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1.
Blood ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036026

RESUMO

In recent years, through whole genome analyses, convincing evidence for the contribution of genetic predisposition to childhood B-cell precursor - acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) due to altered PAX5 has been provided. A recurrent mutation p.Gly183Ser affecting the octapeptide domain has been described in three unrelated families and a p.Arg38His mutation affecting the DNA-binding paired domain reported in another one. We strengthen here the assumption of the inherited character of familial BCP-ALL by identifying the PAX5 p.Arg38His mutation in a family in which the three children developed BCP-ALL. One relapsed two years after his initial diagnosis and was allografted with his brother's cells before the latter developed BCP-ALL. The patient allografted relapsed later from donor-related cells. By syngeneic transplantations in mice, we showed that p.Arg38His expression does not abrogate the engraftment capacity of transduced Pax5-/- pro-B cells unlike wild type PAX5-rescued Pax5-/- pro-B cells and can predispose to BCP-ALL. Through functional and molecular analyses, we demonstrated that p.Arg38His acts as a hypomorphic variant altering the pattern of expression of PAX5 target genes. Our data highlight the importance of transcriptional deregulation, particularly of genes involved in B cell differentiation in familial BCP-ALL. We demonstrated that inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to BCP-ALL has been underestimated and should be considered before any familial allograft.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 107-112, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ponatinib is effective in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukaemias, but scant data are available regarding the use of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor in children. AIMS: The aim of this study isto describe the tolerance and efficacy of compassionate use of ponatinib in a paediatric cohort of patients with Ph+ leukaemias. METHODS: Data from 11 children with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) registered to the international registry of childhood chronic myeloid leukaemia and from 3 children with Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Ph+ ALL) treated with ponatinib were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: In 11 girls and 3 boys (median age 14 years), ponatinib was used as a second- to eighth-line treatment. Ponatinib was administered as single therapy (9 patients) or in combination with chemotherapy (8 patients). The status of the disease when ponatinib was started was as follows: CML in advanced phases (n = 8), CML in chronic phase without achievement of molecular response (n = 2) or presence of T315I mutation (n = 1) and Ph + ALL in molecular (n = 1) or marrow (n = 2) relapses. The median dose administered was 21.4 mg/m2 and median duration of ponatinib was 2.5 months. Ponatinib alone or in combination with chemotherapy administered on 16 occasions led to achievement of major molecular response in 50% of cases. Ponatinib was used as a bridge to transplant in 4 cases. Among the 9 patients treated with ponatinib alone, toxicity grade III-IV (2 patients) was exclusively haematologic. No vascular events related to ponatinib were observed. CONCLUSION: Ponatinib may be a reasonable additional treatment option for children with Ph+ leukaemias who have failed several lines of therapy.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(4): e28177, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (AA) is a rare syndrome combining acute hepatitis of variable severity and AA. Hepatitis may be severe enough to require urgent liver transplantation (LT). Herein, we describe clinical presentation and management of a cohort of pediatric patients diagnosed with AA after undergoing LT for nonviral hepatitis. METHODS: To describe this rare clinical situation, we performed a national survey and identified nine children treated for AA following LT during the last 10 years in France. RESULTS: All patients were treated first for hepatic failure with urgent LT. AA was diagnosed with a median delay of 34 days [21-200] from the diagnosis of hepatitis. Seven children were treated with antithymocyte globulin/cyclosporine, one with CSA alone and one received bone marrow transplantation. At the last visit (median follow-up: 4 years), outcomes were excellent: all patients were alive and in hematological remission (complete remission: 7; partial remission: 2). Immunosuppressive therapy was pursued in all patients due to the liver transplant. No unusual toxicities were reported. CONCLUSION: AA after LT is considered a therapeutic challenge. Nevertheless, hematological outcome is good using a standard immunosuppressive approach.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica , Hepatite , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado , Adolescente , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Anemia Aplástica/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Hepatite/terapia , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(4): 812-820, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated nilotinib exposure in pediatric patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) resistant to, relapsed on, refractory to, or intolerant of previous treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (aged 1-<18 years) with CML resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and/or dasatinib (n = 11) or Ph+ ALL relapsed on or refractory to standard therapy (n = 4) enrolled in this phase I study. Nilotinib (230 mg/m2 twice daily; equivalent to the adult 400-mg twice-daily dose) was administered orally in 12 or 24 cycles of 28 days. The primary objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of nilotinib in pediatric patients. RESULTS: The area under the concentration-time curve at steady state was slightly lower in pediatric patients versus adults (14,751.4 vs. 17,102.9 ng/h/mL); the geometric mean ratio (GMR; pediatric:adult) was 0.86 [90% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-1.06]. Body surface area-adjusted systemic clearance was slightly higher in pediatric versus adult patients (GMR, 1.30; 90% CI, 1.04-1.62). Nilotinib was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were headache, vomiting, increased blood bilirubin, and rash. Three patients with CML achieved major molecular response, and three with Ph+ ALL achieved complete remission. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib 230 mg/m2 twice daily in pediatric patients provided a pharmacokinetics and safety profile comparable with the adult reference dose; clinical activity was demonstrated in both CML and Ph+ ALL. This dose is recommended for further evaluation in pediatric patients. The safety profile was consistent with that in adults.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(5): 470-473, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631731

RESUMO

Background: Pigmented Paravenous Chorioretinal Atrophy (PPCRA) is a rare and predominantly sporadic form of chorioretinal atrophy. Ocular and systemic inflammation has been considered a possible etiology of PPCRA. In this report, we describe an unusual case of PPCRA in a child who was recently diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease.Case description: A 4-year-old boy was referred for ophthalmic assessment after a seizure. Fundus examination revealed atrophic chorioretinal lesions typical of PPCRA. We had also referred this patient to a gastroenterologist for chronic abdominal pain and diarrhea. The patient was first diagnosed as a case of Crohn's disease, but in the setting of mesenteric lymphadenopathy, a workup for immune dysfunction was performed. Nitro-blue tetrazolium test (NBT) was negative, suggesting a chronic granulomatous disease, which was finally confirmed by genetic testing.Conclusion: The presentation of PPCRA has been sporadic in the majority of cases. Inflammatory and hereditary origins have been anecdotally cited. Our young patient showed concurrent presentation of inflammatory and hereditary origin of PPCRA. We suggest that a careful investigation of systemic inflammation should be done in children with suggestive extraocular symptoms in the setting of PPCRA.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/complicações , Fundo de Olho , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/etiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico
7.
Leukemia ; 33(2): 348-357, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089916

RESUMO

Despite constant progress in prognostic risk stratification, children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) still relapse. Treatment failure and subsequent relapse have been attributed to acute myeloid leukemia-initiating cells (LSC), which harbor stem cell properties and are inherently chemoresistant. Although pediatric and adult AML represent two genetically very distinct diseases, we reasoned that common LSC gene expression programs are shared and consequently, the highly prognostic LSC17 signature score recently developed in adults may also be of clinical interest in childhood AML. Here, we demonstrated prognostic relevance of the LSC17 score in pediatric non-core-binding factor AML using Nanostring technology (ELAM02) and RNA-seq data from the NCI (TARGET-AML). AML were stratified by LSC17 quartile groups (lowest 25%, intermediate 50% and highest 25%) and children with low LSC17 score had significantly better event-free survival (EFS: HR = 3.35 (95%CI = 1.64-6.82), P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS: HR = 3.51 (95%CI = 1.38-8.92), P = 0.008) compared with patients with high LSC17 scores. More importantly, the high LSC17 score was an independent negative EFS and OS prognosticator determined by multivariate Cox model analysis (EFS: HR = 3.42 (95% CI = 1.63-7.16), P = 0.001; OS HR = 3.02 (95%CI = 1.16-7.85), P = 0.026). In conclusion, we have demonstrated the broad applicability of the LSC17 score in the clinical management of AML by extending its prognostic relevance to pediatric AML.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/classificação , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Blood ; 132(12): 1318-1331, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914977

RESUMO

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the SRP54 gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the SRP54 gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line SRP54 mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that SRP54 mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of SRP54-mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using SRP54-mutated primary cells and SRP54 knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/genética , Lipomatose/genética , Mutação , Neutropenia/congênito , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoptose , Autofagia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome Congênita de Insuficiência da Medula Óssea , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/metabolismo , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lipomatose/metabolismo , Lipomatose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/metabolismo , Neutropenia/patologia , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7714, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769547

RESUMO

The large number of drugs administered simultaneously to neonates and children in hospital results in the formation of particles that are potentially infused. We have investigated the ability of IV in-line filters to eliminate particulate matter from multidrug infusion lines and so prevent contamination. The impact on particle occurrence of the internal volume of the IV line below the in-line filter was then evaluated. The multidrug therapy given to children was reproduced with and without in-line filtration. Three combinations with a filter were tested to vary the internal volume (V) between the filter and the catheter egress. The catheter was then connected to a dynamic particle count to evaluate the particulate matter potentially administered to children during infusion. The introduction of in-line filters led to a significant reduction in overall particulate matter, from 416,974 [208,479-880,229] to 7,551 [1,985-11,287] particles (p < 0.001). Larger particles of ≥10 and 25 µm were also significantly reduced. Adding an extension set to the egress of the in-line filter (V = 1.7 mL) caused a significant increase in particulate contamination for both. This study showed that in-line filtration is an effective tool in preventing particle administration to patients. Their position in the infusion in-line is therefore important because of its impact on internal volume and drug particle formation.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Filtração/métodos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem
12.
Br J Haematol ; 181(4): 523-527, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676440

RESUMO

This trial explored the efficacy of re-induction chemotherapy including bortezomib in paediatric relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Patients were randomized 1:1 to bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 /dose) administered early or late to a dexamethasone and vincristine backbone. Both groups did not differ regarding peripheral blast count on day 8, the primary endpoint. After cycle 1, 8 of 25 (32%) patients achieved complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, 7 (28%) a partial remission and 10 had treatment failure. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (31%) and pain (17%). Bortezomib was safely combined with vincristine. Bortezomib rarely penetrated the cerebrospinal fluid.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Crise Blástica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacocinética , Crise Blástica/sangue , Crise Blástica/tratamento farmacológico , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/farmacocinética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Neutropenia Febril/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/sangue , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/efeitos adversos , Vincristina/farmacocinética
13.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(4): 400-409, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330405

RESUMO

The question of the best donor type between haploidentical (HAPLO) and matched-related donors (MRD) for patients with advanced HL receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still debated. Given the lack of data comparing these two types of donor in the setting of non-myeloablative (NMA) or reduced-intensity (RIC) allo-HCT, we performed a multicentre retrospective study using graft-vs.-host disease-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) as our primary endpoint. We analysed the data of 151 consecutive HL patients who underwent NMA or RIC allo-HCT from a HAPLO (N = 61) or MRD (N = 90) between January 2011 and January 2016. GRFS was defined as the probability of being alive without evidence of relapse, grade 3-4 acute GVHD or chronic GVHD. In multivariable analysis, MRD donors were independently associated with lower GRFS compared to HAPLO donors (HR = 2.95, P < 0.001). Disease status at transplant other than CR was also associated with lower GRFS in multivariable analysis (HR = 1.74, P = 0.01). In addition, the administration of ATG was independently linked to higher GRFS (HR = 0.52, P = 0.009). In summary, we observed significantly higher GRFS in HL patients receiving an allo-HCT using the HAPLO PT-Cy platform compared to MRD.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hodgkin/terapia , Doadores de Tecidos , Transplante Haploidêntico/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hemasphere ; 2(1): e31, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723759

RESUMO

Despite major treatment improvements over the past decades, pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still a life-threatening malignancy with relapse rates up to 30% and survival rates below 75%. A better description of the pattern of molecular aberrations in childhood AML is needed to refine prognostication in such patients. We report here the comprehensive molecular landscape using both high-throughput sequencing focused on 36 genes and ligation-dependent RT-PCR in 385 children with de novo AML enrolled in the prospective ELAM02 trial and we evaluated their prognostic significance. Seventy-six percent of patients had at least 1 mutation among the genes we screened. The most common class of mutations involved genes that control kinase signaling (61%) followed by transcription factors (16%), tumor suppressors (14%), chromatin modifiers (9%), DNA methylation controllers (8%), cohesin genes (5%), and spliceosome (3%). Moreover, a recurrent transcript fusion was detected in about a half of pediatric patients. Overall, CBF rearrangements, NPM1 and double CEBPA mutations represented 37% of the cohort and defined a favorable molecular subgroup (3 years OS: 92.1%) while NUP98 fusions, WT1, RUNX1, and PHF6 mutations (15% of the cohort) segregated into a poor molecular subgroup (3 years OS: 46.1%). KMT2A-rearrangements (21% of the cohort) were associated with an intermediate risk. Despite some overlaps, the spectrum of molecular aberrations and their prognostic significance differ between childhood and adult AML. These data have important implications to contribute in refining risk stratification of pediatric AML and show the need for further validations in independent pediatric cohorts.

15.
Hemasphere ; 2(6): e159, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723797

RESUMO

Despite significant progress in the treatment of pediatric acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), relapse remains the commonest cause of death. Randomized ELAM02 trial questioned if maintenance therapy with interleukin-2 (IL2), for 1 year, improves disease-free survival (DFS). Patients aged 0 to 18 years, with newly diagnosed AML (excluding patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia or down syndrome AML) were enrolled. They received 1 course of induction treatment (cytarabine and mitoxantrone) and 3 courses of consolidation treatment (high-dose cytarabine in courses 1 and 3). According to the cytogenetics risk, patients not undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, still in complete remission (CR) after the third course of consolidation treatment, were eligible for randomization to 1 year of maintenance therapy with monthly courses of IL2 or no maintenance treatment. There were 438 evaluable patients, 154 of whom were randomized to the IL2/no maintenance groups. Relapse occurred in 28 patients from the IL2+ group and 29 patients in the IL2- group. Survival was similar in the 2 groups, with a 4-year DFS of 62% without IL2 and 66% with IL2 (P = 0.75). In the CBF population, 4-year DFS was 55% without IL2 and 78% with IL2 (P = 0.07). No deaths from toxicity or excess of serious adverse events related to IL2 treatment were recorded. Prolonged IL2 for maintenance therapy after intensive chemotherapy is feasible and safe in pediatric AML patients in their first CR. Such treatment did not improve DFS in this study, but a positive trend was observed in favor of IL2 maintenance therapy among core binding factor acute myeloblastic leukemia.

16.
Eur J Haematol ; 100(1): 104-107, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034503

RESUMO

ETV6 is a target of recurrent aberrations in sporadic and familial acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here, we report on a new pedigree with a germline ETV6 mutation in which the index patient and his father developed high hyperdiploid (HeH) ALL and polycythemia vera at age 13 and 51, respectively. The index patient achieved durable complete remission without transplantation but had persistent moderate thrombocytopenia without bleeding tendency. To determine the prevalence of ETV6 alterations in HeH-ALL, we screened 81 unrelated subjects with HeH-ALL by single nucleotide polymorphism array and high-throughput sequencing for the ETV6 gene. Overall, ETV6 microdeletions and mutations were identified in 9% of cases, all of which were somatic and considered as secondary events. Apart from the index patient, no germline ETV6 aberration was identified. Finally, we reviewed the literature for ETV6 germline aberrations and predispositions to ALL.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Adolescente , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico
17.
Br J Haematol ; 177(5): 751-758, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444729

RESUMO

Childhood autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) requires second-line immunosuppressive therapy in 30-50% of cases. It appears that rituximab is indicated in such circumstances. This prospective national study reports the practice, efficacy and tolerance of rituximab in children with isolated AIHA and AIHA in the setting of Evans syndrome (ES). Sixty-one children were given rituximab between 2000 and 2014. The median interval from diagnosis to rituximab was 9·9 [interquartile range (IQR) 1·6-28·5] months. Forty-six patients responded (75%) and the 6-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 48%. Twenty patients relapsed at a median interval of 10·8 (IQR 3·9-18·7) months, rituximab allowed steroid withdrawal in 44/61 (72%) of children. In isolated AIHA, complete response and 6-year RFS were significantly higher than in ES (P < 0·05). Ten out of 61 patients were infants, seven of who responded with a 6-year RFS of 71%. Among patients without immunoglobulin substitution before rituximab, 4 are still receiving substitutions. Five patients died, including one potentially attributable to rituximab. This large observational series of childhood AIHA established the rituximab benefit-risk ratio, allowing steroid withdrawal, with 37% of long-term responders, mainly in isolated AIHA. All subgroups of patients drew benefit. Our long-term results indicate the baseline to be challenged by new treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 63(2): 270-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26376115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current outcome of very early relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children remains poor. As a single agent, clofarabine provided a response rate of 26% in childhood ALL second relapse and, in combination with cyclophosphamide and etoposide, a 44% complete remission and complete remission without platelet recovery (CR+CRp) rate. Further multi-drug combinations need to be investigated. We used the VANDA regimen as a template, cytarabine being replaced by clofarabine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A phase I study combining escalating doses of clofarabine (25% increments from 20 to 40 mg/m(2)/d) with fixed doses of mitoxantrone, etoposide, asparaginase, and dexamethasone was undertaken in children presenting with very early or second or post-transplant ALL relapse. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled, 19 were evaluable. Four patients had previously been allografted. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) appeared at dose level 3 (32 mg/m(2)), one out of six patients experienced a liver DLT. At dose level 4 (40 mg/m(2)), four DLT occurred (two fungal infection and two liver DLT). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of clofarabine was thus determined to be 32 mg/m(2). There was no toxic death. Eleven (57.9%) patients achieved a CR. Six patients proceeded to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSION: Clofarabine MTD was 32 mg/m(2)/d in this combination which appeared feasible and effective in this population.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos de Adenina/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Arabinonucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleotídeos de Adenina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Arabinonucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clofarabina , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 83: 1-7, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), a key drug for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has until recently had no adequate formulation for pediatric patients. Several approaches have been taken but the only oral paraben-free 6-MP liquid formulation named Loulla was developed and evaluated in the target population. Preclinical and clinical evaluations were performed according to a Pediatric Investigation Plan, in order to apply for a Pediatric Use Marketing Authorization. METHODS: The pre-clinical study assessed the maximum tolerated dosage-volume and evaluated local mucosal toxicity of 28 daily administrations in treated compared to controls gold hamsters. The multi-centre clinical study was single-dose, open-label, crossover trial, conducted in 15 ALL children during maintenance therapy. The bioavailability and palatability of a single 50mg fixed dose of Loulla compared to 50mg registered tablets were evaluated in a random order on two consecutive days. Seven blood samples over 9h were obtained each day to determine 6-MP pharmacokinetic parameters, including Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-9 and AUC0-∞. A questionnaire adapted to children testing Loulla palatability and preference for either Loulla or the usual 6-MP tablet was completed. Occurrence of adverse events was determined at study visits by vital sign measurements, patient's spontaneous reporting, investigator's questioning and clinical examination. RESULTS: The preclinical study in gold hamsters showed that dosage-volume of 75 mg/kg/day was well tolerated. The relative bioavailability of liquid Loulla formulation compared to the reference presentation is 76% for AUC0-9 and AUC0-∞ and 80% for Cmax. The taste of Loulla and the mouth feeling after ingestion compare favorably to the tablet. No adverse event occurred. CONCLUSION: Pharmacokinetic, palatability and safety data support the use of Loulla in children.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Mercaptopurina/farmacocinética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica , Criança , Cricetinae , Estudos Cross-Over , Formas de Dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Mercaptopurina/administração & dosagem , Mercaptopurina/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto Jovem
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