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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
2.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 51, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding is feeding of breast milk within one hour of birth, however, three in five babies were not breastfed in the first hour of birth globally. There is evidence that cesarean section is the major constraint for this low prevalence, but the impact of cesarean section on timely initiation of breastfeeding in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to provide evidence for policy makers, health professionals and program implementers. METHODS: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Electronic bibliographic databases such as PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Cochrane Library were used to search relevant studies and was conducted up to February 2021. Random effects model meta-analysis was applied to estimate the pooled impact of cesarean section on timely initiation of breastfeeding with 95% confidence intervals (CI). I2 statistical test and, funnel plot and Egger's test were used to check heterogeneity and publication bias across included studies respectively. RESULTS: According to meta-analysis of 17 studies, the pooled estimate of timely initiation of breastfeeding among women who had cesarean section in Ethiopia was 40.1% (95% CI 33.29, 46.92). The meta-analysis of 29,919 study participants showed that cesarean section was associated with a 79% lower odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding compared with vaginal birth (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.16, 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In Ethiopia, almost only one-third of mothers who gave birth by cesarean section initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth, much lower than the pooled prevalence among general population. Special health promotion, intervention and healthcare provider support during immediate or early skin to skin contact, and having focused breastfeeding guidelines for post-operative patient and trained health professionals should be considered for mothers who give birth through cesarean section.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 193, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite significant progress in the reduction of under-five child deaths over the last decades in Ethiopia, still diarrhea remains the second cause of morbidity and mortality among under five children next to pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: To show trends and determinants of diarrhea among under five children in Ethiopia based on the four Ethiopian Demographic and health surveys data (2000-2016). METHODS: A total of 10,753 in 2000, 10,039 in 2005, 10,946 in 2011 and 10,337 in 2016 under five age children were involved in this study. Multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach was performed. RESULTS: Ninety seven percent of the change in diarrhea prevalence over time was attributable to difference in behavior. Being twin (AOR = 1.3; 95% CrI 1.1-1.5), big weight (AOR = 1.63; 95% CrI 1.62-2.02), not vaccinated for rotavirus (AOR = 1.44; 95% CrI 1.12-1.9) and for measles (AOR = 1.2; 95% CrI 1.1-1.33), poor wealth status (AOR 2.6; 95% CrI 1.7-4.06), having more than three under-five children (AOR 1.3; 95% CrI 1.1-1.61), member of health insurance (AOR 2.2; 95% CrI 1.3-3.8) and long distance from the health facility (AOR 2.7; 95% CrI 2.2-3.5) were more likely to experience diarrhea. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diarrhea was significantly declined over the last sixteen years and the decline was due to difference in behavior between the surveys. Being twin, weight of child at birth, vaccinated for measles and rotavirus, number of under-five children, wealth status, distance to health facility, health insurance and child waste disposal method were significantly associated with diarrhea among under five children in Ethiopia. Therefore Ethiopian government should focus on the strengthening and scaling up of behavioral change packages of the community regarding to keeping hygiene and sanitation of the community and their environment, vaccinating their children, accessing health care services to prevent diarrheal disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multinível
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 174, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though neonatal mortality reduction is the major goal needed to be achieved by 2030, it is still unacceptably high especially in Ethiopia. In the other hand, low birth weight is the major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. More than 10 millions of low birth weight infants occurred as a result of pregnancy induced hypertension. However, in Ethiopia the association between low birth weight and pregnancy induced hypertension was represented with un-updated, inconclusive and different studies. Therefore, this review aimed to estimate the overall pooled impact of pregnancy induced hypertension on low birth weight and its association in Ethiopia. METHODS: articles searched on PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library, Google, Google Scholar and local shelves. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was applied for critical appraisal. The I2 statistic was computed to check the presence of heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated using funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's test. A random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of low birth weight. RESULT: From the total 131 identified original articles, 25 were eligible and included for the final analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension in Ethiopia was 39.7% (95% CI: 33.3, 46.2). But, I2 statistic estimation evidenced significant heterogeneity across included studies (I2 = 89.4, p < 0.001). In addition, the odds of having low birth weight newborns among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was 3.89 times higher compared to their counterparts (OR = 3.89, 95% CI: 2.66, 5.69). CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of low birth weight among women who had pregnancy induced hypertension was more than two times higher than the pooled estimate of low birth weight among all reproductive aged women. The odds of low birth weight also increased nearly four times among women with pregnancy induced hypertension than normotensive women. Therefore, health policies which provide better and quality antenatal care with more oriented on importance of early detection and management of pregnancy induced hypertension should be implemented.

5.
Arch Public Health ; 78: 102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088503

RESUMO

Background: unmet need for family planning is a common cause of uninteded pregnancy which mostly end up with abortion. Many studies were conducted on predictors of unmet need of family planning in Ethiopia. But, up until now, single evidence has not been synthesized and various point prevalence estimates of unmet need for family planning have been reported. Therefore, this sytematic review and meta analysis was established to identify the predictors of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia. Methods: search engines including PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar, HINARI portal, and Cochrane Library were used to retrieve included articles and reported using the preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA) checklist guidelines. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was applied for critical appraisal. All observational studies done on reproductive age women and reported on unmet need for family planning were included. Unmet need for family planning is the percentage of women of reproductive age, either married or in a union, who have an unmet need for family planning to stop or delay childbearing. Random effect model was done to estimate the pooled prevalence of unmet need for family planning. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was considered to determine the association of identified variables with unmet need of family planning. Cochran's Q statistic, Egger's and Begg's test were carried out to assess heterogeneity and publication bias. Results: Fifteen articles and 17, 585 reproductive aged women were included to estimate the pooled prevalence of unmet need for family planning and its predictors in Ethiopia. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia ranges from 26.52 to 36.39%. Age at first marriage < 18 yrs. with OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.08, 4.87), women with no formal education with OR = 1.9 (95%CI: 1.19, 3.04), partner with no formal education with OR = 1.78 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.68) and absence of discussion with their partner about family planning with OR = 3.52 (95%CI, 2.56, 4.87) were predictors of unmet need of family planning in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This meta analysis revealed that, the prevalence of unmet need for family planning in Ethiopia was high as compared with the United Nations sphere standard of unmet need for planning, considered to be high if it is greater than 25%. Early marriage, no formal eduaction and lack of discussion with partner on family planning were predictors of unmet need for family planning. Therefore, efforts are needed to empower women through eduaction, avoiding early marriage and facilitating dicussion of partners about family planning in order to improve family planning usage.

6.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 93: 100603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963640

RESUMO

Background: The distribution of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia is not well understood. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the pooled national prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with HIV among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia. Methods: Original articles were searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, World Health Organization's HINARI portal, and supplemented by the hand searching of cross-references. Data were extracted using a standard data extraction checklist. Random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of intestinal parasites and odds ratio of the association. The I 2 statistic was utilized to quantify statistical heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Egger regression tests were used to check for publication bias. The analysis was done by STATA version 14 for Windows. Results: Of 725 identified studies, 12 articles were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. The pooled national prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis in Ethiopia was 36.1% (95% CI, 22.1-50.1; I 2 = 98.7%). Subgroup analysis based on study design indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasite among case-control studies was 41.69% (95% CI, 28.6-54.8; I 2 = 95.1%). The odds of intestinal parasites among patients with tuberculosis-HIV coinfection was not significantly different compared with patients with tuberculosis without HIV/AIDS (odds ratio = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.7-4.7; P = 0.96). Conclusions: In Ethiopia, at least 1 out of 3 patients with tuberculosis have an intestinal parasite. These findings suggest a need of more attention on increasing screening tuberculosis patients for intestinal parasites and deworming interventions. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2020; 81:XXX-XXX).

7.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 92: 100585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714468

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem worldwide that was estimated to have affected the lives of 425 million people globally in 2017. The prevalence and mortality rates of DM have increased rapidly in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated 2.6 million cases of DM occurring in Ethiopia alone in 2015. Objective: Considering that Ethiopia is undergoing an epidemiological transition, it is increasingly important to understand the significant influence DM has on Ethiopians annually. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing studies were conducted to better understand the factors that are associated with DM medication adherence across Ethiopia and to elucidate areas for further studies. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cross-sectional studies was used to assess the critical appraisal of the included studies. Random effects model was used to estimate the association between the level of medication adherence and the geographic location of a patient's residence and presence of a glucometer at 95% CI with its respective odds ratio. Meta-regression was also used to identify the potential source of heterogeneity. Beggs and Egger tests were performed to determine publication bias. Subgroup analyses, based on the study area, were also performed. Results: A total of 1046 articles were identified through searching, of which 19 articles representing 7756 participants were included for the final analysis stage. Reported good medication adherence among patients with diabetes in Ethiopia was 68.59% (95% CI, 62.00%-75.18%). Subgroup analysis was performed, and the pooled estimate of reported good medication adherence among these patients in regions outside Addis Ababa was 67.81% (95% CI, 59.96%-75.65%), whereas in Addis Ababa it was 70.37% (95% CI, 57.51%-83.23%). Patients who used a glucometer at home had an odds ratio of 2.12 (95% CI, 1.42-3.16) and thus reported good adherence. We found no statistically significant association between the geographic location of a patient's residence and a good level of reported medication adherence (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.21). Conclusions: Most adult patients with diabetes in these studies had a good level of reported DM medication adherence. Having a glucometer was significantly associated with reported increased medication adherence. Our findings suggest the need for interventions to improve diabetes medication adherence.

8.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 15: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518580

RESUMO

Background: Occupation related fatality and mortality rate is becoming the devastating issue globally as reported by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Though there are reports about exposure and burden of occupational injury from the regional states, the studies were fragmented and inconclusive ones at the national level. Hence, the authors' intention being to come up with the national pooled estimates of occupation related injury and the associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: The international reputable databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library), cross-referencing and manual search strategies were explored rigorously following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) guideline. Studies that reported the prevalence of occupational injury were included for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment tool scale for cross-sectional studies was used for the critical appraisal of the studies. The heterogeneity between the studies was checked using Cochran Q statistic with the inverse variance (I2) value. Random effects meta-analysis was considered assess the summative effect size of occupational injury and the factors associated with it. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were also employed to identify the possible source of heterogeneity and factors associated with occupational injury respectively. Both Egger's and Begg's test with the p-value less than 5% were used to declare the presence of publication bias. Results: A total of 23 original studies were considered to estimate the pooled effect size of occupational injury in Ethiopia. The pooled prevalence of occupational injury in Ethiopia was 44.66% (95% CI: 43.83, 45.49). Based on the subgroup analysis, the highest prevalence of occupational injury was reported from the construction sites (50.8%) in particular of the Addis Ababa city administration (49.5.Being male workers [OR = 1.46 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.11)], working more than eight hours per day [OR = 2.84 (95% CI: 1.81, 4.46)], absence of supervision for labor workers [OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.37)], lack of personal protective equipment [OR = 3.01 (95% CI: 1.61, 5.63)] and lack of occupational health and safety training [OR = 1.49 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.92)] had increased odds of occupational injury. Conclusion: Based on this systematic review and meta-analysis, it is concluded that nearly half of the labor workers in Ethiopia were experienced occupational injury. This issue was more encountered among the labor workers of construction sites and whose working place were at the Addis Ababa city administration respectively. Being male sex, working more than eight hours per day, lack of personal protective equipment, lack of supervision, and lack of training about occupational health and safety had increased odds of occupational injury in Ethiopia. Hence, the concerned body should give special emphasis for all the explored factors in order to minimize occupation related injury, mortality and morbidity in the country.

9.
Public Health Rev ; 41: 15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518705

RESUMO

Background: Ethiopia signed both for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) previously and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) currently to improve food security through gender equality and empowerment of women by positioning them as household leader. However, there is no concrete evidence about the impact of being of the female gender for household head on the prevalence of food insecurity at the national level, the authors' intention being to fill this gap. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol (PRISMA-P) guideline was followed. All major databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, WHOLIS, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Web of science, and reference lists were used to identify published articles, whereas shelves, author contact, Google, and Google Scholar were also searched to identify unpublished studies. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA software version 14. The random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of food insecurity at 95% confidence level, while subgroup analysis and meta-regression were employed to identify the possible source of heterogeneity and the associated factors respectively. Moreover, Begg's test was used to check publication bias. Results: A total of 143 articles were identified, of which 15 studies were included in the final model with a total sample size of 2084 female-headed households. The pooled estimate of food insecurity among female-headed households was 66.11% (95% confidence level (CL) 54.61, 77.60). Female-headed households had 1.94 (95% CL 1.26, 3.01) times the odds of developing food insecurity as compared with male-headed households in Ethiopia. However, considerable heterogeneity across studies was also exhibited (I 2 = 92.5%, p value < 0.001). Conclusion: This review found that severity of food insecurity among female-headed households in Ethiopia was a more pronounced issue as compared with the general national estimate of food insecurity. Food insecurity among them was two-fold increased as compared with their men counterparts.So that, the government of Ethiopia needs to outlook how cultural and social restriction of women's involvement in every aspect of activity affects their level of household food security. Beyond this, previous success and current gap of food insecurity among female-headed households should be explored in future research to run in accordance with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) specially with goals 2 and 5.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 311, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) affects nearly one third of patients who have undergone a surgical procedure. It is a significant and substantial cause of surgical patient morbidity and mortality later with human and financial costs threat. There are fragmented and pocket studies which reported the prevalence of SSI among mothers who experienced for cesarean section and its risk factors. However, there is no any solid evidence established at the national level; which was also the interest of the authors to fill this gap. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of SSI after cesarean section and its associated factors at national level. METHODS: Original articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, HINARI portal, and Cochrane Library. All observational studies defined outcome of variable "SSI as infection related to an operation procedure that occur at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operation or after one year if an implant is placed" were considered. Data were extracted using standard data extraction excel spread sheet checklists developed according to 2014 Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual after the quality was assessed through Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. The I2 statistic was used to quantify heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's tests were used to check for publication bias. A fixed effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of SSI. Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was also considered to determine the association of identified variables with SSI. Statistical analysis was conducted using STATA version 14 software. RESULT: From initial 179 identified articles, 11 were eligible for inclusion in the final systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies with a score of 6 and above were included for final analysis. All included studies were institutional based cross sectional. The pooled estimate of SSI after cesarean section in Ethiopia was 9.72% (95%CI: 8.38, 11.05). Premature rapture of membrane (PROM) > 12 h (OR = 5.32, 95%CI: 3.61, 7.83), duration of labor> 24 h (OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 2.45, 5.48), chorioamnionitis (OR = 9.11, 95%CI: 5.21, 15.93), anemia (OR = 4.56, 95%CI: 2.88, 7.22) and having vertical skin incision (OR = 4.17, 95%CI: 2.90, 6.02) had increased odds of developing SSI after cesarean section. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SSI after cesarean section in Ethiopia was high compared with the sphere standards of communicable disease control (CDC) guidelines for SSI after cesarean section. Therefore, Ministry of Health with its stake holders should give special emphasis on community and institution based programs in manner to prevent prolonged labor, PROM, chorioamnionitis and anemia which will also have synergistic impact on SSI after cesarean section. Moreover, there is also a call to health professionals not to use vertical incision as primary option of cesarean section to reduce the risk of developing surgical site infection among mothers.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1175, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe forms of malnutrition have drastic effects on childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia. Although few studies have previously estimated treatment outcomes of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Ethiopia, the findings were widely varied and inconsistent. This study thus aimed to pool estimates of treatment outcomes and identify predictors of mortality among children with SAM in Ethiopia. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out to select 21 eligible articles from identified 1013 studies (dating from 2000 to 2018) that estimated treatment outcomes and predictors of mortality among SAM children. Databases including PubMed, CINHAL, Web of Sciences; Cochrane, Psych INFO and Google Scholar were comprehensively reviewed using medical subject headings (MESH) and a priori set criteria PRISMA guideline was used to systematically review and meta-analyze eligible studies. Details of sample size, magnitude of effect sizes, including Hazard Ratio (HRs) and standard errors were extracted. Random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates in Stata/se version-14. Cochran's Q, I2, and meta-bias statistics were assessed for heterogeneity and Egger's test for publication bias. RESULT: Twenty-one studies were included in the final analysis, which comprised 8057 under-five children with SAM in Ethiopia. The pooled estimates of treatment outcomes, in terms of death, recovery, defaulter and transfer out and non-response rates were 10.3% (95% CI: 8.3, 12.3), 70.5% (95% CI: 65.7, 72.2), 13.8% (95% CI: 10.8, 16.9) and 5.1% (95% CI: 3.3, 6.9), respectively. Diarrhea (HR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2), dehydration (HR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.3, 4.2) and anemia (HR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) were statistically significant predictors of mortality among these children. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: Treatment outcomes in under-five children with SAM are lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) standard, where mortality is being predicted by comorbidities at admission. Children with SAM need to be treated for diarrhea, dehydration and anemia at the primary point of care to reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1191, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of goiter among children and its risk factors are not well investigated in Ethiopia. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to determine the pooled prevalence of goiter and its associated factors among children in Ethiopia. METHODS: Electronic web-based searches of PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and the World Health Organization's Hinari portal (which includes the SCOPUS, African Index Medicus, and African Journals Online databases) were conducted to find primary studies. Relevant data were extracted and descriptive summaries of the studies were presented in tables. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity across studies. Funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's tests were used to check for publication bias. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of goiter. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were also used to determine the association of identified variables with goiter. All statistical analyses were conducted using Stata version 14 software. RESULTS: Our search identified 982 studies, of which, 19 articles were eligible for inclusion in the final meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of goiter among children in Ethiopia was 40.50% (95% CI: 33.6-47.40). The regional distribution of goiter ranged from 44.22 (95% CI: 17.44-71) in Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples' Region, to 32.79% (95% CI: 19.86-45.73) in Benishangul Gumez region. The prevalence of goiter among female children (44.34%) was higher than among male (32.88%) children. Goiter prevalence was also significantly higher among children who consumed vegetables three or more times per week OR = 1.3 (95% CI: 1.02-1.66); those who had family history of goiter, OR = 2.38 (95% CI: 1.9-2.99); and those whose family stored salt near to fires, OR = 1.4 l (95% CI: 1.1-1.79). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of goiter among children in Ethiopia was high, and endemic according to the WHO criteria. Our findings suggest the need for interventions to improve salt iodization, and for improved health education on appropriate salt storage. In addition, more research may be needed to improve our understanding of foods that increase the risk of goiter among children.


Assuntos
Bócio/epidemiologia , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 528, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several factors have been identified as being associated with increased adherence to antiretroviral therapy, including sero-status disclosure; however, studies examining the effect of disclosure on ART adherence in Ethiopia have had inconsistent findings. This systematic review and meta-analysis therefore aims to estimate the pooled effect of disclosure on adherence to ART among adults living with HIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: We performed a systematic search for articles reporting on peer-reviewed, quantitative, English-language observational studies of reporting the association between self sero-status disclosure and good ART adherence in adults living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia during published from 2010 to 2015. We searched four electronic databases: PubMed/Medline, the World Health Organization's Hinari portal (which includes the SCOPUS, African Index Medicus, and African Journals Online databases) for studies from December 1, 2017 to January 30, 2018. We also searched university repositories and conference abstracts for unpublished studies. We conducted a meta-analysis for the pooled effect of adherence using a random effects model in Stata version 14 and assessed publication bias using the Egger's test for funnel plot asymmetry. RESULTS: Our search returned in 179 studies, of which seven (3.9%), were eligible and included in the final meta-analysis. The seven included studies were conducted from 2010 to 2015. Our analysis found that disclosure had a significant effect on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV. Patients who disclosed were 1.64 times more likely to have good adherence to ART compared with those who did not (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.42). The small number of studies eligible for review and differences in study definitions of adherence and disclosure were the main limitations of this study. CONCLUSION: This review found a statistically significant positive effect of disclosure status on the adherence to ART in adult patients living with HIV in Ethiopia. This suggests that Ethiopia's national treatment and prevention programs should redouble efforts to encourage self-disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS. Encouraging supportive social environments for disclosure, and promoting partner notification and partner disclosure support initiatives might be particularly helpful in this regard.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrevelação , Adulto , Etiópia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais , Apoio Social
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 383, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health problems associated with blood transfusion. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate seroprevalence and trend of human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS: Studies on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors published until 2017 were accessed by conducting a detailed search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, EMBASE and CINAHL databases using the keywords:-"Seroprevalence" AND "trend" AND "HIV" OR "human" AND "immunodeficiency" AND "virus" OR "human immunodeficiency virus" AND "blood donors" OR "blood donors" OR "Ethiopia". The quality of each article was assessed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was carried out using a random-effects method. All statistical analyses were done using STATA version 11 software. RESULT: The estimated pooled seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Ethiopia was 2.69% (95% CI (1.79-3.58%)). The overall seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection showed a significant decline trend from 2004 to 2016. CONCLUSION: The overall seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Ethiopia was high. Routine screening of donor blood for transfusion-transmissible infections is essential for ensuring the safety of blood transfusion.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Int Breastfeed J ; 13: 49, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505338

RESUMO

Background: Prelacteal feeding can be defined as giving any solid or liquid foods other than breast milk during the first three days after birth. It affects timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices. Even though the issue was investigated in Ethiopia, fragmented and inconsistent findings were reported. Therefore, the main objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of prelacteal feeding and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods: The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guideline was followed. Articles were systematically searched through different searching mechanisms. Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument adapted for cross-sectional study design was used for quality assessment of each individual study. The total of 28 studies were included and analyzed. The random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence; subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to identify the probable source of heterogeneity. Both Egger's, and Begg's test were used to check publication bias. The effects between associated factor variables, and prelacteal feeding practices were tested. Results: A total of 492 studies were retrieved and 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of prelacteal feeding practice in Ethiopia was 25.29% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 17.43, 33.15) with severe heterogeneity (I2 = 99.7, p < 0.001) and no publication bias. Antenatal care (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% CI 0.09, 0.69), counselling on infant feeding (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.22, 0.63), timely initiation of breastfeeding (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.21, 0.38) and an urban residence (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26, 0.86) had lower odds, while home birth had higher odds (OR 3.93, 95% CI 2.17, 7.10) of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia. Conclusions: In Ethiopia, one in four children were given prelacteal foods. Mothers who gave birth at home are more prone to give prelacteal foods. Whereas, antenatal care, timely initiation of breastfeeding, counseling on infant feeding and an urban residence decreases prelacteal feeding practices in Ethiopia. Therefore, the government and health institutions should focus to increase maternal health service utilization and promote infant and young child feeding practices according to the guideline.

16.
BMC Hematol ; 18: 32, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459953

RESUMO

Background: Anemia is a common hematologic disorder among human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adult Individuals. However, there is no concrete scientific evidence established at national level in Ethiopia. Hence, this review gave special emphasis on Ethiopian HIV infected adult individuals to estimate pooled prevalence of anemia and its associated factors at national level. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PUBMED/Medline, Cochrane Library, and the web of science, Google and Google scholar following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistical Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used for critical appraisal of the included studies. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of anemia and associated factors at 95% Confidence interval with its respective odds ratio (OR). Meta regression was also carried out to identify the factors. Moreover, Sub-group analysis, begs and egger test followed by trim-and-fill analysis were employed to assess heterogeneity and publication bias respectively. Result: A total of 532 articles were identified through searching of which 20 studies were included in the final review with a total sample size of 8079 HIV infected adult individuals. The pooled prevalence of anemia was 31.00% (95% CI: 23.94, 38.02). Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4) count <= 200 cells/µl with OR = 3.01 (95% CI: 1.87, 4.84), World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III&IV with OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.84), opportunistic infections (OIs) with OR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) and body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/M2 with OR = 1.55 ((95% CI: 1. 28, 1.88) were the associated factors. Conclusion: This review demonstrates high prevalence of anemia among HIV infected adults. Low CD4 count, WHO clinical stage III&IV, OIs and low level of BMI were found to have significant association with the occurrence of anemia. Therefore, the responsible stockholders including anti retro viral treatment (ART) clinics should strengthen the system and procedures for the early diagnosis of opportunistic infection and screening of underlying problems. There should be also early screening for OIs and under nutrition with strict and frequent monitoring of HIV infected individuals CD4 count.

17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 44(1): 109, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally Less than one fourth of children aged 6-23 months get the recommended minimum dietary diversity feeding practice. Despite this issue is common in Ethiopia, fragmented and inconsistent findings were found. Therefore the main objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the pooled prevalence of dietary diversity feeding practice and to identify its associated factors among children aged 6-23 months in Ethiopia. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guideline was followed. Articles were systematically searched through PubMed, Google scholar, Google, Hinari and Cochrane library. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional studies quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of each study. A total of 14 studies were extracted and analyzed using STATA 14. Random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence; whereas subgroup analysis and meta-regression was performed to identify the probable source of heterogeneity. Both egger's and begg's test were used to check publication bias. Furthermore, the effect between associated factor variables, and dietary diversity feeding practices were examined. RESULTS: A total of 154 studies were retrieved and 14 studies were included in meta-analysis. The Meta analysis result showed that the pooled prevalence of dietary feeding practice among children age 6-23 months in Ethiopia was 23.25% with considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 98.8, p = 0.00). In the subgroup analysis, the lowest prevalence was observed in Amhara region (12.58%). Home delivery OR: 0.63, antenatal care follow up OR: 1.80, postnatal care visit OR: 2.61, mothers decision making status OR: 1.65, mothers media exposure status OR: 2.79 and being urban residence OR: 2.18 (1.26, 3.77) were significant factors for minimum dietary diversity feeding practice in Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of dietary diversity feeding practice among children aged 6-23 months in Ethiopia was low. Place of delivery, post natal care, antenatal care service, mothers decision making status, mothers media exposure status and being urban residence were found to be the significant factors.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 901, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has been experiencing a high prevalence of communicable diseases, which resulted in high morbidity, mortality, and hospital admission rates. One of the highest contributing factors for this is lower level of latrine utilization. There had been significantly varying finding reports with regard to the level of latrine utilization and its association with education level from different pocket studies in the country. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of household latrine utilization and its association with education status of household heads, in Ethiopia using available studies. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using available data from the international databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science direct, Cochrane library and unpublished reports. All observational studies reporting the prevalence of latrine utilization in Ethiopia were included. Four authors independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. STATA 13 statistical software was used to analyze the data. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test were used to assess the heterogeneity between the studies. A random effect model was computed to estimate the pooled level of latrine utilization in Ethiopia. In addition, the association between latrine utilization and the educational level of the users was analyzed. RESULTS: After reviewing of 1608 studies, 17 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis. The result of 16 studies revealed that the pooled prevalence of latrine utilization level in Ethiopia was 50.02% (95%CI: 40.23, 59.81%). The highest level (67.4%) of latrine utilization was reported from Southern Nations Nationality and People regional state, followed by Amhara regional state (50.1%). Participants who completed their high school and above education were more likely (OR: 1.79, 95%CI: 1.05, 3.05) to utilize latrine compared to those who did not attend formal education. CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, only half of the households utilize latrine and the level of utilization has significant association with educational status.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Características da Família , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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