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Res Q Exerc Sport ; : 1-9, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663188


Purpose: The main purpose of the study was to establish normative data for health-related musculoskeletal fitness. Method: We recruited 13,217 children and adolescents aged 11-18 years (6,181 boys and 7,036 girls; 57% of girls). To evaluate musculoskeletal fitness, the following field tests were applied: standing broad jump (cm), sprint 20 m (sec), medicine-ball throw (dm), sit-ups in one minute (#), sit-ups in one minute (short, #), and squats in one minute (#). Curves for the 10th, 20th, 30th, 40th, 50th (median), 60th, 70th, 80th, and 90th percentiles were calculated using the Lambda (L), Mu (M), and Sigma (S) method. The LMS method assumes that the data can be normalized by using a power transformation and removing the skewness. Results: Median scores for standing broad jump, sprint 20 m, medicine-ball throw, sit-ups in one minute, sit-ups in one minute (short) and squats in one minute were 185.00 cm, 3.66 sec, 80.00 dm, 46.00 x, 56.00 x and 49 x in boys and 160.00 cm, 4.01 sec, 60.00 dm, 40.00 x, 49.00 and 43 x in girls. Effect sizes (ES) showed that boys performed better in all physical fitness tests (ES = 0.50-1.05), compared to girls. In general, age-related physical fitness changes showed the plateau between ages 15 and 16 in boys, while in girls, the plateau was reached at the age of 14. Conclusions: This study shows standards for musculoskeletal tests in youth.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444250


Fat mass and fat-free mass have become useful clinical indices in determining healthy growth and physical development during critical periods of childhood and adolescence; however, despite a wide range of nutritional surveillance its study is limited by a lack of reference data. The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific and age-specific standards for fat mass and fat-free mass in a large sample of Croatian children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from 12,678 participants aged 11 to 18 years old (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 14.17 ± 2.25 years; height 164.56 ± 11.31 cm; weight: 57.45 ± 13.73 kg; body mass index: 21.24 ± 3.67 kg/m2; 53% girls). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured three times by bioelectrical impedance. The Lambda, Mu and Sigma methods were used to create percentile charts for fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat mass and fat-free mass divided by height2). Sex and age differences were calculated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc comparisons. Boys had lower FMI (from 2.66 to 3.89) and higher FFMI values (from 16.90 to 17.80) in all age groups, compared to girls (for FMI from 2.79 to 5.17 and for FFMI from 14.50 to 14.90, p < 0.001). In boys, FMI slightly declined until the age of 14, after which an increase from the age of 15 to 18 was observed. In girls, FMI gradually increased from the age of 11 to 18 (p < 0.001). In general, FFMI increased by age in boys [F(7,5440) = 52.674, p < 0.001], while girls had more stable FFMI across all age groups [F(7,7222) = 2.728, p = 0.057]. The newly established sex-specific and age-specific reference data could be used for national surveillance and to screen for children and adolescents with high FMI and low FFMI.

Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
Coll Antropol ; 39(1): 93-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040076


The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in kinanthropological characteristics of elementary school pupils in relation to macro-regional characteristics of the Republic of Croatia. The research included 2358 subjects (1089 boys--average age 10.4 ± 0.6; height 150.27 ± 7.32; body mass 44.06 ± 9.74; and 1269 girls--average age 10.6 ± 0.5; height 152.02 ± 7.74; body mass 45.12 ± 10.39)--fifth grade elementary school pupils. Analyzed kinanthropological characteristics refer to statistically significant differences in the results based on the macro-region criterion (p < 0.05). It is possible to assume that climatic and temperature differences as well as gene frequency differences to a certain extent incite differences in the level of participating in physical activities, and with it the differences in kinanthropological characteristics of subjects.

Destreza Motora , Adolescente , Criança , Croácia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas , Temperatura
Coll Antropol ; 37(1): 75-80, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23697253


Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization.

Aptidão Física , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , Antropometria , Constituição Corporal , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Criança , Croácia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos