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1.
Psychosomatics ; 60(5): 458-467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine-based protocols offer a standard of care for management of alcohol withdrawal, though they may not be safe or appropriate for all patients. Phenobarbital, a long-acting barbiturate, presents an alternative to conventional benzodiazepine treatment, though existing research offers only modest guidance to the safety and effectiveness of phenobarbital in managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in general hospital settings. METHODS: To compare clinical effectiveness of phenobarbital versus benzodiazepines in managing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 562 patients admitted over a 2-year period to a general hospital and treated for AWS. The development of AWS-related complications (seizures, alcoholic hallucinosis, and alcohol withdrawal delirium) post-treatment initiation was the primary outcome examined in both treatment groups. Additional outcomes measured included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission rates/length of stay, medication-related adverse events, and discharge against medical advice. RESULTS: Despite being significantly more likely to have a history of prior complications related to AWS (including seizures and delirium), patients initiated on phenobarbital (n = 143) had overall similar primary and secondary treatment outcomes to those in the benzodiazepine treatment protocol (n = 419). Additionally, a subset of patients (n = 16) initially treated with benzodiazepines displayed signs of treatment nonresponse, including significantly higher rates of AWS-related delirium and ICU admission rates, but were well-managed following transition to the phenobarbital protocol. CONCLUSION: The data from this retrospective chart review lend further support to effectiveness and safety of phenobarbital for the treatment and management of AWS. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted.

2.
Psychosomatics ; 58(6): 581-591, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intentional self-inflicted burn injuries are a rare occurrence in the United States, but they represent a considerable portion of all burn injuries in the developing world. Compared to nonintentional burns, patients with intentional self-inflicted burns have increased rates of higher total body surface area involvement and associated complications, including overall mortality. METHODS: We present 2 representative cases and review the available literature on the topic of self-inflicted burns. We review epidemiologic, social, and cultural factors of importance, and also provide an overview of most common psychiatric pathologies encountered in patients with self-inflicted burns. RESULTS: The patient demographics and motivation for intentional self-inflicted burn injuries differ considerably across the world. Although self-immolation is commonly associated with women experiencing domestic stress in the developing world, most cases of self-immolation in higher-income countries are males. Psychiatric pathologies, including primary mood and thought disorders and substance use, play a significant component in latter cases, while most patients in the developing world lack any premorbid psychiatric diagnosis, or carry diagnosis of adjustment disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Nonlethal self-burns present a distinct subset of intentional self-burn injuries, often occurring in the context of significant personality pathology, or with potential secondary gain.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Unidades de Queimados , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Acad Psychiatry ; 41(3): 364-368, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27530992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While standardized patients (SPs) remain the gold standard for assessing clinical competence in a standardized setting, clinical case vignettes that allow free-text, open-ended written responses are more resource- and time-efficient assessment tools. It remains unknown, however, whether this is a valid method for assessing competence in the management of agitation. METHODS: Twenty-six psychiatry residents partook in a randomized controlled study evaluating a simulation-based teaching intervention on the management of agitated patients. Competence in the management of agitation was assessed using three separate modalities: simulation with SPs, open-ended clinical vignettes, and self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Performance on clinical vignettes correlated significantly with SP-based assessments (r = 0.59, p = 0.002); self-report questionnaires that assessed one's own ability to manage agitation did not correlate with SP-based assessments (r = -0.06, p = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: Standardized clinical vignettes may be a simple, time-efficient, and valid tool for assessing residents' competence in the management of agitation.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência/métodos , Simulação de Paciente , Psiquiatria/educação , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Masculino , Psiquiatria/normas
4.
Psychosomatics ; 56(5): 445-59, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26032045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The amount of literature published annually related to psychosomatic medicine is vast; this poses a challenge for practitioners to keep up-to-date in all but a small area of expertise. OBJECTIVES: To introduce how a group process using volunteer experts can be harnessed to provide clinicians with a manageable selection of important publications in psychosomatic medicine, organized by specialty area, for 2014. METHODS: We used quarterly annotated abstracts selected by experts from the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine and the European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine in 15 subspecialties to create a list of important articles. RESULTS: In 2014, subspecialty experts selected 88 articles of interest for practitioners of psychosomatic medicine. For this review, 14 articles were chosen. CONCLUSIONS: A group process can be used to whittle down the vast literature in psychosomatic medicine and compile a list of important articles for individual practitioners. Such an approach is consistent with the idea of physicians as lifelong learners and educators.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Medicina Psicossomática/tendências , Publicações , Processos Grupais , Humanos
6.
Crit Care Med ; 42(3): e234-41, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24275514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Catatonia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with motor and behavioral symptoms occurring in patients with or without a history of psychiatric illness. Although it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, the prevalence of catatonia in the ICU setting is unknown. The diagnosis and management of catatonia in the critically ill patient raises unique challenges. Furthermore, the diagnosis and management are not included in most critical care curricula. The objective of this retrospective study is to increase the awareness of this clinically important condition among critical care providers. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. SETTING: Multiple critical care units at a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Five critically ill patients with catatonia, aged 17 to 78. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All notes, laboratory data, imaging results, other diagnostic studies, therapeutic interventions, and responses to treatment were reviewed for five critically ill patients with catatonia. No unifying cause of catatonia or predisposing conditions were identified for these patients. Currently available diagnostic criteria for catatonia were found to be nonspecific in the ICU setting. New diagnostic criteria for catatonia specific to the critically ill patient are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: Catatonia can occur in a wide variety of critical care settings, with or without precedent psychiatric illness, and it may be exacerbated or induced by common intensive care practices. Psychomotor findings are imperative in examination of critically ill patients with altered mental status in order to diagnose catatonia.


Assuntos
Catatonia/diagnóstico , Catatonia/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Lorazepam/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Idoso , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Análise Química do Sangue , Catatonia/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22690353

RESUMO

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. Such consultations require the integration of medical and psychiatric knowledge. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss the diagnosis and management of conditions confronted. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.Dr Unruh is an attending psychiatrist at McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts, and an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Dr Nejad is an instructor in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, an attending physician on the Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and the director of the Burns and Trauma Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Mr Stern is a research assistant in the Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Dr Stern is chief of the Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.Dr Stern is an employee of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, has served on the speaker's board of Reed Elsevier, is a stock shareholder in WiFiMD (Tablet PC), and has received royalties from Mosby/Elsevier and McGraw Hill. Drs Unruh and Nejad and Mr Stern report no financial or other affiliations relevant to the subject of this article.

12.
Med Clin North Am ; 94(6): 1217-27, xi, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20951279

RESUMO

Primary care physicians commonly deal with patients who present with a somatic complaint for which no clear organic etiology can be found. This article discusses how a psychiatrist thinks about somatic symptoms (eg, pain, insomnia, weight loss and loss of appetite, fatigue and forgetfulness, sexual dysfunction) in a patient who might have depression. The management of a patient in whom no satisfactory medical or psychiatric diagnosis can be made is also reviewed briefly.


Assuntos
Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia , Anorexia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Dor/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/etiologia , Perda de Peso
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