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1.
J Crit Care ; 58: 58-64, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A task force of experts from 11 United States (US) centers, sought to describe practices for managing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell toxicity in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June-July 2019, a survey was electronically distributed to 11 centers. The survey addressed: CAR products, toxicities, targeted treatments, management practices and interventions in the ICU. RESULTS: Most centers (82%) had experience with commercial and non-FDA approved CAR products. Criteria for ICU admission varied between centers for patients with Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) but were similar for Immune Effector Cell Associated Neurotoxicity Syndrome (ICANS). Practices for vasopressor support, neurotoxicity and electroencephalogram monitoring, use of prophylactic anti-epileptic drugs and tocilizumab were comparable. In contrast, fluid resuscitation, respiratory support, methods of surveillance and management of cerebral edema, use of corticosteroid and other anti-cytokine therapies varied between centers. CONCLUSIONS: This survey identified areas of investigation that could improve outcomes in CAR T-cell recipients such as fluid and vasopressor selection in CRS, management of respiratory failure, and less common complications such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infections and stroke. The variability in specific treatments for CAR T-cell toxicities, needs to be considered when designing future outcome studies of critically ill CAR T-cell patients.

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902104, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an autologous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) on the basis of the single-arm phase II ZUMA-1 trial, which showed best overall and complete response rates in infused patients of 83% and 58%, respectively. We report clinical outcomes with axi-cel in the standard-of-care (SOC) setting for the approved indication. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from all patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL who underwent leukapheresis as of September 30, 2018, at 17 US institutions with the intent to receive SOC axi-cel. Toxicities were graded and managed according to each institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification. RESULTS: Of 298 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 275 (92%) received axi-cel therapy. Compared with the registrational ZUMA-1 trial, 129 patients (43%) in this SOC study would not have met ZUMA-1 eligibility criteria because of comorbidities at the time of leukapheresis. Among the axi-cel-treated patients, grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 7% and 31%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 4.4%. Best overall and complete response rates in infused patients were 82% (95% CI, 77% to 86%) and 64% (95% CI, 58% to 69%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 12.9 months from the time of CAR T-cell infusion, median progression-free survival was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.0 to15.1 months), and median overall survival was not reached. Patients with poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4 and elevated lactate dehydrogenase had shorter progression-free and overall survival on univariable and multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: The safety and efficacy of axi-cel in the SOC setting in patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL was comparable to the registrational ZUMA-1 trial.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 10(4): 492-494, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238396

RESUMO

In this issue, Singh and colleagues describe a novel tumor-intrinsic mechanism of resistance to chimericantigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting CD19 in B-cell malignancies. They show that reduced expression of death receptor genes in the tumors mediates resistance to killing by CAR T cells, leads to progressive CAR T-cell dysfunction, and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome in patients.See related article by Singh et al., p. 552.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 189(4): 650-660, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180219

RESUMO

This phase 2 study evaluated the activity and safety of ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus rituximab in adults with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients received once-daily ibrutinib 560 mg continuously plus once-weekly rituximab 375 mg/m2 for 4 weeks beginning Week 1 (Arm 1, n = 60) or Week 9 (following an 8-week ibrutinib lead-in) to explore biomarkers (Arm 2, n = 20). The primary endpoint was the best overall response rate (ORR). The median age was 58 years; most had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status of 0 (74%) and Stage III/IV disease (84%). At a median study follow-up of 34 months in Arm 1 and 29 months in Arm 2, ORRs were 85% [95% confidence interval (CI) 73-93] and 75% (95% CI 51-91), respectively, with complete responses in 40% and 50%. The median duration of response was not reached in either arm; 30-month progression-free and overall survival rates were 67% and 97% (Arm 1) and 65% and 100% (Arm 2). The most common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhoea and nausea. Higher grade (Grade 3/4) haematological, haemorrhagic and cardiac events occurred infrequently. Ibrutinib plus rituximab was active and tolerable in first-line follicular lymphoma.

6.
Blood ; 135(7): 460-462, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197269
7.
Am J Hematol ; 95(5): 510-520, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052473

RESUMO

Urelumab, a fully human, non-ligand binding, CD137 agonist IgG4 monoclonal antibody, enhances T-cell and natural killer-cell antitumor activity in preclinical models, and may enhance cytotoxic activity of rituximab. Here we report results in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and other B-cell lymphomas, in phase 1 studies evaluating urelumab alone (NCT01471210) or combined with rituximab (NCT01775631). Sixty patients received urelumab (0.3 mg/kg IV Q3W, 8 mg IV Q3W, or 8 mg IV Q6W); 46 received urelumab (0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, or 8 mg IV Q3W) plus rituximab 375 mg/m2 IV QW. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of urelumab was determined to be 0.1 mg/kg or 8 mg Q3W after a single event of potential drug-induced liver injury occurred with urelumab 0.3 mg/kg. Treatment-related AEs were reported in 52% (urelumab: grade 3/4, 15%) and 72% (urelumab + rituximab: grade 3/4, 28%); three led to discontinuation (grade 3 increased AST, grade 4 acute hepatitis [urelumab]; one death from sepsis syndrome [urelumab plus rituximab]). Objective response rates/disease control rates were 6%/19% (DLBCL, n = 31), 12%/35% (FL, n = 17), and 17%/42% (other B-cell lymphomas, n = 12) with urelumab and 10%/24% (DLBCL, n = 29) and 35%/71% (FL, n = 17) with urelumab plus rituximab. Durable remissions in heavily pretreated patients were achieved; however, many were observed at doses exceeding the MTD. These data show that urelumab alone or in combination with rituximab demonstrated manageable safety in B-cell lymphoma, but the combination did not enhance clinical activity relative to rituximab alone or other current standard of care.

8.
Haematologica ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029507

RESUMO

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a critical DNA damage sensor with protein kinase activity,is frequently altered in human cancers including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Loss of ATM protein is linked to accumulation of nonfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, in both murine thymocytes and in A-T cells. However, the mechanistic role of ATM kinase in cancer cell mitophagy is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that FCCP-induced mitophagy in MCL and other cancer cell lines is dependent on ATM but independent of its kinase function. While Granta-519 MCL cells possess single copy and kinase dead ATM and are resistant to FCCP-induced mitophagy, both Jeko-1 and Mino cells are ATM proficient and induce mitophagy. Stable knockdown of ATM in Jeko-1 and Mino cells conferred resistance to mitophagy and was associated with reduced ATP production, oxygen consumption, and increased mROS. ATM interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin in a kinase-independent manner. Knockdown of ATM in HeLa cells resulted in proteasomal degradation of GFP-Parkin which was rescued by the proteasome inhibitor, MG132 suggesting that ATM-Parkin interaction is important for Parkin stability. Neither loss of ATM kinase activity in primary B cell lymphomas nor inhibition of ATM kinase in MCL, A-T and HeLa cell lines mitigated FCCP or CCCP-induced mitophagy suggesting that ATM kinase activity is dispensable for mitophagy. Malignant B-cell lymphomas without detectable ATM, Parkin, Pink1, and Parkin-Ub ser65 phosphorylation were resistant to mitophagy, providing the first molecular evidence of ATM's role in mitophagy in MCL and other B-cell lymphomas.

9.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971032

RESUMO

In 2 randomized phase 3 trials BR resulted in longer progression-free survival (PFS) than frontline R-CHOP in patients with indolent and mantle cell lymphoma. However, in subset analyses of follicular lymphoma (FL), the results were incongruent. We conducted a retrospective matched-pair analysis to compare the outcome of patients with advanced stage FL, receiving frontline BR (N = 73) or R-CHOP (N = 73), matched by age, gender, stage, and FL International Prognostic Index score. On multivariable analysis, baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) >13 was associated with use of R-CHOP (p = .001). After a median follow-up of 69 months for the BR arm and 126 months for the R-CHOP arm, 5-year PFS was 80% and 70%, respectively (p = .07). After adjusting for SUVmax >13, the trend for better PFS in BR was not maintained. Prospective studies are needed to validate the role of pretreatment SUVmax as a stratification factor in future randomized therapeutic trials in FL.

10.
Cancer Discov ; 10(3): 440-459, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915197

RESUMO

CREBBP mutations are highly recurrent in B-cell lymphomas and either inactivate its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain or truncate the protein. Herein, we show that these two classes of mutations yield different degrees of disruption of the epigenome, with HAT mutations being more severe and associated with inferior clinical outcome. Genes perturbed by CREBBP mutation are direct targets of the BCL6-HDAC3 onco-repressor complex. Accordingly, we show that HDAC3-selective inhibitors reverse CREBBP-mutant aberrant epigenetic programming, resulting in: (i) growth inhibition of lymphoma cells through induction of BCL6 target genes such as CDKN1A and (ii) restoration of immune surveillance due to induction of BCL6-repressed IFN pathway and antigen-presenting genes. By reactivating these genes, exposure to HDAC3 inhibitors restored the ability of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to kill DLBCL cells in an MHC class I and II-dependent manner, and synergized with PD-L1 blockade in a syngeneic model in vivo. Hence, HDAC3 inhibition represents a novel mechanism-based immune epigenetic therapy for CREBBP-mutant lymphomas. SIGNIFICANCE: We have leveraged the molecular characterization of different types of CREBBP mutations to define a rational approach for targeting these mutations through selective inhibition of HDAC3. This represents an attractive therapeutic avenue for targeting synthetic vulnerabilities in CREBBP-mutant cells in tandem with promoting antitumor immunity.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 327.

12.
JAMA Oncol ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697310

RESUMO

Importance: Axicabtagene ciloleucel, an anti-CD19-CD28-CD3ζ chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, was the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved, genetically engineered T-cell therapy for adults with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) after 2 or more lines of systemic therapy. There has not been a US Food and Drug Administration-approved product for these cancers in more than 4 decades. Observations: Unlike traditional anticancer therapies, axicabtagene ciloleucel is a patient-specific, live-cell product that has unique requirements for manufacturing, shipping, and storage, as well as for its administration and management of its adverse events. In addition, axicabtagene ciloleucel has demonstrated efficacy in patients with refractory LBCL. This review presents a timeline of the rapid clinical development of axicabtagene ciloleucel from bench to bedside, highlights how axicabtagene ciloleucel satisfies an unmet medical need for treatment of refractory LBCL, outlines the logistics of the production process and administration of axicabtagene ciloleucel, describes its mechanism of action, and summarizes the results of the pivotal study. This review also provides a survey of adverse events, with attention to the kinetics of their clinical presentation; discusses the management of adverse events; and offers suggestions for appropriate patient selection for safe administration of axicabtagene ciloleucel. Conclusions and Relevance: The integration of axicabtagene ciloleucel therapy into standard-of-care practice for relapsed/refractory LBCL is the beginning of a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with LBCL and is likely to lead to improvements in their survival and curability. Timely referral to centers offering the therapy is necessary for optimal patient outcomes.

13.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601688

RESUMO

The impact of pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on the outcome following specific frontline regimens has not been explored. We performed a retrospective analysis of 346 patients with advanced stage FL without histological evidence of transformation, and analyzed the impact of SUVmax on outcome after frontline therapy. Fifty-two (15%) patients had a SUVmax > 18, and largest lymph node > 6 cm was the only factor associating with SUVmax > 18 on multivariate analysis (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.3, p=0.006). The complete response rate was significantly lower among patients treated with non-anthracycline-based regimens if SUVmax was > 18 (45% vs 92%, p<0.001), but not among patients treated with R-CHOP (p=1). SUVmax > 18 was associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival among patients treated with non-anthracycline-based regimens (77 months vs not reached, p=0.02), but not among patients treated with R-CHOP (p=0.73). SUVmax > 18 associated with shorter overall survival (OS) both in patients treated with R-CHOP (8 year OS 70% vs 90%, p=0.02) and non-anthracycline-based frontline regimens (8 year OS 50% vs 85%, p=0.001). In conclusion, pre-treatment PET scan has prognostic and predictive value in patients with advanced stage FL receiving frontline treatment.

14.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 42(10): 789-796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy can significantly improve outcomes for patients with certain hematologic malignancies. The most notable drawbacks of CART are cytokine release syndrome and CART-related encephalopathy syndrome. Gastrointestinal adverse events (GI-AEs) have not yet been reported in association with CART. Herein, we describe the incidence and clinical features of GI-AEs observed after CART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case series of patients with hematologic malignancies who received CART, in a clinical trial or as the standard of care, and subsequently suffered from GI-AEs between 2012 and 2018. RESULTS: In our cohort, 37 of 132 (28%) patients experienced GI-AEs. All 37 experienced diarrhea with a median onset of 7 days (interquartile range, 4 to 25 d) after CART infusion. The median age of these patients was 58 years. Most had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (51%). Seventeen patients experienced cytokine release syndrome, and 9 experienced CART-related encephalopathy syndrome. The interleukin-6 antagonist was required in 15 patients. Overall, 49% of patients had grade 1 diarrhea, 32% had grade 2, and 15% had grade 3. Other gastrointestinal symptoms in these patients were abdominal pain (41%), nausea and vomiting (49%), fever (8%), bloody stools (3%), and abdominal distension (5%). The median duration of symptoms was 6 days (interquartile range, 3 to 9 d). In 32 patients who underwent imaging, 8 (25%) had findings suggestive of gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Nine (24%) patients experienced GI-AE recurrence after initial improvement. The symptoms were attributed to an alternative cause in 17 (13%) cases and to CART in 20 (15%) cases. One patient developed CART-related refractory colitis that eventually responded to antibiotics for pneumonia. CONCLUSION: CART-related GI-AEs occur in 15% of patients treated with CART. These symptoms are typically mild and self-limiting, requiring only symptomatic treatment. Nevertheless, CART may, in rare cases, lead to refractory colitis.

15.
Blood Adv ; 3(15): 2400-2408, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405950

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is, in most patients, an incurable cancer. Its precursors can be identified with routine tests setting the stage for early intervention to prevent active myeloma. We investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab, an antiprogrammed cell death 1 antibody, in smoldering myeloma patients with intermediate/high risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. Thirteen patients were treated with a median number of 8 cycles. One patient achieved a stringent complete response with bone marrow next-generation sequencing negativity at 10-4 that is ongoing at 27 months (8%); 11 had stable disease (85%), and 1 progressed (8%). Three patients discontinued therapy due to immune-related adverse events: 2 with transaminitis and 1 due to tubulointerstitial nephritis. Immune profiling of bone marrow samples at baseline showed markers associated with a preexisting immune response in the responder compared with nonresponders and features of increased T-cell exhaustion in nonresponders. Consistent with this, transcriptome sequencing of bone marrow samples at baseline revealed an increased interferon-γ signature in the responder compared with the nonresponders. In summary, our results suggest that smoldering myeloma may be immunogenic in a subset of patients, and therapies that enhance antitumor T-cell responses may be effective in preventing its progression. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02603887.

16.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(12): 2305-2321, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446199

RESUMO

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YESCARTA; Kite Pharma, a Gilead Company, Los Angeles CA) and tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., Basel, Switzerland) are two CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell products currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration; the European Medicines Agency; Health Canada; Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (Japan); and Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia) for treatment of specific subtypes of relapsed/refractory aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Although this approval has been transformative in the use of cellular immunotherapy in lymphoma, there are concerns regarding appropriate use of this novel therapy and of short- and long-term toxicities. To address these issues, representatives of the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy convened to recognize and address key issues surrounding the clinical application of CD19 CAR T cell therapy in B cell lymphomas, in collaboration with worldwide experts. The aim of this article is to provide consensus opinion from experts in the fields of hematopoietic cell transplantation, cellular immunotherapy, and lymphoma regarding key clinical questions pertinent to the use of CD19 CAR T cell products for the treatment of NHL. As the clinical practice using CAR T cells grows worldwide, we anticipate that this guidance will be relevant for hematology/oncology physicians who care for patients with lymphomas.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(497)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217338

RESUMO

The activated B cell (ABC-like) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by chronic activation of signaling initiated by immunoglobulin µ (IgM). By analyzing the DNA copy number profiles of 1000 DLBCL tumors, we identified gains of 18q21.2 as the most frequent genetic alteration in ABC-like DLBCL. Using integrative analysis of matched gene expression profiling data, we found that the TCF4 (E2-2) transcription factor gene was the target of these alterations. Overexpression of TCF4 in ABC-like DLBCL cell lines led to its occupancy on immunoglobulin (IGHM) and MYC gene enhancers and increased expression of these genes at the transcript and protein levels. Inhibition of TCF4 activity with dominant-negative constructs was synthetically lethal to ABC-like DLBCL cell lines harboring TCF4 DNA copy gains, highlighting these gains as an attractive potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, the TCF4 gene was one of the top BRD4-regulated genes in DLBCL cell lines. BET proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV771 extinguished TCF4, MYC, and IgM expression and killed ABC-like DLBCL cells in vitro. In DLBCL xenograft models, ARV771 treatment reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. This work highlights a genetic mechanism for promoting immunoglobulin signaling in ABC-like DLBCL and provides a functional rationale for the use of BET inhibitors in this disease.

18.
Hematol Oncol ; 37 Suppl 1: 48-52, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187535

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has the potential to revolutionize the management of B-cell lymphomas and possibly other cancers. Two anti-CD19 CAR T-cell products, axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel, have been approved for the management of relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two lines of systemic therapy. Additional trials are ongoing to evaluate these and other CAR T products at earlier stages of the disease course as well as in other lymphomas. While the potential to induce durable remissions with a single CAR T-cell infusion even in patients who are chemorefractory has generated much enthusiasm in the field, practitioners need to familiarize themselves with the unique toxicities associated with these therapies. This review will discuss the grading and management of the two most common toxicities, cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), observed acutely after this therapy. In addition, late toxicities including prolonged cytopenias and on-target off-tumor effects will be reviewed.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citocinas/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfoma/patologia , Linfoma/terapia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(13): 3258-3265, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234671

RESUMO

Patients with early-stage nodal follicular lymphoma (FL) may be rendered free of detectable disease by a diagnostic excisional biopsy. We reviewed the management and outcomes of 48 patients with FL, diagnosed from 2003-2013, treated at a single institution. The primary endpoints were local control (LC) and progression-free survival (PFS).Median age at diagnosis was 54.5 years (range 15-74 years). Forty-seven patients were stage I (97.9%); 15 patients (31.3%) had grade 3 disease. Initial management consisted of observation (12 patients; 25.0%), radiation therapy (RT) alone (12 patients; 25.0%), systemic therapy alone (9 cases; 18.8%), or both (15 patients; 31.3%). Median follow-up was 4.92 years (range 0.5-13.83 years). 4-year PFS and OS were 80.9% and 97.1%, respectively. Patients treated with additional therapy experienced significantly better 4-year LC (100% vs. 81.8%; p = .012) and 4-year PFS (86.7% vs. 63.6%; p = .006).Patients with completely resected limited-stage FL would benefit from therapy beyond excisional biopsy alone.

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