Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 270
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806834

RESUMO

Among transgender and gender diverse people, psychological gender affirmation is an internal sense of valuing oneself as a transgender or gender diverse person, being comfortable with one's gender identity, and feeling satisfied with one's body and gender expression. Gender affirmation can reduce gender dysphoria and mitigate deleterious health effects of marginalization. We sought to create an instrument to measure psychological gender affirmation among transgender women. Following initial item development using qualitative interviews, we used self-administered survey data from two distinct samples (N1 = 278; N2 = 368) of transgender women living with HIV in the USA. We used data from Study 1 to perform exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and data from Study 2 to perform confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), yielding the five-item single-factor Psychological Gender Affirmation (PGA) scale with high reliability (α = 0.88). This scale is psychometrically sound as demonstrated by its convergent and discriminant validity via correlations with select measures and by its predictive validity through associations in hypothesized directions with measures of mental health and substance use. The PGA scale will aid research on psychological gender affirmation that can in turn inform interventions as well as gender-affirming clinical and social practices to promote the health and well-being of transgender and gender diverse people.

2.
J Adolesc Health ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of a family economic empowerment (EE) intervention and family support on sexual risk-taking behaviors among adolescents living with HIV in rural Uganda. METHODS: We used data from the Suubi + Adherence study, a longitudinal cluster randomized clinical trial of 702 adolescents living with HIV aged 10-16 years. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control arm (n = 358) receiving bolstered standard of care or a treatment arm (n = 344) receiving bolstered standard of care plus the family EE intervention. We used mixed-effects models to examine the effect of the EE intervention and family support on sexual risk-taking behaviors at the baseline, 12 months, and 24 months after intervention initiation. RESULTS: Adolescents in both the intervention and control groups did not differ significantly in their sexual risk-taking attitudes at the baseline and over the 24-month follow-up period. Higher levels of caregiver social support were significantly associated with a decrease in attitudes toward sexual risk-taking (ß = -.40, 95%CI = -.51, -.29). More frequent parent-child communication was significantly associated with increased negative sexual risk-taking attitudes (ß = .21, 95%CI = .16, .26). CONCLUSIONS: Although we find no direct relationship between family EE and attitudes related to sexual risk-taking behaviors, we find that a supportive family environment can promote positive attitudes related to sexual risk-taking behaviors. The effectiveness of sexual risk reduction interventions would be enhanced by engaging families and strengthening supportive relationships between adolescents and their caregivers.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e037468, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in HIV treatment have proven to be effective in increasing virological suppression, thereby decreasing morbidity, and increasing survival. Medication adherence is an important factor in reducing viral load among people living with HIV (PLWH) and in the elimination of transmission of HIV to uninfected partners. Achieving optimal medication adherence involves individuals taking their medications every day or as prescribed by their provider. However, not all PLWH in the USA are engaged in care, and only a minority have achieved suppressed viral load (viral load that is lower than the detectable limit of the assay). Sexual and gender minorities (SGM; those who do not identify as heterosexual or those who do not identify as the sex they were assigned at birth) represent a high-risk population for poor clinical outcomes and increased risk of HIV transmission, as they face barriers that can prevent optimal engagement in HIV care. Research in dyadic support, specifically within primary romantic partnerships, offers a promising avenue to improving engagement in care and treatment outcomes among SGM couples. Dyadic interventions, especially focused on primary romantic partnerships, have the potential to have a sustained impact after the structured intervention ends. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This paper describes the protocol for a randomised control trial of a theory-grounded, piloted intervention (DuoPACT) that cultivates and leverages the inherent sources of support within primary romantic relationships to improve engagement in HIV care and thus clinical outcomes among persons who are living with HIV and who identify as SGM (or their partners). Eligible participants must report being in a primary romantic relationship for at least 3 months, speak English, at least one partner must identify as a sexual or gender minority and at least one partner must be HIV+ with suboptimal engagement in HIV care, defined as less than excellent medication adherence, having not seen a provider in at least the past 8 months, having a detectable or unknown viral load or not currently on antiretroviral therapy. Eligible consenting couples are allocated equally to the two study arms: a structured six-session couples counselling intervention (DuoPACT) or a three-session individually-delivered HIV adherence counselling intervention (LifeSteps). The primary aim is to evaluate the efficacy of DuoPACT on virological suppression among HIV+ members of SGM couples with suboptimal engagement in care. The DuoPACT study began its target enrolment of 150 couples (300 individuals) in August 2017, and will continue to enrol until June 2021. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All procedures are approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, San Francisco. Written informed consent is obtained from all participants at enrolment, and study progress is reviewed twice yearly by an external Safety Monitoring Committee. Dissemination activities will include formal publications and report back sessions with the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02925949; Pre-results.

5.
Biol Sex Differ ; 12(1): 23, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we argue for Gender as a Sociocultural Variable (GASV) as a complement to Sex as a Biological Variable (SABV). Sex (biology) and gender (sociocultural behaviors and attitudes) interact to influence health and disease processes across the lifespan-which is currently playing out in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study develops a gender assessment tool-the Stanford Gender-Related Variables for Health Research-for use in clinical and population research, including large-scale health surveys involving diverse Western populations. While analyzing sex as a biological variable is widely mandated, gender as a sociocultural variable is not, largely because the field lacks quantitative tools for analyzing the influence of gender on health outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive review of English-language measures of gender from 1975 to 2015 to identify variables across three domains: gender norms, gender-related traits, and gender relations. This yielded 11 variables tested with 44 items in three US cross-sectional survey populations: two internet-based (N = 2051; N = 2135) and a patient-research registry (N = 489), conducted between May 2017 and January 2018. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses reduced 11 constructs to 7 gender-related variables: caregiver strain, work strain, independence, risk-taking, emotional intelligence, social support, and discrimination. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, ethnicity, income, education, sex assigned at birth, and self-reported gender identity, identified associations between these gender-related variables and self-rated general health, physical and mental health, and health-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: Our new instrument represents an important step toward developing more comprehensive and precise survey-based measures of gender in relation to health. Our questionnaire is designed to shed light on how specific gender-related behaviors and attitudes contribute to health and disease processes, irrespective of-or in addition to-biological sex and self-reported gender identity. Use of these gender-related variables in experimental studies, such as clinical trials, may also help us understand if gender factors play an important role as treatment-effect modifiers and would thus need to be further considered in treatment decision-making.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cultura , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 179, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth living with HIV (YLHIV) in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) are less likely to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other health-related regimens. As a consequence, YLHIV are not only at risk for health problems and mental health comorbidities, but are also at risk for cognitive deficits, including in areas of memory and executive functioning. The Suubi+Adherence study followed 702 adolescents (10-16 years of age) receiving bolstered standard of care and a family economic empowerment intervention comprising an incentivized youth financial savings account (YSA) augmented with financial literacy training (FLT) and peer mentorship. The study findings pointed to superior short-term viral suppression and positive adolescent health and mental health functioning among participants receiving the intervention. The original group of adolescents who received Suubi+Adherence are now transitioning into young adulthood. This paper presents a protocol for the follow-up phase titled Suubi+Adherence Round 2. METHODS: The original cohort in Suubi+Adherence will be tracked for an additional five years (2020-2025). Specifically, the long term follow-up will allow to: 1) ascertain the extent to which the short term outcomes identified in the first 6 years of the intervention are maintained as the same group transitions through young adulthood; and 2) address new scientific questions regarding ART adherence; HIV care engagement; protective health behaviors; and the potential of FEE to mitigate the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in YLHIV. Additionally, the team examines the potential mechanisms through which the observed long-term outcomes happen. Moreover, the Suubi+Adherence-Round 2 adds a qualitative component and extends the cost effectiveness component. DISCUSSION: Guided by asset and human development theories, Suubi+Adherence-R2 will build on the recently concluded Suubi+Adherence study to conduct one of the largest and longest running studies of YLHIV in SSA as they transition into young adulthood. The study will address new scientific questions regarding long-term ART adherence, HIV care engagement, protective health behaviors, and the potential of FEE to mitigate the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in YLHIV. The findings may inform efforts to improve HIV care among Uganda's YLHIV, with potential replicability in other low-resource countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: NCT01790373.

7.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 504-513, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476237

RESUMO

Objectives. To investigate the long-term impacts of a family economic intervention on physical, mental, and sexual health of adolescents orphaned by AIDS in Uganda.Methods. Students in grades 5 and 6 from 48 primary schools in Uganda were randomly assigned at the school level (cluster randomization) to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) control (n = 487; 16 schools), (2) Bridges (1:1 savings match rate; n = 396; 16 schools), or (3) Bridges PLUS (2:1 savings match rate; n = 500; 16 schools).Results. At 24 months, compared with participants in the control condition, Bridges and Bridges PLUS participants reported higher physical health scores, lower depressive symptoms, and higher self-concept and self-efficacy. During the same period, Bridges participants reported lower sexual risk-taking intentions compared with the other 2 study conditions. At 48 months, Bridges and Bridges PLUS participants reported better self-rated health, higher savings, and lower food insecurity. During the same period, Bridges PLUS participants reported reduced hopelessness, and greater self-concept and self-efficacy. At 24 and 48 months, Bridges PLUS participants reported higher savings than Bridges participants.Conclusions. Economic interventions targeting families raising adolescents orphaned by AIDS can contribute to long-term positive health and overall well-being of these families.Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT01447615.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/economia , Saúde do Adolescente/economia , Crianças Órfãs/educação , Pobreza/economia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda
8.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 178-182, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460015

RESUMO

This longitudinal study with 76 sexual minority men living with HIV who use methamphetamine examined whether dysregulation of essential amino acid precursors for neurotransmitters at baseline predicted positive and negative affect at 15 months. After controlling for covariates including baseline positive affect, a higher baseline kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio independently predicted lower positive affect at 15 months (ß = - 18.31; 95% CI = - 35.35, - 1.27; p = 0.036). Future clinical research should examine whether bio-behavioral interventions targeting tryptophan degradation could optimize treatments for people living with co-occurring HIV and stimulant use disorders.

9.
Trials ; 22(1): 19, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-related maternal deaths and HIV infection among infants remain unacceptably high across sub-Saharan Africa despite increased antenatal care attendance and provision of antiretroviral therapy to pregnant women. In the Jamii Bora ("Better Family" in Swahili) Study, we seek to test the efficacy of an interdependence theory-based couple intervention. The intervention reaches pregnant women and male partners through home visits by male-female pairs of lay health workers. The aim is to increase access to home-based couples' HIV testing and counseling services to improve family health. METHODS: This is a three-arm randomized control trial among 1080 pregnant women 15 years of age or older, living with their male partners, and who have not undergone couples' HIV testing and counseling in Kisumu and Migori Counties in Kenya. Couples will be randomized into three groups: home-based couple visits, HIV self-testing kits for couple use, or standard care (male partner clinic invitation letters). Participants will be followed up to 18 months postpartum. The study has three aims: in aim 1, we will determine the effects of the intervention on our primary outcome of couple HIV testing, compared to HIV self-testing kits and standard care; in aim 2, we will examine the intervention impact on HIV prevention behaviors, facility delivery, and postnatal healthcare utilization, as well as secondary health outcomes of maternal viral suppression and HIV-free child survival up to 18 months for couples living with HIV; and in aim 3, we will compare the cost-effectiveness of the home-based couple intervention to the less resource-intensive strategies used in the other two study arms. Assessments with couples are conducted at baseline, late pregnancy, and at months 3, 6, 12, and 18 after birth. DISCUSSION: The results from this study will inform decision-makers about the cost-effective strategies to engage pregnant couples in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission and family health, with important downstream benefits for maternal, paternal, and infant health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03547739 . Registered on May 9, 2018.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301480

RESUMO

While there is a large body of research demonstrating that having an abortion is not associated with adverse mental health outcomes, less research has examined which factors may contribute to elevated levels of mental health symptoms at the time of abortion seeking. This study aims to develop and validate a new tool to measure dimensions of psychosocial burden experienced by people seeking abortion in the United States. To develop scale items, we reviewed the literature including existing measures of stress and anxiety and conducted interviews with experts in abortion care and with patients seeking abortion. Thirty-five items were administered to 784 people seeking abortion at four facilities located in three U.S. states. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to reduce items and identify key domains of psychosocial burden. We assessed the predictive validity of the overall scale and each sub-scale, by assessing their associations with validated measures of perceived stress, anxiety, and depression using multivariable linear regression models. Factor analyses revealed a 12-item factor solution measuring psychosocial burden seeking abortion, with four subdomains: structural challenges, pregnancy decision-making, lack of autonomy, and others' reactions to the pregnancy. The alpha reliability coefficients were acceptable for the overall scale (α = 0.83) and each subscale (ranging from α = 0.82-0.85). In adjusted analyses, the overall scale was significantly associated with stress, anxiety and depression; each subscale was also significantly associated with each mental health outcome. This new scale offers a practical tool for providers and researchers to empirically document the factors associated with people's psychological well-being at the time of seeking an abortion. Findings suggest that the same restrictions that claim to protect people from mental health harm may be increasing people's psychosocial burden and contributing to adverse psychological outcomes at the time of seeking abortion.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352630

RESUMO

Social interactions where a person is addressed by their correct name and pronouns, consistent with their gender identity, are widely recognized as a basic and yet critical aspect of gender affirmation for transgender people. Informed by the Model of Gender Affirmation, we developed a self-report measure of the importance of social gender affirmation, the Transgender Women's Importance of Pronouns (TW-IP) scale, which measures gender affirmation through the usage of correct pronoun by others. Data were from self-administered surveys in two independent samples of transgender women living with HIV in the US (N1 = 278; N2 = 369). Using exploratory factor analysis with data from Study 1 and confirmatory factor analysis with data from Study 2, we obtained a four-item scale with a single-factor structure and strong reliability (α = 0.95). We present evidence of TW-IP's convergent and discriminant validity through its correlations with select mental health and HIV-related measures. Further, scores on TW-IP were linked in expected directions to several hypothesized mental health and HIV care outcomes, demonstrating its predictive validity. The resulting brief measure of importance of pronouns among transgender women shows strong psychometric properties. Validation evidence offers highly promising opportunities for use of the measure in clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the prospective association between a brief self-report measure of engagement in HIV care (the Index) and suboptimal retention and viral suppression (VS) outcomes. METHODS: The CNICS cohort study combines medical record data with patient-reported outcomes from eight HIV clinics in the United States, which from April 2016-March 2017 included the 10-item Index. Multivariable logistic regression (LR) was used to estimate the risk and odds ratios of mean Index score on two outcomes in the subsequent year: 1) not keeping at least 75% of scheduled HIV care appointments, and; 2) for those with VS at Index, having viral load >200 copies/mL on at least one measurement. We also employed generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to estimate the risk and odds ratios of appointment non-attendance or unsuppressed viral load at any given observation. We generated receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves for the full models overlaid with Index as a sole predictor. RESULTS: Mean Index score was 4.5 (SD 0.6). Higher Index scores were associated with lower relative risk of suboptimal retention (N=2,576; LR aRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.87 - 0.88; GLMM aRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.83 - 0.87 and lack of sustained VS (N=2,499; LR aRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.83; GLMM aRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.68 - 0.80. Areas under the ROC curve for the full models were 0.69 (95% CI = 0.67 - 0.71) for suboptimal retention and 0.76 (95% CI = 0.72 - 0.79) for lack of sustained VS. CONCLUSIONS: Index scores are significantly associated with suboptimal retention and VS outcomes.

13.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140245

RESUMO

Male couples in open relationships tend to have as equally fulfilling relationships as monogamous male couples; however, less is known about communication differences between monogamous and open couples. Because couples with open agreements permit sex with outside partners, they must navigate different relationship issues than monogamous couples, and this can translate to differences in communication. We therefore examined differences between cisgender men in monogamous versus open relationships regarding communication about sexual agreements, safety agreements, breaking of sexual and safety agreements, the disclosure of broken sexual and safety agreements, and general relationship communication. Using a sample of 395 couples, we found that while certain aspects of communication are different for monogamous couples compared to open couples, similarities also exist. Specifically, we identified no differences in how explicitly couples discussed their sexual and safety agreements, attitudes toward communication about safety agreements, and mutual avoidance and withholding communication. However, monogamous couples had more positive attitudes toward communication about sexual agreements. The results were mixed on the perceived impact that broken safety agreements had on communication with the primary partner. Our results are interpreted with attention to relationship well-being and implications for safer sex practices.

14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038723, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV transmission and acquisition risk among transgender women is particularly high in the context of primary partnerships. This project extends a previous pilot couples-focused HIV intervention programme, which was shown to be feasible, acceptable and promising in reducing sexual risk behaviour among transgender women and their partners. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) tests the efficacy of this culturally sensitive HIV prevention programme for HIV-serodiscordant and HIV-negative seroconcordant transgender women and their partners. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To finalise the protocol for trial, we used qualitative methods to hone eligibility criteria, refine the intervention and control manuals, and name and brand the intervention ('It Takes Two'). The RCT investigates the effects of the It Takes Two intervention on Composite Risk for HIV (CR-HIV) among 100 couples. CR-HIV is a binary indicator of couple HIV risk using validated measures of sexual behaviour, pre-exposure prophylaxis use among HIV-negative participants and viral suppression among participants living with HIV. Using a two-arm RCT, we will examine intervention effects on CR-HIV at 12-month follow-up comparing transgender women and their partners randomised to the intervention versus control (HIV prevention information only). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been reviewed and approved by the University of California, San Francisco (19-28624) and the University of Michigan (HUM00147690) Institutional Review Boards. Participants provide informed consent before taking part of the study activities. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. We will make our results available to the community of researchers and general public interested in transgender health to avoid unintentional duplication of research, as well as to others in the health and social services community, including LGBT community-based organisations, AIDS service organisations and other transgender-serving organisations. The full de-identified dataset and codebook will be shared at the University of Michigan Digital Repository. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04067661.

15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124535

RESUMO

We sought to determine whether a shortened version of the 12-item Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) Scale, which measures water insecurity equivalently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), is valid for broad use. Using data from 9,261 households in 25 LMICs, subsets of candidate items were evaluated on their predictive accuracy, criterion validity, and sensitivity-specificity. A subset with items assessing "worry," "changing plans," "limited drinking water," and "inability to wash hands" because of problems with water (range: 0-12) were highly correlated with full HWISE Scale scores (correlation coefficient: 0.949-0.980) and introduced minimal additional error (root mean square error: 2.13-2.68). Criterion validity was demonstrated, and a cut point of ≥ 4 correctly classified more than 91% of households as water secure or insecure. The brief HWISE-4 can be used in LMICs to inform decisions about how to most effectively target resources and evaluate public health interventions.

16.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-11, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878568

RESUMO

Female genital fistula results in severe physical, psychological, and social sequelae. Qualitative research confirms stigma pervasiveness; however, no quantitative instrument exists to measure fistula-related stigma. We adapted an existing HIV-related stigma instrument to fistula-related stigma and assessed its reliability and validity. We recruited 60 Ugandan women seeking genital fistula surgery (December 2014-June 2015). We used exploratory factor analysis to explore the scale's latent structure and evaluated internal consistency reliability with Raykov's ρ statistic. We assessed construct validity through linear regression of stigma with quality of life, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. We retained 15 items across factors 'enacted stigma' and 'internalised stigma' (ρ = 0.960 and ρ = 0.748, respectively). Stigma was inversely associated with all quality of life domains; effect sizes were largest for environmental (enacted stigma, 0.69-point reduction) and psychological (internalised stigma, 0.67-point reduction) domains. Both stigma domains were associated positively with depressive symptoms and inversely with self-esteem, with 0.75 and 1.05-point increases in depressive symptoms and 0.45 and 0.77-point decreases in self-esteem for enacted and internalised stigma, respectively. Results suggest the reliability and validity of the adapted fistula stigma instrument. This instrument may help us understand stigma levels, compare stigma across individuals and communities, prioritise stigma-reduction strategies, and assess intervention impact.

17.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520959632, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946327

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a barrier to engagement in HIV care. Bidirectional IPV-being both a perpetrator and victim-may be the most common pattern of IPV, yet no research has examined its effect on engagement in care, which could identify couples in most need of interventions. Married couples (N = 211) with at least one partner on antiretroviral therapy were recruited from HIV clinic waiting rooms in Zomba, Malawi. Partners completed separate surveys on physical, sexual, and emotional IPV, medication adherence, and appointment attendance. We created categorical variables indicating no violence, perpetrator-only, victim-only, and bidirectional violence. Generalized estimating equation regression models tested for associations between IPV and engagement in care. The bidirectional pattern represented 25.4%, 35.5%, and 34.0% of all physical, sexual, and emotional IPV. Physical IPV victimization-only (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.92) was associated with lower adherence, but the association was stronger for bidirectional physical IPV (AOR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.51). Bidirectional sexual IPV was also associated with lower adherence (AOR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.80). Bidirectional physical IPV (AOR: 4.04, 94% CI: 1.35, 12.14) and emotional IPV (AOR: 3.78, 95% CI: 1.78, 8.05) were associated with missing 1+ appointment. Interventions to address the health effects of bidirectional IPV, which may be greater than victim-only or perpetrator-only IPV, should intervene with both partners to break cycles of violence. Couple-based interventions may be a viable option by intervening on both partners' trauma and aggression simultaneously.

18.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority (SM) young adults have higher rates of substance use than heterosexuals, but little is known about daily use of multiple substances, which confer numerous health risks for this population. Using daily diary data from a smartphone-based study, we examined the associations between sexual identity (i.e., SM vs. heterosexual) and patterns of same-day multiple substance use (i.e., cigarettes and alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis, alcohol and cannabis, and all 3 substances). METHOD: Young adult smokers (N = 147, aged 18-26, 51.7% female, 41.5% SM, 40.8% White) reported consecutive daily assessments on substance use over 30 days. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between sexual identity and patterns of same-day multiple substance use, controlling for demographic factors and psychological distress. RESULTS: Of 2,891 daily assessments, 16.7% reported same-day use of cigarettes and alcohol, 18.1% cigarettes and cannabis, 1.5% alcohol and cannabis, and 15.0% use of all 3 substances. SM participants (vs. heterosexuals) had significantly greater odds of reporting days with use of cigarettes and cannabis [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.05, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.04, 4.01]] and use of all three substances (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.51, 5.14]) than days with single substance use or no use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings warrant tailored interventions addressing multiple substance use among SM young adults and temporally accurate measures of multiple substance use patterns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
AIDS ; 34(11): 1665-1671, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the prospective association between internalized HIV stigma and unsuppressed viral load and to investigate whether this relationship was sequentially mediated by depressive symptoms and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. DESIGN: Longitudinal study in a multisite observational clinical cohort. METHODS: The Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems patient-reported outcomes survey measures internalized HIV stigma yearly using a four-item assessment (response scale 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). We obtained patient-reported outcome, lab, and appointment data from six center for AIDS research network of integrated clinical systems sites. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between mean stigma and subsequent viremia. We then used Bayesian sequential mediation to fit a longitudinal sequential path model spanning four time points to test if depressive symptoms at T1 and ART adherence at T2 mediated the effect of stigma at T0 on viral load at T3, adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: Between February 2016 and November 2018, 6859 patients underwent stigma assessment and were 81% cis-men, 38% Black, 16% Latinx, 32% heterosexual-identified, and 49% at least 50 years of age. Mean stigma level was 2.00 (SD 1.08). Stigma was significantly associated with subsequent viremia (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.28, P = 0.004), as were younger age and Black race. The chained indirect effect from stigma to unsuppressed viral load through depressive symptoms and then adherence was significant (standardized ß = 0.002; SD = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Internalized HIV stigma positively predicts subsequent viremia through depressive symptoms and ART adherence. Addressing the link between stigma and depressive symptoms could help improve viral suppression.

20.
AIDS ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the prospective association between internalized HIV stigma and unsuppressed viral load and to investigate whether this relationship was sequentially mediated by depressive symptoms and antiretroviral (ART) adherence. DESIGN: Longitudinal study in a multi-site observational clinical cohort. METHODS: The Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) survey measures internalized HIV stigma yearly using a 4-item assessment (response scale 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). We obtained PRO, lab, and appointment data from six CNICS sites. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between mean stigma and subsequent viremia. We then used Bayesian sequential mediation to fit a longitudinal sequential path model spanning four time points to test if depressive symptoms at T1 and ART adherence at T2 mediated the effect of stigma at T0 on viral load at T3, adjusting for baseline covariates. RESULTS: Between February 2016 - November 2018, 6,859 patients underwent stigma assessment and were 81% cis-men, 38% Black, 16% Latinx, 32% heterosexual-identified, and 49% ≥50 years of age. Mean stigma level was 2.00 (SD 1.08). Stigma was significantly associated with subsequent viremia (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.05-1.28, p 0.004), as were younger age and Black race. The chained indirect effect from stigma to unsuppressed viral load through depressive symptoms and then adherence was significant (standardized ß = 0.002; SD = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Internalized HIV stigma positively predicts subsequent viremia through depressive symptoms and ART adherence. Addressing the link between stigma and depressive symptoms could help improve viral suppression.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...