should be recommended to first-degree relatives (FDRs). Compared with sporadic UTUC individuals, LS patients were significantly younger (p = 0.005) and exhibited a prevalent ureteral location (p = 0.01). Radical nephroureterectomy was performed in 75% of patients (5-yr cancer-specific survival: 91%). No consensus on screening protocols for UTUC was achieved: starting age varied between 25-35 and 50 yr, while urinary cytology showed sensitivity of 29% and was not recommended for screening. CONCLUSIONS: Urologists should recognise patients at high risk for LS and address them to a comprehensive diagnostic pathway, including molecular and genetic testing. Newly diagnosed LS patients should be referred to a multidisciplinary team, while genetic counselling should be recommended to FDRs. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this systematic review, we analysed the existing literature focused on upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) among patients with Lynch syndrome (LS). Our purpose is to provide a comprehensive overview of LS-related UTUC to reduce misdiagnosis and improve patient prognosis.

10.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840076

RESUMO

Radical cystectomy is the standard of care for muscle invasive bladder cancer, although it represents a surgical procedure with high complication and mortality burden. Thus, more and more emphasis has been placed in favor of alternative treatments especially for patients who are unfit for or aim to avoid radical cystectomy. In this context, preclinical studies highlighted that chemoradiation therapy (CRT) may have immunomodulatory properties on tumor microenvironment with a consequent increase in immune biomarkers. Thus, following the encouraging results reached by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in both metastatic and localized disease, CRT and ICIs combination treatment gained momentum as bladder-sparing option and several clinical trials were recently launched both as concurrent and sequential treatments. A narrative review of the literature was performed to summarize the rationale and clinical outcomes of trials testing CRT and ICIs combination. Promising results were recently released mainly from phase II trials reporting clinal complete response rates from 48% to 83%. Moreover, combination treatment, both as concurrent and sequential schedules, appeared to be quite tolerable. However, interpretation of preliminary findings is made difficult due to the heterogeneity of clinical endpoints among trials, patient population included and different measurement of response to treatment. Novel bladder-sparing strategies are finally gaining momentum in bladder cancer treatment. Despite preliminary findings are encouraging, harmonization of terminology and definition of clinical endpoints among trials will be mandatory to correctly assess the potential role of CRT and immunotherapy combination as bladder-sparing solution in routine clinical practice.

11.
Immunotherapy ; 2021 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784782

RESUMO

Background: Few data are available regarding the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients. Methods: To provide a real-world experience with anti-PD-1/PD-L1-based therapy in UTUC patients, we involved an Italian network in a multicenter retrospective analysis. Results: A total of 78 UTUC patients were enrolled. The median follow-up was 25.1 months. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 2.2 months (95% CI 1.8-2.6), and the median OS (mOS) was 6.0 months (95% CI 3.6-8.4). The Sonpavde score (including performance status > 0, hemoglobin < 10 g/dl, liver metastases, time from prior chemotherapy ≥ 3 months) split the patients into three groups (0 vs 1 vs 2-4 factors), efficiently predicting the OS and PFS outcome at the multivariate analyses (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of unselected UTUC patients is still unsatisfactory. The Sonpavde score was validated for the first time in an UTUC population, as a useful tool for the treatment decision-making process.

12.
Urol Oncol ; 39(12): 838.e7-838.e13, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify incidence and risk factors for upstaging from cN1 to pN2/N3 at inguinal lymphadenectomy (ILND) for penile cancer (pSCC). Our secondary objective is to assess survival outcomes and associations for cN1 patients undergoing ILND. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with pT≥1cN1cM0 pSCC who underwent bilateral ILND and had complete data were identified in a multi-institutional international cohort from 8 referral centers in 7 countries diagnosed from 1980 to 2017. Upstaging was defined as pN2/N3 at ILND. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations with upstaging, and Cox multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine associations with overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Of 144 patients were included in the final study population. 84 patients (58%) were upstaged from cN1 to pN2/N3, and 25 (17%) were down staged to pN0. Upstaging was associated with pT3/T4 (OR 4.1, 95%CI 1.5-11.7, P < 0.01) and pTX (OR 7.1, 95CI 1.6-51.1, P = 0.02). Age, smoking status, HPV status, and LVI were not associated with upstaging. Age (HR 1.03/y, 95%CI 1.01-1.06, P < 0.01) and upstaging (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.3-5.9, P < 0.01) were associated with worse OS. Upstaged patients had a 5-year OS of 49%, compared with 86% for patients who were not upstaged. CONCLUSION: The majority of cN1 pSCC patients harbor a higher-risk disease state than their clinical staging suggests, especially those with higher pT stages. More intensive pre-operative workup may be warranted for these patients to identify upstaging prior to ILND and potentially qualify them for neoadjuvant chemotherapy or clinical trials.

13.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000002261, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) confers an absolute survival benefit of 5%-10%. There is evidence that molecular differences between tumors may impact response to therapy, highlighting a need for clinically validated biomarkers to predict response to NAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four bladder cancer cohorts were included. Inverse probability weighting was used to make baseline characteristics (age, sex and clinical tumor stage) between NAC-treated and untreated groups more comparable. Molecular subtypes were determined using a commercial genomic subtyping classifier. Survival rates were estimated using weighted Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the primary and secondary study end points of overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 601 patients with MIBC were included, of whom 247 had been treated with NAC and RC, and 354 underwent RC without NAC. With NAC, the overall net benefit to OS and cancer-specific survival at 3 years was 7% and 5%, respectively. After controlling for clinicopathological variables, nonluminal tumors had greatest benefit from NAC, with 10% greater OS at 3 years (71% vs 61%), while luminal tumors had minimal benefit (63% vs 65%) for NAC vs non-NAC. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with MIBC, a commercially available molecular subtyping assay revealed nonluminal tumors received the greatest benefit from NAC, while patients with luminal tumors experienced a minimal survival benefit. A genomic classifier may help identify patients with MIBC who would benefit most from NAC.

14.
Urol Oncol ; 39(12): 793-796, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629283

RESUMO

The association between tobacco use and urothelial cancer of the bladder is well known. Given the worsening tobacco epidemic, here we make the case for systematic targeted points of intervention for urologists and other professionals to intervene against bladder cancer. Awareness of contemporary checkpoints where we can intervene for counseling patients may help medical education in a tobacco-pandemic difficult setting.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enfortumab vedotin (EV) is approved to treat metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) following platinum and PD1/L1 inhibitors. Since the outcomes and patterns of therapy of patients following discontinuation of EV are unknown, we conducted a retrospective study to assess this issue. METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained from patients with mUC following discontinuation of EV after prior platinum-based chemotherapy and PD1/L1 inhibitors. Objective response rate (ORR) was evaluated in those who received therapy post-EV. Statistical analyses were performed to describe the overall survival (OS) and compare patient characteristics and outcomes of those who did or did not receive treatment post-EV. RESULTS: Data were available for 63 patients from 6 institutions: 46 (73%) were male and median age was 68 years (range 43-83). The median OS was 32 weeks. Thirty-two patients (51%) received therapy after EV. The OS of those who did vs. did not receive post-EV therapy was significantly different (median 43.1 vs. 16.9 weeks, P = .015). Longer duration of prior EV therapy was associated with receipt of post-EV therapy (P = .0437) as well as OS in both the treated (P = .045) and untreated groups (P = .012). Objective response was observed in 3 of 32 patients (9.4%) who received therapy post-EV. CONCLUSION: Outcomes of patients with mUC following discontinuation of EV are dismal and only 51% received therapy after discontinuation of EV. This study identifies benchmarks for the interpretation of activity of new agents following EV and raises the hypothesis for duration of EV as a potential prognostic factor following discontinuation of EV.

16.
Cancer ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that men with HIV and germ cell cancer (HIV-GCC) have inferior overall survival (OS) in comparison with their HIV-negative counterparts. However, little information is available on treatments and outcomes of HIV-GCC in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: This study examined men living with HIV who were 18 years old or older and had a diagnosis of histologically proven germ cell cancer (GCC). The primary outcomes were OS and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Data for 89 men with a total of 92 HIV-GCCs (2 synchronous GCCs and 1 metachronous bilateral GCC) were analyzed; among them were 64 seminomas (70%) and 28 nonseminomas (30%). The median age was 36 years, the median CD4 T-cell count at GCC diagnosis was 420 cells/µL, and 77% of the patients on cART had an HIV RNA load < 500 copies/mL. Stage I disease was found in 44 of 79 gonadal GCCs (56%). Among 45 cases with primary disseminated GCC, 78%, 18%, and 4% were assigned to the good-, intermediate-, and poor-prognosis groups, respectively, of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. Relapses occurred in 14 patients. Overall, 12 of 89 patients (13%) died. The causes of death were refractory GCC (n = 5), an AIDS-defining illness (n = 3), and other causes (n = 4). After a median follow-up of 6.5 years, the 5- and 10-year PFS rates were 81% and 73%, respectively, and the 5- and 10-year OS rates were 91% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 5- and 10-year PFS and OS rates of men with HIV-GCC were similar to those reported for men with HIV-negative GCC. Patients with HIV-GCC should be managed identically to HIV-negative patients. LAY SUMMARY: Men living with HIV are at increased risk for germ cell cancer (GCC). Previous studies have shown that the survival of men with HIV-associated germ cell cancer (HIV-GCC) is poorer than the survival of their HIV-negative counterparts. This study examined the characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of 89 men with HIV-GCC in the era of effective combination antiretroviral therapies. The long-term outcomes of men with HIV-GCC were similar to those reported for men with HIV-negative GCC. Patients with HIV-GCC should be managed identically to HIV-negative patients.

18.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538770

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in the primary staging for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is still debated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze published studies reporting the accuracy of PSMA PET/CT for detecting lymph node invasion (LNI) at pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane library's Central, EMBASE and Scopus databases, from inception to May 2021, was conducted. The primary outcome was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of PSMA PET/CT in detecting LNI on a per-patient level. As a secondary outcome, NPV of PET PSMA was tested on a per-node-level analysis. Detection rates were pooled using random-effect models. Preplanned subgroup analyses tested the diagnostic accuracy after stratification for the preoperative risk group. PPV and NPV variation over LNI prevalence was evaluated. Only studies including extended PLND (ePLND) as the reference standard test were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 2832 participants, were included in quantitative synthesis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of PSMA PET/CT for LNI were, respectively, 58% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50-66%), 95% (95% CI 93-97%), 79% (95% CI 72-85%), and 87% (95% CI 84-89%), with overall moderate heterogeneity between studies. At bivariate analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of PSMA PET/CT estimated through summary receiver operating characteristic-derived area under the curve was 84% (95% CI 81-87%). On a per-node level, NPV of PET PSMA was 97% (95% CI 96-99%). At subgroup analyses, according to preoperative risk groups, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 51%, 93%, 73%, and 81%, respectively, in high-risk patients. Over the LNI prevalence range of 5-40%, PPV increased from 59% to 91%, while NPV decreased from 99% to 84%. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA PET/CT scan provides promising accuracy in the field of primary nodal staging for PCa. The high NPV in men with a lower risk of LNI might be clinically useful to reduce the number of unnecessary PLND procedures performed. Conversely, in high-risk patients, negative PSMA PET/CT cannot replace staging ePLND. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we demonstrated that prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan may optimize the primary nodal staging and surgical management of prostate cancer patients candidate to radical prostatectomy. The high negative predictive value in men with a lower risk of lymph node invasion might be clinically useful for reducing the number of useless pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) procedures performed. Conversely, in high-risk patients, negative PSMA PET/CT cannot allow avoiding of PLND.

20.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1011, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446834

RESUMO

Mechanomedicine is an emerging field focused on characterizing mechanical changes in cells and tissues coupled with a specific disease. Understanding the mechanical cues that drive disease progression, and whether tissue stiffening can precede disease development, is crucial in order to define new mechanical biomarkers to improve and develop diagnostic and prognostic tools. Classically known stromal regulators, such as fibroblasts, and more recently acknowledged factors such as the microbiome and extracellular vesicles, play a crucial role in modifications to the stroma and extracellular matrix (ECM). These modifications ultimately lead to an alteration of the mechanical properties (stiffness) of the tissue, contributing to disease onset and progression. We describe here classic and emerging mediators of ECM remodeling, and discuss state-of-the-art studies characterizing mechanical fingerprints of urological diseases, showing a general trend between increased tissue stiffness and severity of disease. Finally, we point to the clinical potential of tissue stiffness as a diagnostic and prognostic factor in the urological field, as well as a possible target for new innovative drugs.

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