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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiometabolic outcomes associated with discordant visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat (LF) phenotypes in 2 cohorts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants in the Dallas Heart Study underwent baseline imaging from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2002, and were followed for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through 2013. Associations between VAT-LF groups (low-low, high-low, low-high, and high-high) and outcomes were assessed using multivariable-adjusted regression and were replicated in the independent UK Biobank. RESULTS: The Dallas Heart Study included 2064 participants (mean ± SD age, 44±9 years; 54% female; 47% black). High VAT-high LF and high VAT-low LF were associated with prevalent atherosclerosis, whereas low VAT-high LF was not. Of 1731 participants without CVD/T2DM, 128 (7.4%) developed CVD and 95 (5.5%) T2DM over a median of 12 years. High VAT-high LF and high VAT-low LF were associated with increased risk of CVD (hazard ratios [HRs], 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3 to 3.2] and 2.4 [95% CI, 1.4 to 4.1], respectively) and T2DM (odds ratios [ORs], 7.8 [95% CI, 3.8 to 15.8] and 3.3 [95% CI, 1.4 to 7.8], respectively), whereas low VAT-high LF was associated with T2DM (OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.1 to 6.7]). In the UK Biobank (N=22,354; April 2014-May 2020), only high VAT-low LF remained associated with CVD after multivariable adjustment for age and body mass index (HR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9]). CONCLUSION: Although VAT and LF are each associated with cardiometabolic risk, these observations demonstrate the importance of separating their cardiometabolic implications when there is presence or absence of either or both in an individual.

2.
Biomark Med ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663078

RESUMO

Aim: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) associate with structural heart disease and heart failure risk in individuals without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, few data are available regarding whether factors influencing levels of these two biomarkers are similar or distinct. We performed serial measurement of NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT in a contemporary multiethnic cohort with extensive phenotyping, with the goal of identifying their respective biological determinants in a population without known or suspected CVD. Methods: We evaluated 1877 participants of the Dallas Heart Study who had NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT measured and were free from clinical CVD at the each of its two examinations (2000-2002 and 2007-2009). Variables collected included demographic and risk factors, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, coronary artery calcium by computed tomography, and cardiac dimensions and function by cardiac MRI. Linear regression was used to identify associations of these factors with each biomarker at baseline and with changes in biomarkers over follow-up. Results: NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were poorly correlated at baseline (Spearman rho 0.083, p = 0.015), with only moderate correlation between change values (rho 0.18, p < 0.001). hs-cTnT positively associated and NT-proBNP inversely associated with male gender and black race. At baseline, both NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT associated with left ventricular end-diastolic volume and wall thickness, but only NT-proBNP associated with left atrial size. Changes in cardiac dimensions between phases were more strongly associated with changes in NT-proBNP than hs-cTnT. NT-proBNP was more strongly associated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and measures of body composition than hs-cTnT. Conclusion: Among individuals without CVD in the general population, NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT are nonredundant biomarkers that are differentially associated with demographic and cardiac factors. These findings indicate that hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP may reflect different pathophysiological pathways.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547056

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by adiposity and atherogenic dyslipidemia consisting of elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels however, cholesterol concentration alone does not reflect HDL functionality. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) captures a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL; studies linking CEC to MetS have yielded inconsistent findings and lacked racial/ethnic diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CEC and MetS in a large multi-ethnic population utilizing two different CEC assays interrogating overlapping but distinct reverse cholesterol transport pathways. A cross-sectional study was performed using the Dallas Heart Study cohort and cholesterol efflux was measured with radiolabeled and fluorescent cholesterol assays. The relationship between CEC and MetS was assessed using multivariable regression analyses. A total of 2241 participants were included (mean age was 50 years; 38% men and 53% Blacks). CEC was independently and inversely associated with MetS irrespective of efflux assay (CEC-radiolabeled, adjusted OR 0·71 [95% CI 0·65-0·80]. CEC-fluorescent, adjusted OR 0·85 [95% CI 0·77-0·94]). Both CEC measures were inversely associated with waist circumference and directly associated with HDL-C but not with other MetS components. There was an interaction by sex but not by race such that the inverse associations between CEC and MetS were somewhat attenuated in men (OR 0·86, 95%CI 0·74-1·01). In this large multi-ethnic cohort, impaired CEC is linked to MetS irrespective of efflux assay and race/ethnicity but less so among men. Future studies are needed to assess whether CEC mediates the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk of MetS.

5.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(9): 595-605, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral and ectopic fat are key drivers of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in obesity. We aimed to evaluate the effects of injectable liraglutide 3·0 mg daily on body fat distribution in adults with overweight or obesity without type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4, single centre trial, we enrolled community-dwelling adults, recruited from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, with BMI of at least 30 kg/m2 or BMI of at least 27 kg/m2 with metabolic syndrome but without diabetes and randomly assigned them, in a 1:1 ratio, to 40 weeks of treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3·0 mg or placebo, in addition to a 500 kcal deficient diet and guideline-recommended physical activity counselling. The primary endpoint was percentage reduction in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured with MRI. All randomly assigned participants with a follow-up imaging assessment were included in efficacy analyses and all participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03038620. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2017 and Feb 21, 2020 from 235 participants assessed for eligibility, 185 participants were randomly assigned (n=92 liraglutide, n=93 placebo) and 128 (n=73 liraglutide, n=55 placebo) were included in the final analysis (92% female participants, 37% Black participants, 24% Hispanic participants, mean age 50·2 years (SD 9·4), mean BMI 37·7 kg/m2). Mean change in VAT over median 36·2 weeks was -12·49% (SD 9·3%) with liraglutide compared with -1·63% (SD 12·3%) with placebo, estimated treatment difference -10·86% (95% CI -6·97 to -14·75, p<0·0001). Effects seemed consistent across subgroups of age, sex, race-ethnicity, BMI, and baseline prediabetes. The most frequently reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related (43 [47%] of 92 with liraglutide and 12 [13%] of 93 with placebo) and upper respiratory tract infections (10 [11%] of 92 with liraglutide and 14 [15%] of 93 with placebo). INTERPRETATION: In adults with overweight or obesity at high cardiovascular disease risk, once-daily liraglutide 3·0 mg plus lifestyle intervention significantly lowered visceral adipose tissue over 40 weeks of treatment. Visceral fat reduction may be one mechanism to explain the benefits seen on cardiovascular outcomes in previous trials with liraglutide among patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: NovoNordisk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(5): 513-531, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325840

RESUMO

Obesity contributes to reduced life expectancy because of its link with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Yet, targeting this poorly diagnosed, ill-defined, and underaddressed modifiable risk factor remains a challenge. In this review, we emphasize that the tendency among health care professionals to amalgam all forms of obesity altogether as a single entity may contribute to such difficulties and discrepancies. Obesity is a heterogeneous condition both in terms of causes and health consequences. Attention should be given to 2 prevalent subgroups of individuals: 1) patients who are overweight or moderately obese with excess visceral adipose tissue; and 2) patients with severe obesity, the latter group having distinct additional health issues related to their large body fat mass. The challenge of tackling high-cardiovascular-risk forms of obesity through a combination of personalized clinical approaches and population-based solutions is compounded by the current obesogenic environment and economy.

8.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 78, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), high body mass index, and excess visceral adiposity are each associated with impairment in left ventricular (LV) peak circumferential strain (Ecc), an intermediate phenotype that precedes the development of clinical heart failure (HF). However, the association of regional fat distribution and CRF with Ecc independent of each other and other potential confounders is not known. METHODS: Participants from the Dallas Heart Study Phase 2 who underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment of regional fat distribution, CRF assessment by submaximal treadmill test, and Ecc quantification by tissue-tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance were included in the analysis. The cross-sectional associations of measures of regional adiposity, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and lower-body fat (LBF) with Ecc after adjustment for CRF and other potential confounders (independent variables) were assessed using multivariable linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The study included 1089 participants (55% female, 39% black). In the unadjusted analysis, higher VAT was associated with greater impairment in Ecc. After adjustment for baseline risk factors, CRF, parameters of LV structure and function, and other fat depots such as SAT and LBF, higher VAT remained associated with greater impairment in Ecc (ß: 0.19, P = 0.002). SAT and LBF were not significantly associated with Ecc, however, CRF remained associated with Ecc in the fully adjusted model including all fat depots (ß: - 0.15, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: VAT and CRF are each independently associated with impairment in Ecc, suggesting that higher VAT burden and low CRF mediate pathological cardiac remodeling through distinct mechanisms.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(7): 484-493, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the independent associations and interactions between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and physical activity (PA) with risk of heart failure (HF) subtypes, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: Black adults are at high risk for developing HF. Physical inactivity and subclinical myocardial injury, as assessed by hs-cTnI concentration, are independent risk factors for HF. METHODS: Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study without prevalent HF who had hs-cTnI concentration and self-reported PA assessed at baseline were included. Adjusted Cox models were used to evaluate the independent and joint associations and interaction between hs-cTnI concentrations and PA with risk of HFpEF and HFrEF. RESULTS: Among 3,959 participants, 25.1% had subclinical myocardial injury (hs-cTnI ≥4 and ≥6 ng/l in women and men, respectively), and 48.2% were inactive (moderate-to-vigorous PA = 0 min/week). Over 12.0 years of follow-up, 163 and 150 participants had an incident HFpEF and HFrEF event, respectively. In adjusted analysis, higher hs-cTnI concentration (per 1-U log increase) was associated with higher risk of HFpEF (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25 to 1.72]) and HFrEF (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.83]). In contrast, higher PA (per 1-U log increase) was associated with a lower risk of HFpEF (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.99]) but not HFrEF. There was a significant interaction between hs-cTnI and PA for risk of HFpEF (p interaction = 0.04) such that inactive participants with subclinical myocardial injury were at higher risk of HFpEF but active participants were not. CONCLUSIONS: Among Black adults with subclinical myocardial injury, higher levels of PA were associated with attenuated risk of HFpEF.

13.
Circulation ; 143(21): e984-e1010, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882682

RESUMO

The global obesity epidemic is well established, with increases in obesity prevalence for most countries since the 1980s. Obesity contributes directly to incident cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and sleep disorders. Obesity also leads to the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular disease mortality independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. More recent data highlight abdominal obesity, as determined by waist circumference, as a cardiovascular disease risk marker that is independent of body mass index. There have also been significant advances in imaging modalities for characterizing body composition, including visceral adiposity. Studies that quantify fat depots, including ectopic fat, support excess visceral adiposity as an independent indicator of poor cardiovascular outcomes. Lifestyle modification and subsequent weight loss improve both metabolic syndrome and associated systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. However, clinical trials of medical weight loss have not demonstrated a reduction in coronary artery disease rates. In contrast, prospective studies comparing patients undergoing bariatric surgery with nonsurgical patients with obesity have shown reduced coronary artery disease risk with surgery. In this statement, we summarize the impact of obesity on the diagnosis, clinical management, and outcomes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias, especially sudden cardiac death and atrial fibrillation. In particular, we examine the influence of obesity on noninvasive and invasive diagnostic procedures for coronary artery disease. Moreover, we review the impact of obesity on cardiac function and outcomes related to heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Finally, we describe the effects of lifestyle and surgical weight loss interventions on outcomes related to coronary artery disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

14.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(5): 257-259, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653621

RESUMO

Deficiencies in the care of patients with diabetes are the norm rather than the exception. We propose a reframing of diabetes care quality, which encompasses four key principles ('the 4 BEs') that together can help address deficiencies in the care of the patient with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and eliminate these missed opportunities.

16.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(2): 482-494, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305476

RESUMO

Although obesity is typically defined by body mass index criteria, this does not differentiate true body fatness, as this includes both body fat and muscle. Therefore, other fat depots may better define cardiometabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk imposed by obesity. Data from translational, epidemiological, and clinical studies over the past 3 decades have clearly demonstrated that accumulation of adiposity in the abdominal viscera and within tissue depots lacking physiological adipose tissue storage capacity (termed "ectopic fat") is strongly associated with the development of a clinical syndrome characterized by atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia/glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and abnormal cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This state-of-the-art paper discusses the impact of various body fat depots on cardiometabolic parameters and CVD risk. Specifically, it reviews novel and emerging imaging techniques to evaluate adiposity and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and CVD.

17.
Circulation ; 143(2): 135-144, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity may contribute to adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, studies of large, broadly generalizable patient populations are lacking, and the effect of body mass index (BMI) on COVID-19 outcomes- particularly in younger adults-remains uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at 88 US hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry with data collection through July 22, 2020. BMI was stratified by World Health Organization obesity class, with normal weight prespecified as the reference group. RESULTS: Obesity, and, in particular, class III obesity, was overrepresented in the registry in comparison with the US population, with the largest differences among adults ≤50 years. Among 7606 patients, in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation occurred in 2109 (27.7%), in-hospital death in 1302 (17.1%), and mechanical ventilation in 1602 (21.1%). After multivariable adjustment, classes I to III obesity were associated with higher risks of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.57 [1.29-1.91], 1.80 [1.47-2.20], respectively), and class III obesity was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.00-1.58]). Overweight and class I to III obese individuals were at higher risk for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.09-1.51], 1.54 [1.29-1.84], 1.88 [1.52-2.32], and 2.08 [1.68-2.58], respectively). Significant BMI by age interactions were seen for all primary end points (P-interaction<0.05 for each), such that the association of BMI with death or mechanical ventilation was strongest in adults ≤50 years, intermediate in adults 51 to 70 years, and weakest in adults >70 years. Severe obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m2) was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital death only in those ≤50 years (hazard ratio, 1.36 [1.01-1.84]). In adjusted analyses, higher BMI was associated with dialysis initiation and with venous thromboembolism but not with major adverse cardiac events. CONCLUSIONS: Obese patients are more likely to be hospitalized with COVID-19, and are at higher risk of in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation, in particular, if young (age ≤50 years). Obese patients are also at higher risk for venous thromboembolism and dialysis. These observations support clear public health messaging and rigorous adherence to COVID-19 prevention strategies in all obese individuals regardless of age.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Obesidade , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Etários , Idoso , American Heart Association , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/classificação , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(5): 649-655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002457

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptides (NPs, B-type natriuretic peptide /BNP and NT-proBNP) are universally used biomarkers with established cut-points to aid in the diagnosis of heart failure (HF). It has been demonstrated that an inverse relationship exists between obesity, defined by the body mass index (BMI), and NPs, such that the application of NPs to diagnostic algorithms in HF remains challenging in overweight and obese patients. Some have advocated that lowering the cut-offs for NPs or using a correction for high BMI may improve the diagnostic accuracy in obese individuals. The inverse relationship of NPs with high BMI is present in both HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction, although levels tend to be higher in HFrEF. Nevertheless, data from several studies have shown that the prognostic value of NPs is preserved across BMI classes, and that increasing circulating levels of NPs correlate with adverse outcomes including all-cause mortality and HF hospitalizations. While NPs can still be used in diagnosis of HF in obese individuals, lower thresholds and the clinical context should be utilized in decision making. Additionally, given the validated prognostic value even in obesity, NPs can be employed in risk-stratification of individuals with obesity and HF, although there remains limited evidence about use in those with severe obesity (BMI >40 kg/m2).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(12): 3007-3015, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of empagliflozin on the incidence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its effects on metabolic, cardiovascular (CV), and renal outcomes among participants with or without OSA in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with diabetes and CV disease were randomized to empagliflozin (10 and 25 mg) or placebo daily in addition to standard of care. OSA was assessed by investigator report using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities version 18.0, and CV outcomes were independently adjudicated. Analyses were performed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: OSA was reported in 391 of 7,020 (5.6%) participants at baseline. Those with OSA were more likely to be male (83% vs. 71%) and to have moderate to severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2; 55% vs. 18%). Over a median of 3.1 years, empagliflozin had similar placebo-adjusted reductions in HbA1c, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, regardless of OSA status, but a larger effect on weight (adjusted mean ± SE difference at week 52: OSA vs. no OSA -2.9 ± 0.5 vs. -1.9 ± 0.1 kg). Incidence of 3-point major adverse CV events, CV death, heart failure hospitalization, and incident or worsening nephropathy in the placebo group was 1.2- to 2.0-fold higher for those with baseline OSA compared with those without. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk for outcomes regardless of OSA status (P-interaction all >0.05). Fifty patients reported a new diagnosis of OSA through 7 days after medication discontinuation, and this occurred less often with empagliflozin treatment (hazard ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27, 0.83]). CONCLUSIONS: In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, participants with OSA had greater comorbidity and higher frequency of CV and renal events. Empagliflozin had favorable effects on risk factors and CV and renal outcomes regardless of preexisting OSA and may also reduce the risk for new-onset OSA.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2023242, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119108

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a global health challenge and a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASVCD). Performance of the pooled cohort equations (PCE) for ASCVD risk by body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is unknown. Objective: To assess performance of the PCE across clinical BMI categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used pooled individual-level data from 8 community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort studies with 10-year ASCVD event follow-up from 1996 to 2016. We included all adults ages 40 to 79 years without baseline ASCVD or statin use, resulting in a sample size of 37 311 participants. Data were analyzed from August 2017 to July 2020. Exposures: Participant BMI category: underweight (<18.5), normal weight (18.5 to <25), overweight (25 to <30), mild obesity (30 to <35), and moderate to severe obesity (≥35). Main Outcomes and Measures: Discrimination (Harrell C statistic) and calibration (Nam-D'Agostino χ2 goodness-of-fit test) of the PCE across BMI categories. Improvement in discrimination and net reclassification with addition of BMI, waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to the PCE. Results: Among 37 311 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.6 [11.8] years; 21 897 [58.7%] women), 380 604 person-years of follow-up were conducted. Mean (SD) baseline BMI was 29.0 (6.2), and 360 individuals (1.0%) were in the underweight category, 9937 individuals (26.6%) were in the normal weight category, 13 601 individuals (36.4%) were in the overweight category, 7783 individuals (20.9%) were in the mild obesity category, and 5630 individuals (15.1%) were in the moderate to severe obesity category. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) 10-year estimated ASCVD risk was 7.1% (2.5%-15.4%), and 3709 individuals (9.9%) developed ASCVD over a median (IQR) 10.8 [8.5-12.6] years. The PCE overestimated ASCVD risk in the overall cohort (estimated/observed [E/O] risk ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.18-1.26) and across all BMI categories except the underweight category. Calibration was better near the clinical decision threshold in all BMI groups but worse among individuals with moderate or severe obesity (E/O risk ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.25-1.47) and among those with the highest estimated ASCVD risk ≥20%. The PCE C statistic overall was 0.760 (95% CI, 0.753-0.767), with lower discrimination in the moderate or severe obesity group (C statistic, 0.742; 95% CI, 0.721-0.763) compared with the normal-range BMI group (C statistic, 0.785; 95% CI, 0.772-0.798). Waist circumference (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.11) and hsCRP (hazard ratio, 1.07 per 1-SD increase; 95% CI, 1.05-1.09), but not BMI, were associated with increased ASCVD risk when added to the PCE. However, these factors did not improve model performance (C statistic, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.753-0.767) with or without added metrics. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the PCE had acceptable model discrimination and were well calibrated at clinical decision thresholds but overestimated risk of ASCVD for individuals in overweight and obese categories, particularly individuals with high estimated risk. Incorporation of the usual clinical measures of obesity did not improve risk estimation of the PCE. Future research is needed to determine whether incorporation of alternative high-risk obesity markers (eg, weight trajectory or measures of visceral or ectopic fat) into the PCE may improve risk prediction.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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