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1.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221135403, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385791

RESUMO

Objective: Postpartum depression is a common mental illness that affects lactating women. This not only makes daily activities difficult for them, but it also affects child's future lives. There is little evidence of about postpartum depression and its factors in East African countries, which piqued the authors' interest in conducting a study on this matter for future decision- and policy-making. Methods: The protocol for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed. To identify published articles, all major databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, WHOLIS, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and reference lists were used. In addition, shelves, author contact, Google and Google Scholar were also used to identify unpublished studies. Joanna Briggs Institute-Meta-Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument was used for critical appraisal of studies. STATA software version 14 was used for the analysis. The random-effect model was used to estimate postpartum depression with 95% confidence interval, while subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to identify potential sources of heterogeneity and associated factors, respectively. Furthermore, Egger's test and trim-and-fill analysis were used to check for publication bias. Results: Postpartum depression was found in 24% of lactating women in East African countries (95% confidence interval: 17.79-30.20). Postpartum depression was associated with being married (odds ratio = 2; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.81), domestic violence (odds ratio = 6.34; 95% confidence interval: 4:11-9.78), a lack of support (odds ratio = 6.59; 95% confidence interval: 1.98-21.89), and a lack of empowerment (odds ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-6.92). Conclusion: In East Africa, the prevalence of postpartum depression among lactating women is high and rising, as per global postpartum depression estimates. Therefore, the primary focus should be on women's domestic violence prevention mechanisms. Existing national policies and development agendas must prioritize strategies for women's support and empowerment. Future research into the relationship between marriage and postpartum depression is required.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15511, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109660

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant multifaceted threat to the global community. Ethiopia, as a Sub-Saharan African country, is suffering from chronic food insecurity, and the emergence of such a pandemic will exacerbate the situation. As a result, this study investigated the spatial variation of non-resilience to food insecurity, its relationship with COVID-19, and household coping strategies to become resilient in the long run among households in the East Gojjam Zone of Northwest Ethiopia. From September 22 to December 24, 2020, an agro-ecological-based cross-sectional study of 3532 households was conducted to assess the spatial distribution and associated factors of non-resilience to household food insecurity. The enumeration areas (EAs) and households were chosen using a multistage sampling technique. Data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire and checklist using an Android device loaded with an Open Data Kit (ODK) template. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the specific factors associated with household non-resilience to food insecurity. A thematic analysis was conducted to investigate the opportunities and challenges of resilience for household food insecurity. Nearly two-thirds (62.5%) of the households were farmers, 67.9% lived in rural areas, and nearly three-quarters (73.8%) earned less than or equal to ETB 2100 per month. Males headed more than four-fifths of the households (81.7%). We found that nearly two-thirds of the households (60.02%), 95% CI 58.40, 61.64) were food insecure. After bivariate logistic regression, we found that households who were divorced (AOR = 2.54 (1.65, 3.87)), daily laborers (AOR = 2.37 (1.15, 4.87)), government employees (AOR = 2.06 (1.05, 4.05)), residents of highland and hot areas (AOR = 11.5 (5.37, 16.77)) and lowland areas (AOR = 1.35 (1.02, 3.15)) were frustrated by COVID-19 (AOR = 1.23 (1.02, 1.50)) and price inflation (1.89 (AOR = 1.42, 2.56))) were at higher odds of being non-resilient to household food insecurity at a 95% confidence level. Geospatial hot spot analysis revealed that Kurar kebele (the lowest government administrative unit) in Dejen District and Debre Markos town were the red-hotspot areas of household non-resilience to food insecurity. Less than a quarter of the households attempted to cope with food insecurity by adjusting their food consumption, while more than 60% of the households chose none of the coping strategies tested. According to the thematic analysis, the degree of poverty (lack of asset ownership), the COVID-19 pandemic, farm decreased variety, and low crop productivity were identified as challenges to coping with the hardship of resilience to food insecurity. During the COVID-19 pandemic and public emergency, the proportion of households that were unprepared for food insecurity reached its peak. It was recognized that a segment of the population with low economic capacity was more vulnerable to food insecurity and less resilient. Tough developmental gains will be undermined in this case. As a result, each responsible body and stakeholder should develop and implement solid corrective plans for the local context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
IJID Reg ; 4: 66-74, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813560

RESUMO

Introduction: : Despite scaling up programmes to prevent vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), over 400 children are infected every day globally. Guidelines recommend that all HIV-exposed infants should be tested within 4-6 weeks of birth. This meta-analysis aimed to explore concrete evidence on early diagnosis, pooled prevalence of HIV among HIV-exposed infants and its associated factors in Ethiopia following implementation of the Option B+ regime in 2013. Methods: : Electronic databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were used to retrieve eligible articles. This meta-analysis was developed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated using Cochran's Q statistic quantified with inverse variance and Egger's statistical test. Random effect model meta-analysis was used to report the pooled estimate. Results: : The pooled estimate of early diagnosis and prevalence of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV since implementation of the Option B+ regime in Ethiopia were 64.84% and 5.64%, respectively. No antenatal care [odds ratio (OR) 4.4], home delivery (OR 6.8), infant enrolment >6 weeks after birth (OR 2.2), mixed feeding (OR 4.1) and no antiretroviral prophylaxis after birth (OR 13.2) were associated with increased risk of MTCT. Conclusion: : This review of 19 studies from six regions of Ethiopia found that only two-thirds of HIV-exposed infants were tested at ≤6 weeks of age. Although there has been a major reduction in the prevalence of MTCT of HIV since implementation of the Option B+ region, the pooled prevalence of MTCT of HIV remains higher than the WHO target of 5% among breastfeeding participants. From the evidence obtained in the 19 studies included in this review and international MTCT practice, recommendations to minimize the high prevalence of MTCT of HIV include encouraging antenatal care follow-up and institutional delivery; enrolling HIV-exposed infants immediately after delivery or at least before 6 weeks of age; promotion of exclusive breastfeeding; improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy during antenatal care, labour/delivery and breastfeeding; and increasing the provision of antiretroviral prophylaxis at birth for exposed neonates. A national representative study of MTCT of HIV for all regions of Ethiopia is needed to obtain an updated view of this programme.

4.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(3): 513-522, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813672

RESUMO

Background: Despite a global decline in under-five deaths, the neonatal mortality rate remains slow in developing countries and birth asphyxia remains the third cause of neonatal deaths. Globally, neonatal deaths accounts for 45% of under-five deaths, birth asphyxia causes 23-40% of neonatal deaths in Ethiopia. There is limited data on risk factors of asphyxia in Ethiopia, particularly in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the risk factors of birth asphyxia among newborns. Methods: This research followed a hospital-based unmatched case-control study design at Debre Markos comprehensive specialized referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, among 372 newborns (124 cases and 248 controls). Data were collected by interviewing index mothers and chart review using a pre-tested questionnaire. Then it was entered in Epi-data version 3.1 and transferred to STATA version 14.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multiple variable logistic regression were carried out to the possible risk factors. Finally, statistical significance was declared using adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and p-value <0.05. Results: Prolonged labor >12, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, assisted vaginal delivery, gestational age < 37 weeks, noncephalic presentation, comorbidity, birthweight<2500grams were found to be significant factors of birth asphyxia. Conclusion: In this study, Prolonged labor >12 hours, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, assisted vaginal delivery, gestational age < 37 weeks, non-cephalic presentation comorbidity, fetal distress, birthweight<2500grams were found to be risk factors of birth asphyxia were risk factors of birth asphyxia. Therefore, to reduce neonatal mortality associated with birth asphyxia, attention should be given to holistic pregnancy, labor and delivery care, and post-natal care. Moreover, interventions aimed at reducing birth asphyxia should target the identified factors.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Morte Perinatal , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Asfixia/etiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Asfixia Neonatal/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271733, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Supporting small and nutritionally at-risk (potentially malnourished) infants under six months is a global health priority, albeit with a weak evidence-base. To inform policy and research in this area, we aimed to assess the perceptions and understanding of infant malnutrition and its management among carers, communities, and healthcare workers in rural Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted in-depth and key-informant interviews, from May-August 2020 in Jimma Zone and Deder District, Ethiopia. We used purposive sampling to recruit the participants. Interviews were transcribed into Amharic or Afaan Oromo and then translated into English. Atlas ti-7 was used to support data analysis. Findings were narrated based on the different themes arising from the interviews. RESULTS: Carers/community members and healthcare workers reported on five different themes: 1) Perceptions about health and well-being: an 'ideal infant' slept well, fed well, was active and looked 'fat'; 2)Perceptions of feeding: overall knowledge of key recommendations like exclusive breastfeeding was good but practices were suboptimal, notably a cultural practice to give water to young infants; 3)Awareness about malnutrition: a key limitation was knowledge of exactly how to identify small and nutritionally at-risk infants; 4) Reasons for malnutrition: levels of understanding varied and included feeding problems and caregiver's work pressures resulting in the premature introduction of complementary feeds; 5) Perceptions about identification & treatment: carers prefer treatment close to home but were concerned about the quality of community-based services. CONCLUSION: To succeed, research projects that investigate programes that manage small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months should understand and be responsive to the culture and context in which they operate. They should build on community strengths and tackle misunderstandings and barriers. Interventions beyond just focusing on knowledge and attitude of the carers and health workers are necessary to tackle the challenges around infants under 6 months of age at risk of malnutrition. Moreover, stakeholders beyond the health sector should also be involved in order to support the infants under 6 months and their mothers as some of the key reasons behind the at-risk infants are just beyond the capacity of the health sector or health system. Our list of themes could be used to inform infant nutrition work not just in Ethiopia but also in many others.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desnutrição , Aleitamento Materno , Cuidadores , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 27: 100310, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284661

RESUMO

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common serious opportunistic infection among people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and are considered as the double burden diseases of the world. TB is the leading cause of death among people living with HIV, accounting one in three HIV related deaths. Although TB is responsible for high burden of virological unsuppressed in Ethiopia, there is no national level evidence. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at estimating the pooled burden of virological unsuppressed among adults with both HIV-TB and impact of TB on virological failure in Ethiopia. Methods: The finding of this meta-analysis was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklists. Major data bases PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Google scholar were searched to access articles. Cochran's Q statistic quantified with inverse variance was computed to check heterogeneity. Funnel plot visualization and Egger's test were fitted to assess publication bias across included studies. Random effects model meta-analysis using STATA version-15 statistical software was used to estimate the pooled effect with respective 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 15 primary studies reporting on impact of tuberculosis on virological unsuppressed among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia were eligible for this meta-analysis. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence of virological unsuppressed among adults with both HIV-TB in Ethiopia was 39.09% (95% CI: 29.04, 49.15). In addition, the odds of virological unsuppressed among adults with both HIV-TB was 2.46 times higher when compared with adults living with HIV infection alone (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.74, 3.46). Conclusion: The present systematic review and meta-analysis evidenced that the pooled prevalence of virological unsuppressed among adults with both HIV-TB was much higher than virological unsuppressed among adults living with HIV alone. Moreover, the odds of virological failure among adults with both HIV-TB was significantly higher when compared with among only HIV infection in Ethiopia. Therefore, strengthening TB prevention interventions, early identification and managing the case and prioritizing viral load monitoring and adherence support among adults living with HIV are recommended.

7.
SAGE Open Med ; 10: 20503121221081335, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35251655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Over the last decades, large number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been successfully enrolled in care and initiated treatment. However, treatment failure is still a major challenge in the track, missing far too many children. National-level evidence on antiretroviral therapy failure and its associated factors among children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy is required to alleviate this challenge. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, Google, and Google Scholar databases were used to access eligible studies. This meta-analysis was reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. In addition, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale quality assessment was applied for critical appraisal. Cochran's Q statistic, funnel asymmetry plot, and Egger's test were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Random effect model was computed to explore the pooled burden of treatment failure and its associated factors among children living with HIV. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was considered to identify associated factors. RESULT: The overall pooled prevalence of treatment failure among children living with HIV was 16.6%. Whereas virological, immunological, and clinical failure were 4.49%, 5.41%, and 5.71% respectively, where either of parent is deceased (odds ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-3.3), opportunistic infection (odds ratio = 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5), absence of disclosure of status (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.5), advanced World Health Organization stage (odds ratio = 4.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-10.5), and drug substitution (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5-2.7) were significantly associated factors. CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of treatment failure among children living with HIV in Ethiopia was lower when compared to most African countries. Accordingly, either prevention or early treatment of opportunistic infection and advanced World Health Organization clinical stages, special care for children whose either parents are deceased, advocating disclosure of status, and avoiding drug substitution as much as possible were still needed to prevent treatment failure.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6551526, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. It is associated with different maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes such as low birth weight, preterm birth, still birth, preeclampsia, maternal anemia, sepsis, and amnionitis, even when the infection is asymptomatic. However, in Ethiopia, it is represented with fragmented and inconclusive pocket studies. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis is aimed at estimating the pooled prevalence of UTI and its associated factors among pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and local sources were used to access eligible studies. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument was applied for critical appraisal. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated using I 2 statistic, funnel plot asymmetry, and Egger's tests. Random effect model was employed to estimate the pooled burden of UTI and its associated factors among pregnant women with its corresponding odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULT: From all systematically searched articles, 14 studies were eligible for this analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 15.37% (95% CI: 12.54, 18.19). Family monthly income (OR = 3.8 and 95% CI: 1.29, 11.23), parity (OR = 1.59 and 95% CI: 1.01, 2.50), history of catheterization (OR = 2.76 and 95% CI: 1.31, 5.84), and history of UTI (OR = 3.12 and 95% CI: 1.74, 5.60) were factors significantly associated with UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The overall pooled estimate of UTI among pregnant women in Ethiopia was higher compared with CDC estimation which was 8%. Family monthly income < 1000ETB, multipara, previous history of catheterization, and history of UTI were factors increased burden of UTI during pregnancy. So, strategies targeting in economic reforms, universal access of family planning, and standardized prenatal care service should be addressed to alleviate this high prevalence of UTI during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência
9.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 13: 851-859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children share the highest risk of death compared with all other age groups, and more than 90% of this viral infection of children was accounted for by transmission from mother to infant. This rate can be prevented and reduced with implementation of option B+ effectively. However, unacceptably high lost follow-up of mothers highly affected the effectiveness of this program. In Ethiopia, only 71% of mothers were adherent on their follow-up. So, this study was aimed to understand the reasons and experiences of lost follow-up of mothers under the prevention of mother to child transmission (option B+) program in North West Ethiopia. METHODS: A qualitative study using a case study design was carried out using in-depth interviews among 20 mothers who had started the option B+ treatment protocol but discontinued their follow-up for more than two months, and 6 key informants and individuals who were engaged in management and control of human immunodeficiency virus at Woreda and Zonal level. An unstructured interview guide was used and translated into the local language. Study participants were selected using purposive sampling technique. After written consent was obtained, all study participants' interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed using deductive content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 26 mothers participated in this study. Accordingly, the most frequently raised reasons were lack of formal education which affects income level, lack of disclosure, lack of partner and family support, absence of male involvement and stigma-discrimination. But, unavailability of option B+ regimens in the nearest health facility or long distance from health facility, discordance and lack of experienced professionals in terms of counseling during initiation were also essential reasons. CONCLUSION: Educational and economic empowerment intervention (particularly for vulnerable households), promoting family support and male involvement, active counseling at initiation and during follow up and community level awareness improvement should be addressed to increase option B+ regimen adherence and retention.

10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
11.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 94: 100621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimizing antiretroviral treatment failure is crucial for improving patient health and for maintaining long-term access to care in low-income settings such as eastern Africa. To develop interventions to support adherence, policymakers must understand the extent and scope of treatment failure in their programs. However, estimates of treatment failure in eastern Africa have been variable and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to determine the pooled prevalence of immunological failure among adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in eastern Africa. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica Database, and the World Health Organization's Hinari portal (which includes the Scopus, African Index Medicus, and African Journals Online databases) databases. Unpublished studies were also accessed from conference websites and university repositories. We used Stata version 14 for data analysis. The Cochrane Q test and I 2 test statistic were used to test for heterogeneity across the studies. Due to high levels of heterogeneity, a random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of immunological failure. Begg and Egger tests of the intercept in the random effects model were used to check for publication bias. RESULTS: After removing duplicates, 25 articles remained for assessment and screening. After quality screening, 15 articles were deemed eligible and incorporated into the final analysis. The average pooled estimate of immunological treatment failure prevalence was found to be 21.89% (95% CI, 15.14-28.64). In the subgroup analysis conducted by geographic region, the pooled prevalence of immunological treatment failure in Ethiopia was 15.2% (95% CI, 12.27-18.13) while in Tanzania it was 53.93% (95% CI, 48.14-59.73). Neither the results of Egger test or Begg tests suggested publication bias; however, on visual examination, the funnel plot appeared asymmetric. The large heterogeneity across the studies could be explained by study country. CONCLUSION: Immunological treatment failure among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in eastern Africa was high, and greater than previously reported. The relatively low rates of treatment failure found in Ethiopia suggest that its health extension program should be studied as a model for improving adherence in the region. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2021; 82:XXX-XXX) © 2021 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

12.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 51, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding is feeding of breast milk within one hour of birth, however, three in five babies were not breastfed in the first hour of birth globally. There is evidence that cesarean section is the major constraint for this low prevalence, but the impact of cesarean section on timely initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to provide evidence for policy makers, health professionals and program implementers. METHODS: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Electronic bibliographic databases such as PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Cochrane Library were used to search relevant studies and was conducted up to February 2021. Random effects model meta-analysis was applied to estimate the pooled impact of cesarean section on timely initiation of breastfeeding with 95% confidence intervals (CI). I2 statistical test and, funnel plot and Egger's test were used to check heterogeneity and publication bias across included studies respectively. RESULTS: According to meta-analysis of 17 studies, the pooled estimate of timely initiation of breastfeeding among women who had cesarean section in Ethiopia was 40.1% (95% CI 33.29, 46.92). The meta-analysis of 29,919 study participants showed that cesarean section was associated with a 79% lower odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding compared with vaginal birth (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.16, 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In Ethiopia, almost only one-third of mothers who gave birth by cesarean section initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth, much lower than the pooled prevalence among general population. Special health promotion, intervention and healthcare provider support during immediate or early skin to skin contact, and having focused breastfeeding guidelines for post-operative patient and trained health professionals should be considered for mothers who give birth through cesarean section.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 193, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite significant progress in the reduction of under-five child deaths over the last decades in Ethiopia, still diarrhea remains the second cause of morbidity and mortality among under five children next to pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To show trends and determinants of diarrhea among under five children in Ethiopia based on the four Ethiopian Demographic and health surveys data (2000-2016). METHODS: A total of 10,753 in 2000, 10,039 in 2005, 10,946 in 2011 and 10,337 in 2016 under five age children were involved in this study. Multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach was performed. RESULTS: Ninety seven percent of the change in diarrhea prevalence over time was attributable to difference in behavior. Being twin (AOR = 1.3; 95% CrI 1.1-1.5), big weight (AOR = 1.63; 95% CrI 1.62-2.02), not vaccinated for rotavirus (AOR = 1.44; 95% CrI 1.12-1.9) and for measles (AOR = 1.2; 95% CrI 1.1-1.33), poor wealth status (AOR 2.6; 95% CrI 1.7-4.06), having more than three under-five children (AOR 1.3; 95% CrI 1.1-1.61), member of health insurance (AOR 2.2; 95% CrI 1.3-3.8) and long distance from the health facility (AOR 2.7; 95% CrI 2.2-3.5) were more likely to experience diarrhea. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diarrhea was significantly declined over the last sixteen years and the decline was due to difference in behavior between the surveys. Being twin, weight of child at birth, vaccinated for measles and rotavirus, number of under-five children, wealth status, distance to health facility, health insurance and child waste disposal method were significantly associated with diarrhea among under five children in Ethiopia. Therefore Ethiopian government should focus on the strengthening and scaling up of behavioral change packages of the community regarding to keeping hygiene and sanitation of the community and their environment, vaccinating their children, accessing health care services to prevent diarrheal disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multinível
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 174, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though neonatal mortality reduction is the major goal needed to be achieved by 2030, it is still unacceptably high especially in Ethiopia. In the other hand, low birth weight is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. More than 10 millions of low birth weight infants occurred as a result of pregnancy induced hypertension. However, in Ethiopia the association between low birth weight and pregnancy induced hypertension was represented with un-updated, inconclusive and different studies. Therefore, this review aimed to estimate the overall pooled impact of pregnancy induced hypertension on low birth weight and its association in Ethiopia. METHODS: articles searched on PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, Google, Google Scholar and local shelves. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was applied for critical appraisal. The I2 statistic was computed to check the presence of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. A random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of low birth weight. RESULT: From the total 131 identified original articles, 25 were eligible and included for the final analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension in Ethiopia was 39.7% (95% CI: 33.3, 46.2). But, I2 statistic estimation evidenced significant heterogeneity across included studies (I2 = 89.4, p < 0.001). In addition, the odds of having low birth weight newborns among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was 3.89 times higher compared to their counterparts (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 2.66, 5.69). CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was more than two times higher than the pooled estimate of low birth weight among all reproductive aged women. The odds of low birth weight also increased nearly four times among women with pregnancy induced hypertension than normotensive women. Therefore, health policies which provide better and quality antenatal care with more oriented on importance of early detection and management of pregnancy induced hypertension should be implemented.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência
15.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: unmet need for family planning is a common cause of uninteded pregnancy which mostly end up with abortion. Many studies were conducted on predictors of unmet need of family planning in Ethiopia. But, up until now, single evidence has not been synthesized and various point prevalence estimates of unmet need for family planning have been reported. Therefore, this sytematic review and meta analysis was established to identify the predictors of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia. METHODS: search engines including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar, HINARI portal, and Cochrane Library were used to retrieve included articles and reported using the preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA) checklist guidelines. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was applied for critical appraisal. All observational studies done on reproductive age women and reported on unmet need for family planning were included. Unmet need for family planning is the percentage of women of reproductive age, either married or in a union, who have an unmet need for family planning to stop or delay childbearing. Random effect model was done to estimate the pooled prevalence of unmet need for family planning. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was considered to determine the association of identified variables with unmet need of family planning. Cochran's Q statistic, Egger's and Begg's test were carried out to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: Fifteen articles and 17, 585 reproductive aged women were included to estimate the pooled prevalence of unmet need for family planning and its predictors in Ethiopia. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia ranges from 26.52 to 36.39%. Age at first marriage < 18 yrs. with OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.08, 4.87), women with no formal education with OR = 1.9 (95%CI: 1.19, 3.04), partner with no formal education with OR = 1.78 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.68) and absence of discussion with their partner about family planning with OR = 3.52 (95%CI, 2.56, 4.87) were predictors of unmet need of family planning in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: This meta analysis revealed that, the prevalence of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia was high as compared with the United Nations sphere standard of unmet need for planning, considered to be high if it is greater than 25%. Early marriage, no formal eduaction and lack of discussion with partner on family planning were predictors of unmet need for family planning. Therefore, efforts are needed to empower women through eduaction, avoiding early marriage and facilitating dicussion of partners about family planning in order to improve family planning usage.

16.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 93: 100603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the pooled national prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with HIV among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia. METHODS: Original articles were searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, World Health Organization's HINARI portal, and supplemented by the hand searching of cross-references. Data were extracted using a standard data extraction checklist. Random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasites and odds ratio of the association. The I 2 statistic was utilized to quantify statistical heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Egger regression tests were used to check for publication bias. The analysis was done by STATA version 14 for Windows. RESULTS: Of 725 identified studies, 12 articles were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. The pooled national prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia was 36.1% (95% CI, 22.1-50.1; I 2 = 98.7%). Subgroup analysis based on study design indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasite among case-control studies was 41.69% (95% CI, 28.6-54.8; I 2 = 95.1%). The odds of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis-HIV coinfection was not significantly different compared with patients with tuberculosis without HIV/AIDS (odds ratio = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.7-4.7; P = 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In Ethiopia, at least 1 out of 3 patients with tuberculosis have an intestinal parasite. These findings suggest a need of more attention on increasing screening tuberculosis patients for intestinal parasites and deworming interventions. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2020; 81:XXX-XXX).

17.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 92: 100585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem worldwide that was estimated to have affected the lives of 425 million people globally in 2017. The prevalence and mortality rates of DM have increased rapidly in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated 2.6 million cases of DM occurring in Ethiopia alone in 2015. OBJECTIVE: Considering that Ethiopia is undergoing an epidemiological transition, it is increasingly important to understand the significant influence DM has on Ethiopians annually. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing studies were conducted to better understand the factors that are associated with DM medication adherence across Ethiopia and to elucidate areas for further studies. METHODS: Studies were retrieved through search engines in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cross-sectional studies was used to assess the critical appraisal of the included studies. Random effects model was used to estimate the association between the level of medication adherence and the geographic location of a patient's residence and presence of a glucometer at 95% CI with its respective odds ratio. Meta-regression was also used to identify the potential source of heterogeneity. Beggs and Egger tests were performed to determine publication bias. Subgroup analyses, based on the study area, were also performed. RESULTS: A total of 1046 articles were identified through searching, of which 19 articles representing 7756 participants were included for the final analysis stage. Reported good medication adherence among patients with diabetes in Ethiopia was 68.59% (95% CI, 62.00%-75.18%). Subgroup analysis was performed, and the pooled estimate of reported good medication adherence among these patients in regions outside Addis Ababa was 67.81% (95% CI, 59.96%-75.65%), whereas in Addis Ababa it was 70.37% (95% CI, 57.51%-83.23%). Patients who used a glucometer at home had an odds ratio of 2.12 (95% CI, 1.42-3.16) and thus reported good adherence. We found no statistically significant association between the geographic location of a patient's residence and a good level of reported medication adherence (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.21). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult patients with diabetes in these studies had a good level of reported DM medication adherence. Having a glucometer was significantly associated with reported increased medication adherence. Our findings suggest the need for interventions to improve diabetes medication adherence.

18.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupation related fatality and mortality rate is becoming the devastating issue globally as reported by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Though there are reports about exposure and burden of occupational injury from the regional states, the studies were fragmented and inconclusive ones at the national level. Hence, the authors' intention being to come up with the national pooled estimates of occupation related injury and the associated factors in Ethiopia. METHODS: The international reputable databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library), cross-referencing and manual search strategies were explored rigorously following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) guideline. Studies that reported the prevalence of occupational injury were included for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment tool scale for cross-sectional studies was used for the critical appraisal of the studies. The heterogeneity between the studies was checked using Cochran Q statistic with the inverse variance (I2) value. Random effects meta-analysis was considered assess the summative effect size of occupational injury and the factors associated with it. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also employed to identify the possible source of heterogeneity and factors associated with occupational injury respectively. Both Egger's and Begg's test with the p-value less than 5% were used to declare the presence of publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 23 original studies were considered to estimate the pooled effect size of occupational injury in Ethiopia. The pooled prevalence of occupational injury in Ethiopia was 44.66% (95% CI: 43.83, 45.49). Based on the subgroup analysis, the highest prevalence of occupational injury was reported from the construction sites (50.8%) in particular of the Addis Ababa city administration (49.5.Being male workers [OR = 1.46 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.11)], working more than eight hours per day [OR = 2.84 (95% CI: 1.81, 4.46)], absence of supervision for labor workers [OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.37)], lack of personal protective equipment [OR = 3.01 (95% CI: 1.61, 5.63)] and lack of occupational health and safety training [OR = 1.49 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.92)] had increased odds of occupational injury. CONCLUSION: Based on this systematic review and meta-analysis, it is concluded that nearly half of the labor workers in Ethiopia were experienced occupational injury. This issue was more encountered among the labor workers of construction sites and whose working place were at the Addis Ababa city administration respectively. Being male sex, working more than eight hours per day, lack of personal protective equipment, lack of supervision, and lack of training about occupational health and safety had increased odds of occupational injury in Ethiopia. Hence, the concerned body should give special emphasis for all the explored factors in order to minimize occupation related injury, mortality and morbidity in the country.

19.
Public Health Rev ; 41: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia signed both for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) previously and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) currently to improve food security through gender equality and empowerment of women by positioning them as household leader. However, there is no concrete evidence about the impact of being of the female gender for household head on the prevalence of food insecurity at the national level, the authors' intention being to fill this gap. METHODS: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol (PRISMA-P) guideline was followed. All major databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, WHOLIS, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of science, and reference lists were used to identify published articles, whereas shelves, author contact, Google, and Google Scholar were also searched to identify unpublished studies. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA software version 14. The random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of food insecurity at 95% confidence level, while subgroup analysis and meta-regression were employed to identify the possible source of heterogeneity and the associated factors respectively. Moreover, Begg's test was used to check publication bias. RESULTS: A total of 143 articles were identified, of which 15 studies were included in the final model with a total sample size of 2084 female-headed households. The pooled estimate of food insecurity among female-headed households was 66.11% (95% confidence level (CL) 54.61, 77.60). Female-headed households had 1.94 (95% CL 1.26, 3.01) times the odds of developing food insecurity as compared with male-headed households in Ethiopia. However, considerable heterogeneity across studies was also exhibited (I 2 = 92.5%, p value < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This review found that severity of food insecurity among female-headed households in Ethiopia was a more pronounced issue as compared with the general national estimate of food insecurity. Food insecurity among them was two-fold increased as compared with their men counterparts.So that, the government of Ethiopia needs to outlook how cultural and social restriction of women's involvement in every aspect of activity affects their level of household food security. Beyond this, previous success and current gap of food insecurity among female-headed households should be explored in future research to run in accordance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) specially with goals 2 and 5.

20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 311, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) affects nearly one third of patients who have undergone a surgical procedure. It is a significant and substantial cause of surgical patient morbidity and mortality later with human and financial costs threat. There are fragmented and pocket studies which reported the prevalence of SSI among mothers who experienced for cesarean section and its risk factors. However, there is no any solid evidence established at the national level; which was also the interest of the authors to fill this gap. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of SSI after cesarean section and its associated factors at national level. METHODS: Original articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, HINARI portal, and Cochrane Library. All observational studies defined outcome of variable "SSI as infection related to an operation procedure that occur at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operation or after one year if an implant is placed" were considered. Data were extracted using standard data extraction excel spread sheet checklists developed according to 2014 Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual after the quality was assessed through Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. The I2 statistic was used to quantify heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's tests were used to check for publication bias. A fixed effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of SSI. Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was also considered to determine the association of identified variables with SSI. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA version 14 software. RESULT: From initial 179 identified articles, 11 were eligible for inclusion in the final systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies with a score of 6 and above were included for final analysis. All included studies were institutional based cross sectional. The pooled estimate of SSI after cesarean section in Ethiopia was 9.72% (95%CI: 8.38, 11.05). Premature rapture of membrane (PROM) > 12 h (OR = 5.32, 95%CI: 3.61, 7.83), duration of labor> 24 h (OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 2.45, 5.48), chorioamnionitis (OR = 9.11, 95%CI: 5.21, 15.93), anemia (OR = 4.56, 95%CI: 2.88, 7.22) and having vertical skin incision (OR = 4.17, 95%CI: 2.90, 6.02) had increased odds of developing SSI after cesarean section. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SSI after cesarean section in Ethiopia was high compared with the sphere standards of communicable disease control (CDC) guidelines for SSI after cesarean section. Therefore, Ministry of Health with its stake holders should give special emphasis on community and institution based programs in manner to prevent prolonged labor, PROM, chorioamnionitis and anemia which will also have synergistic impact on SSI after cesarean section. Moreover, there is also a call to health professionals not to use vertical incision as primary option of cesarean section to reduce the risk of developing surgical site infection among mothers.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
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