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1.
Adv Nutr ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570108

RESUMO

To explore the role of coffee on health outcomes in the United States, where coffee consumption is common, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies investigating the magnitude (any compared with no consumption) and the dose-response shape (cups per day) of the associations between caffeinated coffee consumption and incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), endometrial cancer, melanoma, and nonmelanoma skin cancer. We selected the desirable health outcomes that have been shown to be positively associated with coffee consumption. Studies were identified by searching PubMed/Embase databases up to September 2019. Inclusion criteria included prospective studies that investigated the relation of ≥3 categories of caffeinated coffee consumption and the outcomes of interest. Twenty-six studies (42 distinct cohorts), with 93,706 cases/deaths and 3,713,932 participants, met the inclusion criteria. In any coffee consumers, there was a significant inverse association with the risk of CVD (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.96), T2D (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.96), endometrial cancer (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.92), melanoma (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99), and nonmelanoma skin cancer (RR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.95). Coffee consumption was also inversely associated with HCC (RR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.08), without reaching statistical significance. The dose-response relation was nonlinear uniquely for CVD (P-nonlinearity = 0.01). In particular, the largest risk reduction was observed for 3-4 cups/d (∼120 mL/cup) and no reduction thereafter. For other outcomes, the risk decreased linearly over the whole coffee consumption range. Current patterns of consumption in the United States would account for a fraction of avoided cases/deaths ranging from 6% to 12% according to the outcome considered. This study confirms the beneficial health effects of caffeinated coffee consumption in the US population on the health outcomes considered, and quantifies their possible magnitude.

2.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent trends in male breast cancer have been inadequately studied. We updated mortality trends in selected countries and regions worldwide using most recent available data and we predicted figures for 2020. METHODS: We extracted official death certification data for male breast cancer and population estimates from the WHO and the Pan American Health Organization databases, from 2000 to 2017. We computed age-standardized (world population) death rates for selected countries and regions worldwide. We used joinpoint regression analysis to identify significant changes in trends and to predict death numbers and rates for 2020. RESULTS: In 2015-2017, Central-Eastern Europe had a rate of 2.85/1 000 000, and Russia of 2.22, ranking among the highest. North-Western and Southern Europe, the European Union as a whole and the USA showed rates ranging between 1.5 and 2.0. Lower rates were observed in most Latin American countries, with values below 1.35/1 000 000, in Australia, 1.22, and Japan, 0.58. Between 2000-2004 and 2015-2017, age-adjusted death rates decreased between 10 and 40% in North-Western Europe, Russia, and the USA, and between 1.5 and 25% in the other areas under study, except Latin America (+0.8%). Except for Central-Eastern Europe, predicted rates for 2020 were favourable. CONCLUSION: Advancements in management are likely the main drivers of the favourable trends in male breast cancer death rates over the last decades. Delayed diagnosis and limited access to effective care explain the higher mortality in some areas.

4.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The thyroid peroxidase inhibiting compounds methimazole, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, thiouracil (i.e. 'antithyroid' drugs) and ethylenethiourea have been associated to thyroid tumours in rodents. According to a systematic review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) published in 2000, evidence for the human carcinogenicity was inadequate. METHODS: We performed an up-to-date systematic review of human epidemiological studies on the association between such compounds and thyroid cancer incidence or mortality. RESULTS: The literature research (1999-March 2020) identified four relevant articles. Considering also reports from the previous IARC review, this systematic review considered seven reports (five distinct studies) on antithyroid drugs and two on ethylenethiourea. As for antithyroid drugs, three reports based on different follow-ups gave results from a cohort of patients treated for hyperthyroidism in 1946-1964. In the earlier report, thyroid cancer incidence was higher in patients primarily treated with antithyroid drugs (3.2/1000) than in those originally treated with thyroidectomy (0.34/1000) or radioactive iodine (0.88/1000), which can be explained by the higher frequency of subsequent thyroidectomy, and hence the higher chance of cancer detection, in that group (30 vs. 0.5 and 1.2%). The two subsequent reports found no deaths from thyroid cancer among patients treated exclusively with antithyroid drugs through 1990 and 2014. A nested case-control study found an odds ratio (OR) of thyroid cancer of 2.79 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-10.02, from a 2-year lag analysis] for ≥3 vs. no propylthiouracil prescriptions. The increased risk can be attributed to advanced diagnosis of an underlying cancer, as suggested by the stronger association observed in a no-lag analysis (OR, 8.03). In a historical cohort of newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients, the hazard ratio for treatment with radioactive iodine vs. thionamides only was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.21-0.99), possibly due to the closer surveillance of patients receiving thionamides only. Two case-control studies did not find any association with the use of antithyroid drugs. As for ethylenethiourea, no thyroid cancer cases were found in a historical cohort of 1929 workers occupationally exposed in a 15-year period and no association with proxies of mancozeb exposure (a fungicide whose main metabolite is ethylenethiourea) was detected in a cohort of >236 000 farmers. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence for a relevant role of either antithyroid drugs or ethylenethiourea on thyroid cancer.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 31, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy associated cancer (PAC) may lead to adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. This study aims to assess the association between PACs and adverse perinatal outcomes [i.e. labor induction, iatrogenic delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) newborn, low Apgar score, major malformations, perinatal mortality] in Lombardy, Northern Italy. METHODS: This population-based historic cohort study used the certificate of delivery assistance and the regional healthcare utilization databases of Lombardy Region to identify beneficiaries of National Health Service who delivered between 2008 and 2017. PACs were defined through oncological ICD-9-CM codes reported in the hospital discharge forms. Each woman with PAC was matched to four women randomly selected from those cancer-free (1:4). Log-binomial regression models were fitted to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) of each perinatal outcome among PAC and cancer-free women. RESULTS: Out of the 657,968 deliveries, 831 PACs were identified (1.26 per 1000). PAC diagnosed during pregnancy was positively associated with labor induction or planned delivery (aPR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.57-2.07), cesarean section (aPR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.49-2.11) and premature birth (aPR=6.34, 95% CI: 4.59-8.75). No association with obstetric outcomes was found among PAC diagnosed in the post-pregnancy. No association of PAC, neither during pregnancy nor in post-pregnancy was found for SGA (aPR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.36-1.35 and aPR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.78-1.39, respectively), but newborn among PAC women had a lower birth weight (p-value< 0.001). Newborns of women with PAC diagnosed during pregnancy had a higher risk of borderline significance of a low Apgar score (aPR=2.65, 95% CI: 0.96-7.33) as compared to cancer-free women. CONCLUSION: PAC, especially when diagnosed during pregnancy, is associated with iatrogenic preterm delivery, compromising some neonatal heath indicators.

6.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(1): 1-14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Predicted cancer mortality figures are useful for public health planning. We predicted cancer mortality rates in Israel, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, Korea, Australia, Russia and Ukraine for the year 2020 using the most recent available data. We focused on breast cancer. METHODS: We obtained cancer death certification and population data from the WHO and the United Nations Population Division databases. We derived figures for 10 major cancer sites and total cancers over 1970-2017. We predicted numbers of deaths and age-standardized mortality rates for 2020 through joinpoint regression models. We calculated the number of avoided deaths from 1994-2020. RESULTS: Overall, total cancer mortality is predicted to decline. Russia had the highest all cancers rates in 2020, 151.9/100 000 men and 79.6 women; the Philippines had the lowest rate in men, 78.0/100 000, Korea in women, 47.5. Stomach cancer rates declined over the whole period in all countries considered, colorectal cancer since the late 1990s. Trends for pancreas were inconsistent. Predicted rates for lung and breast cancer were favourable; women from Hong Kong, Korea and Australia had lung cancer death rates higher than breast ones. Predicted rates for uterine, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancers and leukaemias were downward for most countries. Between 1994 and 2020, over 3.3 million cancer deaths were avoided in the considered countries, except for the Philippines where no reduction was observed. CONCLUSION: Predicted cancer rates were lower than in the European Union and the USA, even though falls started later and were less marked.

7.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is related to higher levels of circulating androgens, but its association with androgen receptor (AR) status is still unaddressed. METHODS: We analysed, with a case-only approach, smoking habits according to AR status in 112 cases of invasive female breast cancer, from the Piedmont Cancer Registry. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The OR of AR-positive breast cancer (versus AR-negative) for ever smokers (versus never) was 2.85 (95% CI 1.02-7.96). CONCLUSION: Smoking is related to AR-positive breast cancer.

8.
Med Lav ; 111(6): 445-448, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed at describing the attitudes towards influenza vaccination and a potential COVID-19 vaccine in Italy. METHODS: A nationally representative survey based on 1055 Italians aged 15-85 years was conducted in September 16-28, 2020. RESULTS: We found that 40.8% of the population reported the intention to be vaccinated against influenza next winter and 53.7% would accept to receive a potential COVID-19 vaccine. The percentages were higher among individuals aged 55 and over (58.8% for influenza vaccine and 58.2% for a potential COVID-19 vaccine) and among professionals, managers and teachers as compared to manual workers and farmers (36.1% vs. 27.6% for influenza vaccine and 51.6% vs. 44.8% for a potential COVID-19 vaccine). DISCUSSION: These data confirm a certain degree of vaccine mistrust in Italy, especially among less qualified workers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The considerable differences in food consumption across countries pose major challenges to the research on diet and cancer, due to the difficulty to generalise and reproduce the dietary patterns identified in a specific population. METHODS: We analysed data from a multicentric case-control study on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) carried out between 1992 and 2009 in three Italian areas and in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, which included 505 cases and 1259 hospital controls. Dietary patterns were derived applying LCA on 24 food groups, controlling for country membership, and non-alcoholic energy intake. A multiple logistic regression model was used to derive odds ratio (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs for ESCC according to the dietary patterns identified, correcting for classification error. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We identified three dietary patterns. The 'Prudent' pattern was distinguished by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The 'Western' pattern was characterised by low consumption of these food groups and higher intakes of sugar. The 'Lower consumers-combination pattern' exhibited a diet poor in most of the nutrients, preferences for fish, potatoes, meat and a few specific types of vegetables. Differences between Italy and Switzerland emerged for pattern sizes and for specific single food preferences. Compared to the 'Prudent' pattern, the 'Western' and the 'Lower consumers-combination' patterns were associated with an increased risk of ESCC (OR=3.04, 95% CI=2.12-4.38 and OR=2.81, 95% CI=1.65-4.76).

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092262

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(17): 16744-16758, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a higher proportion of adults live beyond 85 years, their cancer burden is expected to increase. While trends among the oldest old are established for major epithelial cancers (breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers), they are less studied for minor cancers. This study describes age trends of cancer mortality, with emphasis on individuals aged 85+ years. RESULTS: Overall cancer mortality peaked at 85 years old and decreased or stabilized for all countries except the USA, France, and Japan, in which mortality continued to increase after age 85 years. For most countries, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, liver, and larynx have a similar flat trend patterns across all ages. Bladder and kidney cancers as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia showed a decreasing pattern after 85 years for UK, Germany, Italy and Poland. Lung cancer peaked at 80 years, although the age-specific peak among women did not follow the same pattern among all countries. Breast and prostate cancers increased after 85 years. CONCLUSION: Mortality stabilized or decreased after age 85, particularly for non-hormonal cancers. Whether this reflects a true biological levelling of mortality rates, or lower validity of cancer registration among the oldest old, remains open to discussion. METHODS: Completed death data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) for eight countries (2000 to 2014). Age-specific mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year age group above age 64. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends by age.

13.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. METHODS: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables. RESULTS: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20). CONCLUSION: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer.

14.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 367-381, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740162

RESUMO

Cancer mortality has declined over the last three decades in most high-income countries reflecting improvements in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and management. However, there are persisting and substantial differences in mortality, incidence, and survival worldwide. In order to provide an up-to-date overview of trends in mortality, incidence, and survival, we retrieved data from high-quality, population-based cancer registries for all cancers and 10 selected cancer sites in six high-income countries and the European Union. We computed age-standardized (world standard population) mortality and incidence rates, and applied joinpoint regression models. Mortality from all cancers and most common cancer sites has declined over the last 25 years, except for the pancreas and lung (in women). The patterns for incidence are less consistent between countries, except for a steady decrease in stomach cancer in both sexes and lung cancer in men. Survival for all cancers and the selected cancer sites increased in all countries, even if there is still a substantial variability. Although overall cancer death rates continue to decline, incidence rates have been levelling off among men and have been moderately increasing among women. These trends reflect changes in cancer risk factors, screening test use, diagnostic practices, and treatment advances. Many cancers can be prevented or treated effectively if they are diagnosed early. Population-based cancer incidence and mortality data can be used to focus efforts to decrease the cancer burden and regularly monitor progress towards cancer control goals.

15.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 408-415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732694

RESUMO

A survey was conducted through a web link on the students and staff of the Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy in the period 14-30 April 2020. It was anonymous at the source and included history of COVID-19-related questions (fever, headache, cold, cough, anosmia, gastrointestinal complaints and separately fever over 38.5°C) in the previous three weeks, and similar information on cohabitants. A total of 14 374 subjects were included. Overall, from 24 March to 30 April, 3138 subjects (21.8%) reported COVID-19-like symptoms, and 219 (1.5%) fever above 38.5°C; 217 subjects performed at least one swab. Of these, 46 were positive (21.3% of those performed, 0.3% of the total). The frequency of any symptom was similar in women and men, but fever above 38.5°C was lower in women (multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.49-0.85). There was a strong association between symptoms in the respondent and in cohabitants: 64% of subjects with symptoms reported at least one cohabitant with symptoms, compared to 14% of asymptomatic subjects (OR = 11.4, 95% CI, 10.4-12.6). The lower risk of serious symptoms in women, and the strong intra-nucleus of cohabitation contagiousness are an indication that at least part of the symptoms was caused by a new pathogen - SARS-CoV-2. These data, therefore, suggest that the number of persons affected by COVID-19 was much greater in northern Italy than the number of recorded cases. This has implications for the prevention, management and mortality of other serious diseases, including cancer.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 123(9): 1456-1463, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). This study aims to explore the effect of alcohol intensity and duration, as joint continuous exposures, on HNC risk. METHODS: Data from 26 case-control studies in the INHANCE Consortium were used, including never and current drinkers who drunk ≤10 drinks/day for ≤54 years (24234 controls, 4085 oral cavity, 3359 oropharyngeal, 983 hypopharyngeal and 3340 laryngeal cancers). The dose-response relationship between the risk and the joint exposure to drinking intensity and duration was investigated through bivariate regression spline models, adjusting for potential confounders, including tobacco smoking. RESULTS: For all subsites, cancer risk steeply increased with increasing drinks/day, with no appreciable threshold effect at lower intensities. For each intensity level, the risk of oral cavity, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers did not vary according to years of drinking, suggesting no effect of duration. For oropharyngeal cancer, the risk increased with durations up to 28 years, flattening thereafter. The risk peaked at the higher levels of intensity and duration for all subsites (odds ratio = 7.95 for oral cavity, 12.86 for oropharynx, 24.96 for hypopharynx and 6.60 for larynx). CONCLUSIONS: Present results further encourage the reduction of alcohol intensity to mitigate HNC risk.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate trends in sex ratios in epithelial cancer mortality in the EU, USA, and Japan, with a focus on age-specific and cohort patterns. METHODS: We obtained certified deaths and resident populations from the World Health Organisation for the period of 1970-2014 for the USA, Japan, and the EU for 12 epithelial cancer sites. From these, we calculated both the age-specific and age-standardised male-to-female mortality sex ratios. We applied an age-period-cohort model to the sex ratios in order to disentangle the effects of age, period of death, and birth cohort. RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality sex ratios were found to be unfavourable to males, apart from thyroid cancer. The highest standardised rates were in laryngeal cancer: 7·7 in the 1970s in the USA, 17·4 in the 1980s in the EU, and 16·8 in the 2000s in Japan. Cohort patterns likely to be due to excess smoking (1890 cohort) and drinking (1940 cohort) in men were identified in the USA, and were present but less defined in the EU and Japan for the oral cavity, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung, bladder, and kidney. CONCLUSION: Mortality sex ratio patterns are partly explained by the differences in exposure to known and avoidable risk factors. These are mostly tobacco, alcohol, and obesity/overweight, as well as other lifestyle-related factors.


Assuntos
Razão de Masculinidade , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Neoplasias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101768, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593162

RESUMO

AIM: To monitor trends in childhood cancer mortality in Europe. METHODS: We calculated age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 children (age 0-14 years) from 1990 to the last available calendar year, for all neoplasms and six main cancers in childhood, in selected European countries and geographic areas, plus the European Union (EU), using data from the World Health Organization database. We carried out a joinpoint regression analysis of mortality trends for all neoplasms, leukaemia and tumours of the nervous system. Results of the joinpoint regression were summarized through annual percent change (APC) for each identified linear segment, and weighted average APC (AAPC) over the whole period. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2015, childhood total cancer mortality rates dropped by 2.8% per year in the EU, to reach 2.6/100,000 in the latest available calendar years. The greatest declines were in central-eastern countries (AAPCs -3% to -4%). Recent rates ranged between 1.7 and 4.3 deaths/100,000, with the highest values in central-eastern Europe. Leukaemia mortality rates in the EU decreased from 1.6 to 0.6/100,000 in the latest calendar years (AAPC -4%). The deepest declines were registered in central-eastern countries, though they still showed the highest rates (0.9). The lowest leukaemia mortality rates were in northern-western Europe (0.5/100,000), but also in the Czech Republic and Poland. Southern European countries showed comparatively high rates (0.8). Nervous system tumours showed relatively modest falls (AAPC: -1.7% in the EU). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood cancer mortality continued to decline steady in Europe, though geographic differences persist. Further efforts are required to fill the gap, by promoting widespread and rational adoption of currently available treatment protocols.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3090-3101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525569

RESUMO

A low intake of fruits and vegetables is a risk factor for gastric cancer, although there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the associations. In our study, the relationship between fruits and vegetables intake and gastric cancer was assessed, complementing a previous work on the association betweenconsumption of citrus fruits and gastric cancer. Data from 25 studies (8456 cases and 21 133 controls) with information on fruits and/or vegetables intake were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age and the main known risk factors for gastric cancer) odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exposure-response relations, including linear and nonlinear associations, were modeled using one- and two-order fractional polynomials. Gastric cancer risk was lower for a higher intake of fruits (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.02), vegetables (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84), and fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.49-0.75); results were consistent across sociodemographic and lifestyles categories, as well as study characteristics. Exposure-response analyses showed an increasingly protective effect of portions/day of fruits (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.73 for six portions), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83 for six portions) and vegetables (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60 for 10 portions). A protective effect of all fruits, noncitrus fruits and vegetables was confirmed, supporting further dietary recommendations to decrease the burden of gastric cancer.

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