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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e017445, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506694

RESUMO

Background Rhythm control may improve functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Long-term exercise tolerance improvement and its prognostic implications following catheter-ablation (CA) of paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF are underreported. Methods and Results Consecutive patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing just before and 12 months after their index CA of AF. Follow-up 24-hour Holter recordings were obtained at 6-month intervals post-CA, and any atrial arrhythmia >30 seconds detected after 3 months postprocedure was considered AF recurrence. Of 110 patients (mean age 57.5±10.6 years, 77.2% males) with paroxysmal AF (n=66) or nonparoxysmal AF (n=44), the 12-month exercise tolerance improved significantly in those who maintained sinus rhythm during the first 12 months post-CA (n=96), but not in patients with AF recurrence (n=14). After CA, the 12-month respiratory exchange ratio at maximal workload significantly increased in patients with paroxysmal AF, whereas those with nonparoxysmal AF significantly reduced their heart rate during the 12-month cardiopulmonary exercise testing (all P≤0.001). During the follow-up of 42.8±7.8 months, a total of 29 patients (26.3%) experienced recurrent AF. On multivariate analysis including patients without recurrent AF at 12 months after CA, the extent of work time improvement at follow-up cardiopulmonary exercise testing was independently associated with the rhythm outcome beyond 12 months postprocedure (hazard ratio of 0.936 [95% CI, 0.894-0.979] for each 10 seconds increase in the work time following ablation, P=0.004). Conclusions CA of AF was associated with recovery of exercise intolerance in patients with paroxysmal AF or nonparoxysmal AF. Inability to improve exercise capacity at 12 months post-CA was an independent risk factor for later AF recurrence.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287109

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Obesity presents as a multifactorial, pandemic disease that arises as a consequence of unequal energy intake and energy consumption. Obesity adversely affects the quality of life, leading not only to disability, but also to various other disorders. Bariatric surgery is the most effective method for achieving significant and sustained weight loss in individuals with extreme obesity. The aim of this study was to examine how well surgically induced weight loss is maintained after five years of follow-up and its effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcome. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 66 patients with morbid obesity, with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 or BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 and obesity-related health conditions, aged 20 to 61 years, mostly women (77.3%) who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Results: Average follow-up was 6.42 years (95% CI 6.30-6.54 years) after surgery, with survival rate of 97% in operated individuals. There was a statistically significant reduction of weight and body mass index 6 months and 5 years after surgery in comparison to the initial values (p < 0.001). Of 62 patients who presented weight loss at the end of the follow-up period, 38 were able to maintain the amount of weight loss that was attained 6 months after surgery, while 24 patients regained weight compared to their postoperative weight at 6 months. Two patients reported no weight loss after treatment. Significant weight reduction was associated with better control of diabetes and increased self-reported physical activity at 6 months and 5 years after surgery, as well as with a reduction of the use of anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications. Conclusions: Our research demonstrates a positive long-term impact of bariatric surgery on patients' health conditions, significant and sustained weight loss, and decrease in BMI, which were associated with a reduction of co-morbidities and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(27): 30120-30135, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530270

RESUMO

Apart from producing high bond strength to tooth enamel and dentin, a dental adhesive with biotherapeutic potential is clinically desirable, aiming to further improve tooth restoration longevity. In this laboratory study, an experimental two-step universal adhesive, referred to as Exp_2UA, applicable in both the etch-and-rinse (E&R) and self-etch (SE) modes and combining a primer, containing 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogen phosphate as a functional monomer with chemical binding potential to hydroxyapatite, with a bioglass-containing hydrophobic adhesive resin, was multifactorially investigated. In addition to primary property assessment, including measurement of bond strength, water sorption, solubility, and polymerization efficiency, the resultant adhesive-dentin interface was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the filler composition was analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and the bioactive potential of the adhesive was estimated by measuring the long-term ion release and assessing its antienzymatic and antibacterial potential. Four representative commercial adhesives were used as reference/controls. Application in both the E&R and SE modes resulted in a durable bonding performance to dentin, as evidenced by favorable 1 year aged bond strength data and a tight interfacial ultrastructure that, as examined by TEM, remained ultramorphologically unaltered upon 1 year of water storage aging. TEM revealed a 20 µm thick hydrophobic adhesive layer with a homogeneous bioglass filler distribution. Adequate polymerization conversion resulted in extremely low water sorption and solubility. In situ zymography revealed reduced endogenous proteolytic activity, while Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation was inhibited. In conclusion, the three-/two-step E&R/SE Exp_2UA combines the high bonding potential and bond degradation resistance with long-term ion release, rendering the adhesive antienzymatic and antibacterial potential.

4.
J Cardiol ; 76(1): 1-8, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction (MVD) is associated with adverse prognosis and may account for abnormal stress tests and angina symptoms in women with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). The aim of our study was to assess MVD by coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and left ventricular (LV) contractile function by LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) in CSX patients with respect to presence of slow coronary flow (SCF). It was of additional importance to evaluate clinical status of CSX patients using Seattle Angina Questionnaire. METHODS AND RESULTS: Study population included 70 women with CSX (mean age 61 ± 7 years) and 34 age-matched controls. CSX group was stratified into two subgroups depending on SCF presence: CSX-Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3- normal flow subgroup (n = 38) and CSX-TIMI 2- SCF subgroup (n = 32) as defined by coronary angiography. LVGLS measurements and CFVR of left anterior descending (LAD) and posterior descending (PD) artery were performed. CFVR-LAD and PD were markedly impaired in CSX group compared to controls (2.34 ± 0.25 vs 3.05 ± 0.21, p < 0.001; 2.32 ± 0.24 vs 3.01 ± 0.13, p < 0.001), and furthermore decreased in CSX-TIMI 2 patients. Resting, peak, and ΔLVGLS were all significantly impaired in CSX group compared to controls (for all p < 0.001), and furthermore reduced in CSX-TIMI 2 subgroup. Strongest correlation was found between peak LVGLS and CFVR LAD (r = -0.784, p < 0.001) and PD (r = -0.772, p < 0.001). CSX-TIMI 2 subgroup had more frequent angina symptoms and more impaired quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: MVD in CSX patients is demonstrated by reduction in CFVR and LVGLS values. SCF implies more profound impairment of microvascular and LV systolic function along with worse clinical presentation.

6.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(2): 166-173, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are no data about the prevalence of silent coronary artery disease in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis patients with normal exercise testing. Importantly, unmasking significant coronary artery disease in patients with aortic stenosis could influence the choice/timing of treatment in these patients. METHOD: Exercise testing was performed on semi-supine ergobicycle. Cardiopulmonary analysis during exercise testing, echocardiography, and laboratory analysis at rest was done. Standard clinical/electrocardiography criteria were assessed for symptoms/signs of ischemia during/after exercise testing. In patients with normal exercise testing coronary angiography was performed using standard femoral/radial percutaneous approach. Coronary stenosis was considered significant if >70% of vessel diameter or 50%-70% with fractional flow reserve ≤0.8. RESULTS: Total of 96 patients with normal exercise testing were included (67.6 years, 50.6% males). No patient had any complication or adverse event. The Pmean was 52.7 mmHg, mean indexed aortic valve area was 0.36 cm/m and left ventricular ejection fraction, 69.5%. 19/96 patients (19.8%) had significant coronary artery disease on coronary angiography. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed brain natriuretic peptide and blood glucose as independent predictors of silent coronary artery disease. Brain natriuretic peptide value of 118 pg/ml had sensitivity/specificity of 63%/73% for predicting coronary artery disease (area under the curve 0.727, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our results are the first to show that in patients with severe aortic stenosis, normal left ventricular ejection fraction,, and normal exercise testing, significant coronary artery disease is present in as many as 1/5 patients. In such patients, further prospective studies are warranted to address the diagnostic value of brain natriuretic peptide in detecting silent coronary artery disease.

7.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(2): 683-691, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this cross-sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of secondary caries (SC) in general population, to identify patient- and material-related factors which may affect the prevalence, and to describe some clinical characteristics of SC lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 4036 restorations in 450 patients, who visited the university dental clinic for a regular (half) yearly checkup, were examined clinically (and radiographically) for the presence of SC. Clinical characteristics of the detected SC lesions (size, activity, and location) and the planned treatment were recorded. In addition, patients' caries-risk status was assessed according to the modified "cariogram" model. RESULTS: In total, 146 restorations were diagnosed with SC, which gives an overall prevalence of 3.6%. Restorative material, restoration class, patient's caries risk, and smoking habits were shown to be important factors, as SC prevalence was significantly higher with composites, class II restorations, high-caries-risk patients, and smokers. Restorations' gingival margins were most frequently affected by SC. The largest number of restorations with SC (72%) was scheduled for the replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of SC was higher with composite than with amalgam restorations, irrespective of the patient's caries-risk status. Gingival margins of class II, including MOD restorations, seem to be the place of less resistance to SC development. Management of SC seems to place a considerable burden on the health care workforce and expenditure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Secondary caries (SC) is considered to be the main cause of dental restoration failure and one of the biggest clinical challenges related to dental composites. Nevertheless, its prevalence in daily practice is still not clear, which impedes an accurate estimation of its impact on health care costs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Resinas Compostas , Estudos Transversais , Amálgama Dentário , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Humanos , Prevalência
8.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 268, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. METHODS: We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450 K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N = 903), LifeLines DEEP (N = 166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N = 150) and RS-BIOS (N = 206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). RESULTS: A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value< 0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. CONCLUSIONS: With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Valores de Referência , Fumantes , Fumar/genética
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(15): 2477-2485, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152171

RESUMO

Many workers are daily exposed to occupational agents like gases/fumes, mineral dust or biological dust, which could induce adverse health effects. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play a role. We therefore aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) upon occupational exposures in never-smokers and investigated if these DMRs associated with gene expression levels. To determine the effects of occupational exposures independent of smoking, 903 never-smokers of the LifeLines cohort study were included. We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. DMRs were identified using comb-p in Python. Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). Of the total 21 significant DMRs, 14 DMRs were associated with gases/fumes and 7 with mineral dust. Three of these DMRs were associated with both exposures (RPLP1 and LINC02169 (2×)) and 11 DMRs were located within transcript start sites of gene expression regulating genes. We replicated two DMRs with gases/fumes (VTRNA2-1 and GNAS) and one with mineral dust (CCDC144NL). In addition, nine gases/fumes DMRs and six mineral dust DMRs significantly associated with gene expression levels. Our data suggest that occupational exposures may induce differential methylation of gene expression regulating genes and thereby may induce adverse health effects. Given the millions of workers that are exposed daily to occupational exposures, further studies on this epigenetic mechanism and health outcomes are warranted.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2581, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197173

RESUMO

Despite existing reports on differential DNA methylation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, our understanding of its functional relevance remains limited. Here we show the effect of differential methylation in the early phases of T2D pathology by a blood-based epigenome-wide association study of 4808 non-diabetic Europeans in the discovery phase and 11,750 individuals in the replication. We identify CpGs in LETM1, RBM20, IRS2, MAN2A2 and the 1q25.3 region associated with fasting insulin, and in FCRL6, SLAMF1, APOBEC3H and the 15q26.1 region with fasting glucose. In silico cross-omics analyses highlight the role of differential methylation in the crosstalk between the adaptive immune system and glucose homeostasis. The differential methylation explains at least 16.9% of the association between obesity and insulin. Our study sheds light on the biological interactions between genetic variants driving differential methylation and gene expression in the early pathogenesis of T2D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Obes Facts ; 12(3): 281-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, especially Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), has become the most frequently used therapy for morbid obesity. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of surgically induced weight loss on cardiopulmonary function 6 months after the procedure, as well as the effect of such an intervention on well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on 66 morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with present comorbidities), comparing their cardiopulmonary function prior to and 6 months after RYGB surgery. RESULTS: The substantial amount of weight loss (29.80 ± 13.27 kg) after RYGB surgery was associated with significant reduction of comorbidities, especially diabetes and sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively). Regarding functional capacity, there was significant increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak, p = 0.003), duration of exercise testing, metabolic equivalents (exercise time and METs, p < 0.001), and in peak O2 pulse. These findings were particularly pronounced in a group of patients who had lost more than 18% of initial weight. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of body weight after RYGB surgery is associated with significantly improved cardiorespiratory function 6 months after surgery, especially in patients who lost more than 18% of their initial body weight. In addition, substantial decreases in body weight were also associated with a reduction of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, smoking, hypertriglyceridemia, and sedentary lifestyle.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Sedentário , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21 Suppl 1: 25-33, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abutment surfaces are being designed to promote gingival soft tissue attachment and integration. This forms a seal around prosthetics and consequently ensures long-term implant survival. New scalable and reproducible models are necessary to evaluate and quantify the performance of these surfaces. PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel implantation model by histomorphometric and immunohistochemical characterization of the interactions between human oral gingival tissue and titanium abutments with either novel anodized or conventional machined surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abutments were inserted into an organotypic reconstructed human gingiva (RHG) model consisting of differentiated gingival epithelium cells on a fibroblast populated lamina propria hydrogel following a tissue punch. Epithelial attachment, down-growth along the abutment surface, and phenotype were assessed via histomorphology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry 10 days after implantation. RESULTS: The down-growing epithelium transitioned from a gingival margin to a sulcular and junctional epithelium. The sulcus depth and junctional epithelial length were similar to previously reported pre-clinical and clinical lengths. A collagen IV/laminin 5 basement membrane formed between the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue. The RHG expanded in thickness approximately 2-fold at the abutment surface. The model allowed the evaluation of protein expression of adhering soft tissue cells for both tested abutments. CONCLUSIONS: The RHG model is the first in vitro 3D model to enable the assessment of not only human epithelial tissue attachment to dental abutments but also the expression of protein markers involved in soft tissue attachment and integration. The two abutments showed no noticeable difference in epithelial attachment.


Assuntos
Dente Suporte , Implantes Dentários , Inserção Epitelial , Gengiva , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765504

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in cord blood DNA associated with childhood lung function, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across the life course. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide data of 1688 children from five cohorts to identify cord blood DMRs and their annotated genes, in relation to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC at ages 7-13 years. Identified DMRs were explored for associations with childhood asthma, adult lung function and COPD, gene expression and involvement in biological processes. RESULTS: We identified 59 DMRs associated with childhood lung function, of which 18 were associated with childhood asthma and nine with COPD in adulthood. Genes annotated to the top 10 identified DMRs were HOXA5, PAOX, LINC00602, ABCA7, PER3, CLCA1, VENTX, NUDT12, PTPRN2 and TCL1A. Differential gene expression in blood was observed for 32 DMRs in childhood and 18 in adulthood. Genes related with 16 identified DMRs were associated with respiratory developmental or pathogenic pathways. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the epigenetic status of the newborn affects respiratory health and disease across the life course.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Medição de Risco , Capacidade Vital/genética
15.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(1): 74-80, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential of angiography to evaluate the hemodynamic severity of a left main coronary artery (LM) stenosis is limited. Noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) evaluation of intermediate coronary stenosis has demonstrated remarkably high negative prognostic value. The aim of this study was to assess clinical outcomes in patients with angiographically intermediate LM stenosis and preserved CFVR (>2.0) as evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic CFVR. METHODS: The initial study population included 102 patients with intermediate coronary stenosis of the LM referred for transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic CFVR assessment. Peak diastolic CFVR measurements were performed in the distal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery after intravenous adenosine (140 µg/kg/min), and CFVR was calculated as the ratio between maximal hyperemic and baseline coronary flow velocity. Nineteen patients had impaired CFVR (≤2.0) and were excluded from further analysis, as well as two patients with poor acoustic windows. The final group consisted of 81 patients (mean age, 60 ± 9 years; 76 men) evaluated for adverse cardiac events including death, myocardial infarction, and revascularization. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 62 ± 26 months. Mean CFVR was 2.4 ± 0.4. Total event-free survival was 75 of 81 (92.6%), as six patients were referred for revascularization (five patients with coronary artery bypass grafting, one patient with percutaneous coronary intervention). There were no documented myocardial infarctions or cardiovascular deaths in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with angiographically intermediate and equivocal LM stenosis and preserved CFVR values of >2.0, revascularization can be safely deferred.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Respir Res ; 19(1): 212, 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of COPD. The epigenome, and more specifically DNA methylation, is recognized as important link between these factors. We postulate that DNA methylation is one of the routes by which cigarette smoke influences the development of COPD. In this study, we aim to identify CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoke exposure and lung function levels in whole blood and validate these CpG-sites in lung tissue. METHODS: The association between pack years and DNA methylation was studied genome-wide in 658 current smokers with >5 pack years using robust linear regression analysis. Using mediation analysis, we subsequently selected the CpG-sites that were also associated with lung function levels. Significant CpG-sites were validated in lung tissue with pyrosequencing and expression quantitative trait methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed to investigate the association between DNA methylation and gene expression. RESULTS: 15 CpG-sites were significantly associated with pack years and 10 of these were additionally associated with lung function levels. We validated 5 CpG-sites in lung tissue and found several associations between DNA methylation and gene expression. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to validate a panel of CpG-sites that are associated with cigarette smoking and lung function levels in whole blood in the tissue of interest: lung tissue.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Fumantes , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Ilhas de CpG/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(9): 949-959, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998287

RESUMO

Importance: Depressive disorders arise from a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Epigenetic disruption provides a plausible mechanism through which gene-environment interactions lead to depression. Large-scale, epigenome-wide studies on depression are missing, hampering the identification of potentially modifiable biomarkers. Objective: To identify epigenetic mechanisms underlying depression in middle-aged and elderly persons, using DNA methylation in blood. Design, Setting, and Participants: To date, the first cross-ethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) within the framework of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium was conducted. The discovery EWAS included 7948 individuals of European origin from 9 population-based cohorts. Participants who were assessed for both depressive symptoms and whole-blood DNA methylation were included in the study. Results of EWAS were pooled using sample-size weighted meta-analysis. Replication of the top epigenetic sites was performed in 3308 individuals of African American and European origin from 2 population-based cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Whole-blood DNA methylation levels were assayed with Illumina-Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Results: The discovery cohorts consisted of 7948 individuals (4104 [51.6%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 65.4 (5.8) years. The replication cohort consisted of 3308 individuals (2456 [74.2%] women) with a mean (SD) age of 60.3 (6.4) years. The EWAS identified methylation of 3 CpG sites to be significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms: cg04987734 (P = 1.57 × 10-08; n = 11 256; CDC42BPB gene), cg12325605 (P = 5.24 × 10-09; n = 11 256; ARHGEF3 gene), and an intergenic CpG site cg14023999 (P = 5.99 × 10-08; n = 11 256; chromosome = 15q26.1). The predicted expression of the CDC42BPB gene in the brain (basal ganglia) (effect, 0.14; P = 2.7 × 10-03) and of ARHGEF3 in fibroblasts (effect, -0.48; P = 9.8 × 10-04) was associated with major depression. Conclusions and Relevance: This study identifies 3 methylated sites associated with depressive symptoms. All 3 findings point toward axon guidance as the common disrupted pathway in depression. The findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathophysiology of depression. Further research is warranted to determine the utility of these findings as biomarkers of depression and evaluate any potential role in the pathophysiology of depression and their downstream clinical effects.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Depressão , Idoso , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Epigênese Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Front Genet ; 9: 133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725345

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heritable disease, associated with multiple genetic variants. Specific familial types of COPD may be explained by rare variants, which have not been widely studied. We aimed to discover rare genetic variants underlying COPD through a genome-wide linkage scan. Affected-only analysis was performed using the 6K Illumina Linkage IV Panel in 142 cases clustered in 27 families from a genetic isolate, the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study. Potential causal variants were identified by searching for shared rare variants in the exome-sequence data of the affected members of the families contributing most to the linkage peak. The identified rare variants were then tested for association with COPD in a large meta-analysis of several cohorts. Significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 15q14-15q25 [logarithm of the odds (LOD) score = 5.52], 11p15.4-11q14.1 (LOD = 3.71) and 5q14.3-5q33.2 (LOD = 3.49). In the chromosome 15 peak, that harbors the known COPD locus for nicotinic receptors, and in the chromosome 5 peak we could not identify shared variants. In the chromosome 11 locus, we identified four rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.02), predicted pathogenic, missense variants. These were shared among the affected family members. The identified variants localize to genes including neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK), previously associated with blood biomarkers in COPD, phospholipase C Beta 3 (PLCB3), shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness, solute carrier family 22-A11 (SLC22A11), involved in amino acid metabolism and ion transport, and metallothionein-like protein 5 (MTL5), involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Association of SLC22A11 and MTL5 variants were confirmed in the meta-analysis of 9,888 cases and 27,060 controls. In conclusion, we have identified novel rare variants in plausible genes related to COPD. Further studies utilizing large sample whole-genome sequencing should further confirm the associations at chromosome 11 and investigate the chromosome 15 and 5 linked regions.

20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 709-722, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422661

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden in adults and cigarette smoking is considered the most important environmental risk factor of COPD. Chromosome 15q25.1 locus is associated with both COPD and smoking. Our study aims at understanding the mechanism underlying the association of chromosome 15q25.1 with COPD through epigenetic and transcriptional variation in a population-based setting. To assess if COPD-associated variants in 15q25.1 are methylation quantitative trait loci, epigenome-wide association analysis of four genetic variants, previously associated with COPD (P < 5 × 10-8) in the 15q25.1 locus (rs12914385:C>T-CHRNA3, rs8034191:T>C-HYKK, rs13180:C>T-IREB2 and rs8042238:C>T-IREB2), was performed in the Rotterdam study (n = 1489). All four variants were significantly associated (P < 1.4 × 10-6) with blood DNA methylation of IREB2, CHRNA3 and PSMA4, of which two, including IREB2 and PSMA4, were also differentially methylated in COPD cases and controls (P < 0.04). Further additive and multiplicative effects of smoking were evaluated and no significant effect was observed. To evaluate if these four genetic variants are expression quantitative trait loci, transcriptome-wide association analysis was performed in 1087 lung samples. All four variants were also significantly associated with differential expression of the IREB2 3'UTR in lung tissues (P < 5.4 × 10-95). We conclude that regulatory mechanisms affecting the expression of IREB2 gene, such as DNA methylation, may explain the association between genetic variants in chromosome 15q25.1 and COPD, largely independent of smoking.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Proteína 2 Reguladora do Ferro/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco
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