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1.
Clin Lab Med ; 41(1): 35-49, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494884

RESUMO

Massive transfusion in pediatric patients is infrequent but associated with much higher mortality than in adults. Blood transfusion and hematology has conceptualized ideas such as blood failure and the interplay of the blood-endothelium interface to understand coagulopathy in the context of hemorrhagic shock. Researchers are still searching for an appropriate definition of what constitutes a pediatric massive transfusion. There is no universally accepted protocol for massive transfusion and how to address the many complications that can arise. Pharmacologic adjuncts to resuscitation may prove beneficial in reducing coagulopathy during pediatric massive transfusion, but high-quality evidence has not yet emerged.

2.
J Pediatr Surg ; 56(4): 825-828, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349422

RESUMO

The management of choledocholithiasis in children and teenagers is often a two-procedure process with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and either pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The addition of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) during LC can provide definitive treatment for choledocholithiasis during a single anesthetic event. In an effort to minimize sedation and radiation exposure from fluoroscopy, we have employed dilating balloons via a transcystic approach to stretch the sphincter of Oddi with subsequent ductal flushing. We describe the technique of balloon sphincteroplasty as a straightforward adjunct within the pediatric surgeon's skill set to manage choledocholithiasis during LC and our clinical experience.

4.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: About half of pediatric blunt trauma patients undergo an abdominopelvic computed tomographic (CT) scan, while few of these require intervention for an intraabdominal injury. We evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based guideline for blunt abdominal trauma at a Level I pediatric trauma center. METHODS: Pediatric blunt trauma patients (n = 998) age 0-15 years who presented from the injury scene were evaluated over a 10 year period. After five years, we implemented our guideline in which the decision for CT was standardized based on mental status, abdominal examination, and laboratory results (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hemoglobin, urinalysis). RESULTS: There were no differences in age, GCS, SIPA or ISS scores between the patients before or after guideline implementation. Nearly half of the patients (48.3%) underwent CT scan before guideline implementation compared to 36.7% after (p < 0.0002). There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.44) between CT scanned patients in either group. No statistical differences were found in rate of intervention (p = 0.20), length of stay (p = 0.65), or readmission rate (0.2%) before versus after guideline implementation. There were no missed injuries. CONCLUSION: Implementation of an evidence-based clinical guideline for pediatric patients with blunt abdominal trauma decreases the rate of CT utilization while accurately identifying significant injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

5.
Mil Med ; 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC) is an automated partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) platform designed to mitigate the deleterious effects of complete REBOA. Long-term experiments are needed to assess potential benefits. The feasibility of a 24-hour experiment in a complex large animal trauma model remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anesthetized swine were subjected to controlled hemorrhage, blunt thoracic trauma, and tibial fractures. Animals were then randomized (N = 3/group) to control (No balloon support), 90 minutes of complete supraceliac REBOA, or 10 minutes of supraceliac REBOA followed by 80 minutes of EVAC. One hundred ten minutes after injury, animals were resuscitated with shed blood, the REBOA catheter was removed. Automated critical care under general anesthesia was maintained for 24 hours. RESULTS: Animals in the control and EVAC groups survived to the end of the experiment. Animals in the REBOA group survived for 120, 130, and 660 minutes, respectively. Animals in the EVAC group displayed similar mean arterial pressure and plasma lactate concentration as the control group by the end of the experiment. Histologic analysis suggested myocardial injury in the REBOA group when compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of intermediate-term experiments in a complex swine model of polytrauma with 90 minutes of REBOA. EVAC may be associated with improved survival at 24 hours when compared with complete REBOA. EVAC resulted in normalized physiology after 24 hours, suggesting that prolonged partial occlusion is possible. Longer studies evaluating partial REBOA strategies are needed.

6.
Injury ; 51(10): 2165-2171, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) causes myocardial injury from increased aortic afterload and supraphysiologic cardiac output. However, pharmacologic methods to attenuate high cardiac output and reduce myocardial injury have not been explored. We hypothesized that the use of esmolol during REBOA would reduce myocardial injury. METHODS: Ten pigs were anesthetized and instrumented. Following 25% total blood volume hemorrhage, animals underwent 45 min of supraceliac (zone 1) REBOA with or without titration of esmolol to maintain heart rate between 80 and 100 beats per minute. Following the REBOA interventions, animals underwent 275 min of standardized critical care. RESULTS: During REBOA, heart rate was significantly lower in the esmolol group compared to control animals (100 [88 - 112] vs 193 [172 - 203] beats/minute, respectively, p < 0.001) and the average mean arterial pressure (MAP) was lower in the esmolol group (88.0 [80.3-94.9] vs 135.1 [131.7-140.4] mmHg, respectively, p = 0.01). During the critical care phase, there were no differences in heart rate or MAP between groups. Animals in the intervention group received 237.9 [218.7-266.5] µg/kg of esmolol. There was a significant increase from baseline in serum troponins for the control group (p = 0.006) and significantly more subendocardial hemorrhage compared to animals treated with esmolol (3 [3 - 3] and 0 [0 - 0], p = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSION: In our porcine model of hemorrhagic shock, zone 1 REBOA was associated with myocardial injury. Pharmacologic heart rate titration with esmolol during occlusion may mitigate the deleterious effects of REBOA on the heart.

7.
J Blood Med ; 11: 163-172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547282

RESUMO

In adults, the use of balanced resuscitation and study of massive transfusion protocols have led to improved outcomes for patients and continues to be refined. In children, massive transfusion protocols require further development and study to assess efficacy. Standardization is needed as transfusions and activation of protocols still rely on physician discretion in most pediatric settings. Further research is required to define the pediatric trauma population that will benefit, when to activate these protocols and how to use adjuncts such as tranexamic acid or factor VII in resuscitation. In addition, future implementation of technology such as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers to increase survival should be studied further in this subset of patients.

8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(2S Suppl 2): S39-S44, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) literature focuses on improving outcomes through careful patient selection, diligent catheter placement, and expeditious definitive hemorrhage control. However, the detection and treatment of post-REBOA ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains an area for potential improvement. Herein, we provide a review of the metabolic derangements that we have encountered while managing post-REBOA IRI in past swine experiments. We also provide data-driven clinical recommendations to facilitate resuscitation post-REBOA deflation that may be translatable to humans. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the laboratory data from 25 swine across three varying hemorrhagic shock models that were subjected to complete REBOA of either 45 minutes, 60 minutes, or 90 minutes. In each model the balloon was deflated gradually following definitive hemorrhage control. Animals were then subjected to whole blood transfusion and critical care with frequent electrolyte monitoring and treatment of derangements as necessary. RESULTS: Plasma lactate peaked and pH nadired long after balloon deflation in all swine in the 45-minute, 60-minute, and 90-minute occlusion models (onset of peak lactate, 32.9 ± 6.35 minutes, 38.8 ± 10.55 minutes, and 49.5 ± 6.5 minutes; pH nadir, 4.3 ± 0.72 minutes, 26.9 ± 12.32 minutes, and 42 ± 7.45 minutes after balloon deflation in the 45-, 60-, and 90-minute occlusion models, respectively). All models displayed persistent hypoglycemia for more than an hour following reperfusion (92.1 ± 105.5 minutes, 125 ± 114.9 minutes, and 96 ± 97.8 minutes after balloon deflation in the 45-, 60-, and 90-minute occlusion groups, respectively). Hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia occurred in all three groups, with some animals requiring treatment more than an hour after reperfusion. CONCLUSION: Metabolic derangements resulting from REBOA use are common and may worsen long after reperfusion despite resuscitation. Vigilance is required to detect and proactively manage REBOA-associated IRI. Maintaining a readily available "deflation kit" of pharmacological agents needed to treat common post-REBOA electrolyte abnormalities may facilitate management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V.

10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
11.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 46(6): 1357-1366, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576422

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is contraindicated in patients with aortic injuries, this technique may benefit poly-trauma patients with less extreme thoracic injuries. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of thoracic injury on hemodynamics during REBOA and the changes in pulmonary contusion over time in a swine model. METHODS: Twelve swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and randomized to receive either a thoracic injury with 5 impacts to the chest or no injury. All animals underwent controlled hemorrhage of 25% blood volume followed by 45 min of Zone 1 REBOA. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood, observed during a critical care period, and euthanized after 6 h of total experimental time. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups at baseline. The only difference after 6 h was a lower hemoglobin in the thoracic trauma group (8.4 ± 0.8 versus 9.4 ± 0.6 g/dL, P = 0.04). The average proximal mean arterial pressures were significantly lower in the thoracic trauma group during aortic occlusion [103 (98-108) versus 117 (115-124) mmHg, P = 0.04]. There were no differences between the pulmonary contusion before REBOA and at the end of the experiment in size (402 ± 263 versus 356 ± 291 mL, P = 0.782) or density (- 406 ± 127 versus - 299 ± 175 HFU, P = 0.256). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic trauma blunted the proximal arterial pressure augmentation during REBOA but had minimal impacts on resuscitative outcomes. This initial study indicates that REBOA does not seem to exacerbate pulmonary contusion in swine, but blunt thoracic injuries may attenuate the expected rises in proximal blood pressure during REBOA.

12.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(4): 702-706, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who present hypertensive suffer worse outcomes and increased mortality compared to normotensive patients. The purpose of this study is to determine if age-adjusted hypertension on presentation is associated with worsened outcomes in pediatric TBI. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on pediatric patients with severe TBI admitted to a single system pediatric tertiary care center. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, need for neurosurgical intervention, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the need for inpatient rehabilitation. RESULTS: Of 150 patients, 70% were hypertensive and 30% were normotensive on presentation. Comparing both groups, no statistically significant differences were noted in mortality (13.3% for both groups), need for neurosurgical intervention (51.4% vs 48.8%, p = 0.776), length of stay (6 vs 8 days, p = 0.732), duration of mechanical ventilation (2 vs 3 days, p = 0.912), or inpatient rehabilitation rates (48.6% vs 48.9%, p = 0.972). In comparing just the hypertensive patients, there was a trend toward increased mortality in the 95th and 99th percentile groups at 15.8% and 14.1%, versus the 90th percentile group at 6.7% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.701). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the adult literature, pediatric patients with severe TBI and hypertension on presentation do not appear to have worsened outcomes compared to those who are normotensive. However, a trend toward increased mortality did exist at extremes of age adjusted hypertension. Larger scale studies are needed to validate these findings. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective cohort study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Hipertensão/complicações , Pressão Sanguínea , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Reabilitação Neurológica , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
14.
Injury ; 50(11): 1908-1914, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma patients are predisposed to kidney injury. We hypothesized that in shock, zone 3 REBOA would increase renal blood flow (RBF) compared to control and that a period of zone 3 occlusion following zone 1 occlusion would improve renal function compared to zone 1 occlusion alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized swine underwent hemorrhagic shock, 45 min of zone 1 REBOA (Z1, supraceliac), zone 3 REBOA (Z3, infrarenal), or no intervention (control) followed by resuscitation with shed blood and 5 h of critical care. In a fourth group (Z1Z3), animals underwent 55 min of zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 occlusion. Physiologic parameters were recorded, blood and urine were collected at specified intervals. RESULTS: During critical care, there were no differences in RBF between the Z1 and Z3 groups. The average RBF during critical care in Z1Z3 was significantly lower than in Z3 alone (98.2 ±â€¯23.9 and 191.9 ±â€¯23.7 mL/min; p = 0.046) and not different than Z1. There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-to-urinary creatinine ratio between Z1 and Z1Z3. Animals in the Z1Z3 group had a significant increase in the ratio at the end of the experiment compared to baseline [median (IQR)] [9.2 (8.2-13.2) versus 264.5 (73.6-1174.6)]. Following Z1 balloon deflation, RBF required 45 min to return to baseline. CONCLUSION: Neither zone 3 REBOA alone nor zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 REBOA improved renal blood flow or function. Following zone 1 occlusion, RBF is restored to baseline levels after approximately 45 min.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Animais , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação , Suínos
16.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275952

RESUMO

While hemorrhagic shock might be the result of various conditions, hemorrhage control and resuscitation are the corner stone of patient management. Hemorrhage control can prove challenging in both the acute care and surgical settings, especially in the abdomen, where no direct pressure can be applied onto the source of bleeding. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a promising replacement to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) for the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage in human trauma patients. By inflating a balloon at specific levels (or zones) of the aorta to interrupt blood flow, hemorrhage below the level of the balloon can be controlled. While REBOA allows for hemorrhage control and augmentation of blood pressure cranial to the balloon, it also exposes caudal tissue beds to ischemia and the whole body to reperfusion injury. We aim to introduce the advantages of REBOA while reviewing known limitations. This review outlines a step-by-step approach to REBOA implementation, and discusses common challenges observed both in human patients and during translational large animal studies. Currently accepted and debated indications for REBOA in humans are discussed. Finally, we review possible applications for veterinary patients and how REBOA has the potential to be translated into clinical veterinary practice.

17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(3): 590-598, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardiac effects of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) are largely unknown. We hypothesized that increased afterload from REBOA would lead to cardiac injury, and that partial flow using endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC) would mitigate this injury. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized swine underwent controlled 25% blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to either Zone 1 REBOA, Zone 1 EVAC, or no intervention (control) for 45 minutes. Animals were then resuscitated with shed blood, observed during critical care, and euthanized after a 6-hour total experimental time. Left ventricular function was measured with a pressure-volume catheter, and blood samples were drawn at routine intervals. RESULTS: The average cardiac output during the intervention period was higher in the REBOA group (9.3 [8.6-15.4] L/min) compared with the EVAC group (7.2 [5.8-8.0] L/min, p = 0.01) and the control group (6.8 [5.8-7.7] L/min, p < 0.01). At the end of the intervention, the preload recruitable stroke work was significantly higher in both the REBOA and EVAC groups compared with the control group (111.2 [102.5-148.6] and 116.7 [116.6-141.4] vs. 67.1 [62.7-87.9], p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). The higher preload recruitable stroke work was maintained throughout the experiment in the EVAC group, but not in the REBOA group. Serum troponin concentrations after 6 hours were higher in the REBOA group compared with both the EVAC and control groups (6.26 ± 5.35 ng/mL vs 0.92 ± 0.61 ng/mL and 0.65 ± 0.38 ng/mL, p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively). Cardiac intramural hemorrhage was higher in the REBOA group compared with the control group (1.67 ± 0.46 vs. 0.17 ± 0.18, p = 0.03), but not between the EVAC and control groups. CONCLUSION: In a swine model of hemorrhagic shock, complete aortic occlusion resulted in cardiac injury, although there was no direct decrease in cardiac function. EVAC mitigated the cardiac injury and improved cardiac performance during resuscitation and critical care.


Assuntos
Aorta , Oclusão com Balão , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Ressuscitação/métodos , Animais , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos , Função Ventricular Esquerda
18.
Shock ; 51(5): 659-666, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resuscitation of patients in shock is materially intensive and many patients are refractory to maximal therapy. We hypothesized that partial inflation of an intra-aortic balloon, termed Endovascular Perfusion Augmentation for Critical Care (EPACC), would minimize material requirements while improving physiologic metrics. METHODS: Swine underwent a 25% controlled bleed and 45 min of complete aortic occlusion to create a severe ischemia-reperfusion shock state. Animals received either standardized critical care (SCC) composed of IV fluids and norepinephrine delivered through an algorithmically controlled platform or EPACC in addition to SCC. Physiologic parameters were collected, and blood was sampled for analysis. Primary outcomes were total IV fluids and average MAP during the critical care phase. Differences (P < 0.05) were measured with t test (continuous data) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (ordinal data). RESULTS: There were no differences in baseline characteristics. There were no differences in the maximum lactate; however, animals in the EPACC group had a higher average MAP (EPACC 65 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI], 65-66; SCC 60 mmHg, 95% CI, 57-63; P < 0.01) and remained within goal MAP for a greater period of time (EPACC 95.3%, 95% CI, 93.2-97.4; SCC 51.0%, 95% CI, 29.5-72.6; P < 0.01). EPACC animals required less IV fluids when compared with the SCC group (EPACC 21 mL/kg, 95% CI, 0-42; SCC 96 mL/kg, 95% CI, 76-117; P < 0.01). There were no differences in final lactate. Animals in the EPACC group had a higher final creatinine (EPACC 2.3 mg/dL, 95% CI, 2.1-2.5; SCC 1.7 mg/dL, 95% CI, 1.4-2.0; P < 0.01), but there were no differences in renal cellular damage on histology (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Using a swine model of severe shock, the addition of EPACC to SCC significantly reduced fluid resuscitation requirements and improved blood pressure. This is the first description of a new therapy for patients in refractory shock or in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aorta Torácica , Automação , Oclusão com Balão , Pressão Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Homeostase , Isquemia/terapia , Masculino , Perfusão , Ressuscitação , Suínos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Mil Med ; 184(5-6): e298-e302, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low distal aortic flow via partial aortic occlusion (AO) may mitigate ischemia induced by resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). We compared endocrine effects of a novel simulated partial AO strategy, endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC), with simulated REBOA in a swine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aortic flow in 20 swine was routed from the supraceliac aorta through an automated extracorporeal circuit. Following liver injury-induced hemorrhagic shock, animals were randomized to control (unregulated distal flow), simulated REBOA (no flow, complete AO), or simulated EVAC (distal flow of 100-300 mL/min after 20 minutes of complete AO). After 90 minutes, damage control surgery, resuscitation, and full flow restoration ensued. Critical care was continued for 4.5 hours or until death. RESULTS: Serum angiotensin II concentration was higher in the simulated EVAC (4,769 ± 624 pg/mL) than the simulated REBOA group (2649 ± 429) (p = 0.01) at 180 minutes. There was no detectable difference in serum renin [simulated REBOA: 231.3 (227.9-261.4) pg/mL; simulated EVAC: 294.1 (231.2-390.7) pg/mL; p = 0.27], aldosterone [simulated EVAC: 629 (454-1098), simulated REBOA: 777 (575-1079) pg/mL, p = 0.53], or cortisol (simulated EVAC: 141 ± 12, simulated REBOA: 127 ± 9 ng/mL, p = 0.34) concentrations between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated EVAC was associated with higher serum angiotensin II, which may have contributed to previously reported cardiovascular benefits. Future studies should evaluate the renal effects of EVAC and the concomitant therapeutic use of angiotensin II.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/enzimologia , Aldosterona/análise , Aldosterona/sangue , Angiotensina II/análise , Angiotensina II/sangue , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Endócrino/irrigação sanguínea , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Renina/análise , Renina/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Suínos
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 519-526, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is effective at limiting hemorrhage from noncompressible sources and restoring but causes progressive distal ischemia, supraphysiologic pressures, and increased cardiac afterload. Endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC) addresses these limitations, while still controlling hemorrhage. Previous work demonstrated improved outcomes following a 90-minute intervention period in an uncontrolled hemorrhage model. The present study compares automated EVAC to REBOA over an occlusion period reflective of contemporary REBOA usage. METHODS: Following instrumentation, 12 Yorkshire-cross swine underwent controlled 25% hemorrhage, a 45-minute intervention period of EVAC or REBOA, and subsequent resuscitation with whole blood and critical care for the remainder of a 6-hour experiment. Hemodynamics were acquired continuously, and laboratory parameters were assessed at routine intervals. Tissue was collected for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: No differences were seen in baseline parameters. During intervention, EVAC resulted in more physiologic proximal pressure augmentation compared with REBOA (101 vs. 129 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 105-151 mm Hg; p = 0.04). During critical care, EVAC animals required less than half the amount of crystalloid (3,450 mL; 95% CI, 1,215-5,684 mL] vs. 7,400 mL [95% CI, 6,148-8,642 mL]; p < 0.01) and vasopressors (21.5 ng/kg [95% CI, 7.5-35.5 ng/kg] vs. 50.5 ng/kg [95% CI, 40.5-60.5 ng/kg]; p = 0.05) when compared with REBOA animals. Endovascular variable aortic control resulted in lower peak and final lactate levels. Endovascular variable aortic control animals had less aortic hyperemia from reperfusion with aortic flow rates closer to baseline (36 mL/kg per minute [95% CI, 30-44 mL/kg per minute] vs. 51 mL/kg per minute [95% CI, 41-61 mL/kg per minute]; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: For short durations of therapy, EVAC produces superior hemodynamics and less ischemic insult than REBOA in this porcine-controlled hemorrhage model, with improved outcomes during critical care. This study suggests EVAC is a viable strategy for in-hospital management of patients with hemorrhagic shock from noncompressible sources. Survival studies are needed to determine if these early differences persist over time.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/terapia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reperfusão , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos
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