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1.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 48(2): 265-276, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642028

RESUMO

Prior research has suggested that disadvantaged neighborhood contexts alter the etiology of youth antisocial behavior (ASB). Unfortunately, these studies have relied exclusively on governmental data collected in administratively-defined neighborhoods (e.g., Census tracts or block groups, zip codes), a less than optimal approach for studying neighborhood effects. It would thus be important to extend prior findings of GxE using neighborhood sampling techniques, in which disadvantage is assessed via resident informant-reports of the neighborhood. The current study sought to do just this, examining two independent twin samples from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Neighborhood disadvantage was assessed via maternal and neighbor informant-reports, the latter of which were analyzed multiple ways (i.e., all neighbors within 1 km, nearest neighbor, and all neighbors within the County). Analyses revealed clear and consistent evidence of moderation by neighborhood disadvantage, regardless of informant or the specific operationalization of neighborhood. Shared environmental influences on ASB were observed to be several-fold larger in disadvantaged contexts, while genetic influences were proportionally more influential in advantaged neighborhoods. Such findings indicate that neighborhood disadvantage exerts rather profound effects on the origins of youth ASB. Efforts should now be made to identify the active ingredients of neighborhood disadvantage.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-4, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666146

RESUMO

The Pennsylvania Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Twin Registry was developed to capture a representative sample of multiple births and their parents in the state of Pennsylvania. The registry has two main efforts. The first began in 2012 through recruitment of adolescents in Pennsylvania schools. The second effort began in January 2019 in partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Health to capture the birth cohort of twins born from 2007 to 2017. Study recruitment, sample demographics, focus and measures are provided, as well as future directions.

3.
Soc Dev ; 28(3): 725-742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579353

RESUMO

The effect of parental depression on children's adjustment has been well documented, with exposure during early childhood particularly detrimental. Most studies that examine links between parental depression and child behavior are confounded methodologically because they focus on parents raising children who are genetically related to them. Another limitation of most prior research is a tendency to focus only on the effects of maternal depression while ignoring the influence of fathers' depression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether infants' exposure to both parents' depressive symptoms, and inherited risk from birth mother internalizing symptoms, was related to school age children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Study data come from a longitudinal adoption study of 561 adoptive parents, biological mothers, and adopted children. Adoptive fathers' depressive symptoms during infancy contributed independent variance to the prediction of children's internalizing symptoms and also moderated associations between adoptive mothers' depressive symptoms and child externalizing symptoms.

4.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526412

RESUMO

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents and adopted children (n = 561 adoptees). The original sample has been expanded to include siblings of the EGDS adoptees who were reared by the birth mother and assessed beginning at age 7 years (n = 217 biological children), and additional siblings in both the birth and adoptive family homes, recruited when the adoptees were 8-15 years old (n = 823). The overall study aims are to examine how family, peer and contextual processes affect child and adolescent adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Adoptive and birth parents were originally recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the USA following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing and occurred in 9 month's intervals until the adoptees turned 3 years of age, and in 1 to 2 year intervals thereafter through age 15. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, behavior problems, mental health, peer relations, executive functioning, school performance and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, health, context, substance use, parenting and marital relations; and the prenatal environment. Findings highlight the power of the adoption design to detect environmental influences on child development and provide evidence of complex interactions and correlations between genetic, prenatal environmental and postnatal environmental influences on a range of child outcomes. The study sample, procedures and an overview of findings are summarized and ongoing assessment activities are described.

5.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1633-1647, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439063

RESUMO

To advance research from Dishion and others on associations between parenting and peer problems across childhood, we used a sample of 177 sibling pairs reared apart since birth (because of adoption of one of the siblings) to examine associations between parental hostility and children's peer problems when children were ages 7 and 9.5 years (n = 329 children). We extended conventional cross-lagged parent-peer models by incorporating child inhibitory control as an additional predictor and examining genetic contributions via birth mother psychopathology. Path models indicated a cross-lagged association from parental hostility to later peer problems. When child inhibitory control was included, birth mother internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer child inhibitory control, which was associated with more parental hostility and peer problems. The cross-lagged paths from parental hostility to peer problems were no longer significant in the full model. Multigroup analyses revealed that the path from birth mother internalizing symptoms to child inhibitory control was significantly higher for birth parent-reared children, indicating the possible contribution of passive gene-environment correlation to this association. Exploratory analyses suggested that each child's unique rearing context contributed to his or her inhibitory control and peer behavior. Implications for the development of evidence-based interventions are discussed.

6.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462446

RESUMO

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) has risen in prevalence from 1.2 per 1000 births in 2000 to 5.8 per 1000 births in 2012. Symptoms in neonates may include high-pitched cry, tremors, feeding difficulty, hypertonia, watery stools, and breathing problems. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal opioid exposure in infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood. Even less is known about the cognitive, behavioral, and academic outcomes of children who develop NOWS. We review the state of the literature on the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal opioid exposure with a particular focus on studies in which NOWS outcomes were examined. Aiming to reduce the incidence of prenatal opioid exposure in the near future, we highlight the need for large studies with prospectively recruited participants and longitudinal designs, taking into account confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, institutional variations in care, and maternal use of other substances, to independently assess the full impact of NOWS. As a more immediate solution, we provide an agenda for future research that leverages the National Institutes of Health Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes program to address many of the serious methodologic gaps in the literature, and we answer key questions regarding the short- and long-term neurodevelopmental health of children with prenatal opioid exposure.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fatores de Risco
7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior work has robustly suggested that social processes in the neighborhood (i.e. informal social control, social cohesion, norms) influence child conduct problems (CP) and related outcomes, but has yet to consider how these community-level influences interact with individual-level genetic risk for CP. The current study sought to do just this, evaluating neighborhood-level social processes as etiologic moderators of child CP for the first time. METHODS: We made use of two nested samples of child and adolescent twins within the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): 5649 families who participated in in the Michigan Twins Project (MTP) and 1013 families who participated in the Twin Study of Behavioral and Emotional Development (TBED-C). The neighborhood social processes of informal social control, social cohesion, and norms were assessed using neighborhood sampling techniques, in which residents of each twin family's neighborhood reported on the social processes in their neighborhood. Standard biometric GxE analyses evaluated the extent to which they moderated the etiology of CP. RESULTS: The 'no moderation' model provided the best fit to the data in nearly all cases, arguing against neighborhood social processes as etiologic moderators of youth CP. CONCLUSIONS: The neighborhood social processes evaluated here do not appear to exert their effects on child CP via etiologic moderation. The documented links between neighborhood social processes and child CP are thus likely to reflect a different etiologic process. Possibilities include environmental main effects of neighborhood social processes on child CP, or genotype-environment correlations.

8.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(12): 1269-1277, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety in parents is associated with anxiety in offspring, although little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these intergenerational associations. We conducted the first genetically sensitive study to simultaneously examine the effects of mother, father and child anxiety symptoms on each other over time. METHOD: Adoptive parent and child symptoms were measured at child ages 6, 7 and 8 years from 305 families involved in the Early Growth and Development Study, using a prospective adoption design. Children were adopted at birth to nonrelatives, and composite data on internalising problems within birth families were used as a proxy measure of offspring inherited risk for anxiety. Structural equation models were fitted to the data to examine prospective associations between adoptive mother, father and child symptoms, whilst accounting for individuals' symptom stability over time. RESULTS: Child anxiety symptoms at age 7 predicted adoptive mothers' anxiety symptoms at age 8. No mother-to-child or child-to-father effects were observed. These results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using only paternal offspring reports and using a second measure of child anxiety symptoms. Fathers' anxiety symptoms at child age 6 prospectively predicted child symptoms, but only when paternal offspring reports were included in the model. Composite data on birth family internalising problems were not associated with child anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results show environmentally mediated associations between parent and child anxiety symptoms. Results support developmental theories suggesting that child anxiety symptoms can exert influence on caregivers, and mothers and fathers may play unique roles during the development of child symptoms. Further research is needed on the role of genetic transmission associated with anxiety symptoms in biologically related families. In the meantime, researchers and clinicians should strive to include fathers in assessments and consider the effects of child symptoms on caregivers.

9.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1164-1181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843708

RESUMO

This study examines interactions of heritable influences, prenatal substance use, and postnatal parental warmth and hostility on the development of conduct problems in middle childhood for boys and girls. Participants are 561 linked families, collected in 2 cohorts, including birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Heritable influences on internalizing and externalizing (including substance use) problems were derived from birth mothers' and fathers' symptoms, diagnoses, and age of onset from diagnostic interviews, and the proportion of first-degree relatives with the same type of problems. Smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and alcohol use during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively from birth mothers at 5 months postpartum. Earlier externalizing problems and parental warmth and hostility and were assessed at 1 assessment prior to the outcome (Cohort II: 4.5 years; Cohort I: 7 years). Conduct problems were symptoms from a diagnostic interview assessed at age 6 (Cohort II) or 8 (Cohort I). Findings from regression analyses suggest that (a) SDP plays an important role for the development of conduct problems, (b) some relatively well-accepted effects (e.g., parental hostility) were less important when simultaneously considering multiple factors influencing the development of conduct problems, and (c) main effects of genetic risk and SDP, and interactions among genetic risk and postnatal warmth, SDP and postnatal warmth, and genetic risk, SDP, and postnatal hostility for conduct problems were important for boys' but not girls' conduct problems. Replication is needed, but the current results provide preliminary but empirically grounded hypotheses for future research testing complex developmental models of conduct problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Alcoolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 645-652, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations between sleep duration, BMI, and cortisol levels across childhood. METHODS: Participants included 361 children adopted domestically in the United States. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel models tested for between-person and bidirectional within-person associations of sleep duration, BMI, and morning and evening cortisol at age 4.5 to 9 years. RESULTS: Sleep duration and BMI were stable during childhood, inversely associated at the between-person level, and unrelated to morning or evening cortisol. BMI at age 6 years predicted longer sleep duration and lower evening cortisol at age 7 years, and lower morning cortisol at age 7 years predicted higher BMI at age 9 years within individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The association between sleep and BMI is more likely a stable between-person phenomenon rather than a unidirectional association that develops within individuals over time.

11.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1182-1190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816723

RESUMO

A plethora of studies with parents and children who are biologically related has shown that the family environment plays an important role in child development. However, scientists have long known that a rigorous examination of environmental effects requires research designs that go beyond studies of genetically linked family members. Harnessing the principles of sibling comparison and animal cross-fostering designs, we introduce a novel approach: the siblings-reared-apart design. Supplementing the traditional adoption design of adopted child and adoptive parents with a sample of the adopted children's birth parents who raised their biological child(ren) at home (i.e., biological siblings of adoptees), this design provides opportunities to evaluate the role of specific rearing environments. In this proof of concept approach, we tested whether rearing environments differed between adoptive and birth families. Using data from 118 sets of adoption-linked families, each consisting of an adoptive family and the adoptee's birth family, both of whom are raising at least a child in each home, we found that compared with families in the birth homes, (a) adoptive families had higher household incomes and maternal educational attainment; (b) adoptive mothers displayed more guiding parenting, less harsh parenting, and less maternal depression; and (c) socioeconomic differences between the two homes did not account for the behavioral differences in mothers. We discuss the potential of the sibling-reared-apart design to advance developmental science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adoção , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Behav Genet ; 49(2): 175-186, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656439

RESUMO

Virtuous character development in children is correlated with parenting behavior, but the role of genetic influences in this association has not been examined. Using a longitudinal twin/sibling study (N = 720; Time 1 (T1) Mage = 12-14 years, Time 3 (T3) Mage = 25-27 years), the current report examines associations among parental negativity/positivity and offspring responsibility during adolescence, and subsequent young adult conscientiousness. Findings indicate that associations among parental negativity and offspring virtuous character during adolescence and young adulthood are due primarily to heritable influences. In contrast, the association between concurrent parental positivity and adolescent responsibility was due primarily to heritable and shared environmental influences. These findings underscore the contributions of heritable influences to the associations between parenting and virtuous character that have previously been assumed to be only environmentally influenced, emphasizing the complexity of mechanisms involved in the development of virtuous character.


Assuntos
Padrões de Herança/genética , Socialização , Virtudes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Poder Familiar , Fenótipo
13.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(1): 34-43, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475004

RESUMO

Prior work indicates that aspects of interpersonal relationships are heritable, including negativity within parent-adolescent relationships as well as romantic relationships during adulthood. There have not, however, been systematic studies to disentangle genetic and environmental influences on relationship dynamics with parents as they relate to romantic partner relationship dynamics. Thus, the present study examined genetic and environmental influences on associations between parent-adolescent conflict and young adult reports of negativity with a romantic partner using a longitudinal twin/sibling design. We found that genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors contributed to conflict in parent-adolescent relationships and that genetic and nonshared environmental factors uniquely contributed to negativity in the romantic partnership during young adulthood. The longitudinal association between parent-adolescent conflict and romantic relationship conflict was explained entirely by genetic influences shared by the 2 constructs. These findings have implications for understanding interpersonal functioning across different relationship types, spanning multiple developmental periods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Relações Interpessoais , Relações Pais-Filho , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Irmãos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Abnorm Child Psychol ; 47(5): 811-823, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306411

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors increase children's risk for subsequent antisocial behavior. This risk process may begin in early childhood with reciprocal pathways between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. In a sample of 561 linked triads of biological mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children, the present study examined bidirectional links between CU behaviors and harsh parenting across three time points from 18 to 54 months and investigated moderation by inherited risk for psychopathic traits. Child CU behaviors and harsh parenting were measured using adoptive mother and adoptive father reports, and biological mothers provided reports of their personality characteristics. Findings supported reciprocal associations between harsh parenting and CU behaviors during early childhood, especially during the transition from toddlerhood (27 months) to the preschool period (54 months). Moreover, multiple-group analyses showed that level of inherited risk moderated associations between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. Specifically, there were statistically reliable associations between CU behaviors at 27 months and adoptive mothers' harsh parenting at 54 months, and between adoptive fathers' harsh parenting at 27 months and CU behaviors at 54 months among children at higher inherited risk, but not among those at lower inherited risk. The findings illustrate the dynamic interplay between parenting, CU behaviors, and heritable risk.

15.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 713-725, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021669

RESUMO

Although there is growing recognition that disadvantaged contexts attenuate genetic influences on youth misbehavior, it is not yet clear how this dampening occurs. The current study made use of a "geographic contagion" model to isolate specific contexts contributing to this effect, with a focus on nonaggressive rule-breaking behaviors (RB) in the families' neighbors. Our sample included 847 families residing in or near modestly-to-severely disadvantaged neighborhoods who participated in the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Neighborhood sampling techniques were used to recruit neighbors residing within 5km of a given family (the mean number of neighbors assessed per family was 13.09; range, 1-47). Analyses revealed clear evidence of genotype-environment interactions by neighbor RB, such that sibling-level shared environmental influences on child RB increased with increasing neighbor self-reports of their own RB, whereas genetic influences decreased. Moreover, this moderation appeared to be driven by geographic proximity to neighbors. Sensitivity analyses further indicated that this effect was specifically accounted for by higher levels of neighbor joblessness, rather than elements of neighbor RB that would contribute to neighborhood blight or crime. Such findings provocatively suggest that future genotype-environment interactions studies should integrate the dynamic networks of social contagion theory.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Características de Residência , Irmãos , Meio Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Sistema de Registros , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Behav Genet ; 49(2): 168-174, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922983

RESUMO

In this paper, we provide an overview of our ongoing project in the Genetics and Human Agency Initiative sponsored by the John Templeton Foundation. Our project focuses on the ways that lay beliefs about the heritability of virtue influence reasoning about the nature of virtue, parenting behaviors, and the development of virtue in children. First, we provide philosophical perspectives on the nature of virtue and suggest that viewing virtue as a malleable skill may have important advantages. Next, we review theory and research that highlights the ways that lay heritability beliefs potentially undermine conceptualizations of virtue as a malleable skill. Finally, we discuss how lay heritability beliefs might ultimately affect parent-child interactions and child virtue development. The paper thus provides a brief description our project's theoretical foundation and a general look at the empirical questions it will tackle.


Assuntos
Cultura , Genes , Padrões de Herança/genética , Virtudes , Humanos , Poder Familiar
17.
Child Dev ; 90(4): e468-e485, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460308

RESUMO

This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents' social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners' social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes.

18.
Intelligence ; 68: 70-81, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573937

RESUMO

Age moderation of genetic and environmental contributions to Digits Forward, Digits Backward, Block Design, Symbol Digit, Vocabulary, and Synonyms was investigated in a sample of 14,534 twins aged 26 to 98 years. The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) consortium contributed the sample, which represents nine studies from three countries (USA, Denmark, and Sweden). Average test performance was lower in successively older age groups for all tests. Significant age moderation of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental variance components was observed, but the pattern varied by test. The genetic contribution to phenotypic variance across age was smaller for both Digit Span tests, greater for Synonyms, and stable for Block Design and Symbol Digit. The non-shared environmental contribution was greater with age for the Digit Span tests and Block Design, while the shared environmental component was small for all tests, often more so with age. Vocabulary showed similar age-moderation patterns as Synonyms, but these effects were nonsignificant. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of cognitive aging.

19.
Dev Psychol ; 54(12): 2356-2370, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335430

RESUMO

We examined whether attained socioeconomic status (SES) moderated genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in cognitive performance using pooled data from 9 adult twin studies. Prior work concerning SES moderation of cognitive performance has focused on rearing SES. The current adult sample of 12,196 individuals (aged 27-98 years) allowed for the examination of common sources of individual differences between attained SES and cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment correlation mechanisms, rGE), as well as sources of individual differences unique to cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment interaction mechanisms, G × E). Attained SES moderated sources of individual differences in 4 cognitive domains, assessed via performance on 5 cognitive tests ranging 2,149 to 8,722 participants. Attained SES moderated common sources of influences for 3 domains and influences unique to cognition in all 4 domains. The net effect was that genetic influences on the common pathway tended to be relatively more important at the upper end of attained SES indicating possible active rGE, whereas, genetic influences for the unique pathway were proportionally stable or less important at the upper end of attained SES. As a noted exception, at the upper end of attained SES, genetic influences unique to perceptual speed were amplified and genetic influences on the common pathway were dampened. Accounting for rearing SES did not alter attained SES moderation effects on cognitive performance, suggesting mechanisms germane to adulthood. Our findings suggest the importance of gene-environment mechanisms through which attained SES moderates sources of individual differences in cognitive performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Dev Psychol ; 54(11): 2090-2100, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265026

RESUMO

Anger is a central characteristic of negative affect and is relatively stable from infancy onward. Absolute levels of anger typically peak in early childhood and diminish as children become socialized and better able to regulate emotions. From infancy to school age, however, there are also individual differences in rank-order levels of anger. For example, although decreasing in absolute levels, some children may stay the same and others may increase in rank order relative to their peers. Although change in rank order of anger over time may provide unique insight into children's social development, little is known concerning variations in developmental patterns of anger from a rank-order perspective and how these patterns are related to children's behavioral adjustment. The current study (N = 361) used group-based trajectory analysis and identified 6 distinct patterns of parent-reported child anger by rank across 9 months to 7 years: low-stable rank, average-stable rank, average-decreasing rank, average-increasing rank, high-decreasing rank, and high-stable rank. Most children (65.1%) were in low- to average-rank groups. However, 28.2% and 6.7% of the children were in average-increasing and high-stable groups, respectively. Children in the high-stable group showed elevated levels of externalizing and internalizing problems at age 8 compared to children in the average-stable, average-decreasing, and high-decreasing groups. These findings help to clarify different patterns of anger development across childhood and how they may relate to later problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Masculino
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