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1.
Environ Int ; 127: 412-419, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the most persistent and pervasive global environmental contaminants. Their toxic and endocrine-disrupting properties have made them a focus of concern for breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PBDE levels in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 936 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed between 2011 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from cases an average of 35 months after diagnosis. PBDEs were measured in serum using automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were restricted to the three congeners with detection frequencies ≥75%: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each BDE congener, adjusting for serum lipids and other potential confounders. RESULTS: The OR for each of the three BDE congeners was close to unity with a CI that included one. Analyses stratified by menopausal status, tumor hormone responsiveness, BMI, and changes in body weight yielded similarly null results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide no evidence that serum levels of BDE-47, BDE-100 or BDE-153 are associated with breast cancer risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of study limitations which include the reliance on PBDE measurements that may not represent pre-diagnostic, early-life or chronic exposures and a lack of information on genetic polymorphisms and other factors which may affect endogenous estrogen levels.

2.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 83, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per- and poly- fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large family of synthetic chemicals, some of which are mammary toxicants and endocrine disruptors. Their potential as breast carcinogens is unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PFAS concentrations in a nested case-control study within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 858 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed during 2011-2015, an average of 35 months after case diagnosis. PFASs were measured using automated online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS methods. Statistical analyses were restricted to six PFASs with detection frequencies ≥ 95%: PFOA (Perfluorooctanoic acid), PFNA (Perfluorononanoic acid), PFUnDA (Perfluoroundecanoic acid), PFHxS (Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid), PFOS (Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid), and MeFOSAA (2-(N-Methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs), estimating the breast cancer risk associated with each PFAS. RESULTS: For all cases of invasive breast cancer, none of the adjusted ORs were statistically significant but marginally significant ORs < 1.0 were observed for PFUnDA and PFHxS (p-trend = 0.08). Adjusted ORs < 1.0 for PFUnDA and PFHxS were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) among the 107 cases with hormone-negative tumors but not the 743 with hormone-positive tumors. CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings do not provide evidence that serum PFAS levels measured after diagnosis are related to breast cancer risk. The few inverse associations found may be due to chance or may be artifacts of study design. Future studies should incorporate information about genetic susceptibility, endogenous estrogen levels, and measurements of PFASs prior to diagnosis and treatment.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(10): 951-966, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136012

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The reasons behind socio-economic disparities in prostate cancer incidence remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with neighborhood-level social and built environment factors to influence prostate cancer risk and that specific social and built environment factors contribute to socio-econmic differences in risk. METHODS: We used multi-level data, combining individual-level data (including education and known prostate cancer risk factors) for prostate cancer cases (n = 775) and controls (n = 542) from the San Francisco Bay Area Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study, with contextual-level data on neighborhood socio-economic status (nSES) and specific social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compute adjusted odds ratios separately for localized and advanced stage prostate cancer while controlling for neighborhood clustering. RESULTS: We found a more than twofold increased risk of both localized and advanced prostate cancer with increasing levels of nSES, and decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer with increasing levels of education. For localized disease, the nSES association was largely explained by known prostate cancer risk factors and specific neighborhood environment factors; population density, crowding, and residential mobility. For advanced disease, associations with education and nSES were not fully explained by any available individual- or neighborhood-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the importance of specific neighborhood social and built environment factors in understanding risk of localized prostate cancer. Further research is needed to understand the factors underpinning the associations between individual- and neighborhood-level SES and risk of advanced prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(10): 831-841, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemicals in nail products have been linked to numerous health concerns. METHODS: We recruited Vietnamese-American nail salon owners and workers in California and randomized salons into an intervention or control group. Owners in the intervention group received training and then provided education to workers in their salons on best practices to reduce workplace chemical exposures. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), toluene, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were measured using personal air monitors worn by workers during the work-shift. RESULTS: We enrolled 77 salons (37 intervention and 40 control) and 200 workers. There was no significant intervention effect between the two groups. However, MMA and TVOCs were higher for workers who used gel polish and acrylic nails as well as in busy salons. CONCLUSIONS: Although the intervention did not show reductions in chemical levels, identifying worker tasks and salon characteristics that predict chemical levels can inform future interventions to reduce exposures.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 53: 1-11, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We addressed the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with social and built environment factors to influence overall survival for men with prostate cancer and contribute to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic (SES) survival disparities. METHODS: We analyzed multi-level data, combining (1) individual-level data from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based study of non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and African American prostate cancer cases (N = 1800) diagnosed from 1997 to 2003, with (2) data on neighborhood SES (nSES) and social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System, and (3) data on tumor characteristics, treatment and follow-up through 2009 from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable, stage-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models with cluster adjustments were used to assess education and nSES main and joint effects on overall survival, before and after adjustment for social and built environment factors. RESULTS: African American men had worse survival than NHW men, which was attenuated by nSES. Increased risk of death was associated with residence in lower SES neighborhoods (quintile 1 (lowest nSES) vs. 5: HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19) and lower education (

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(1): 277-287, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198103

RESUMO

After several decades of widespread use, some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were phased-out of use due to concerns raised by their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic properties. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in serum PFAS levels among 1257 middle-aged and older California women (ages 40-94) during a four year period, beginning approximately 5-10 years after these phase-outs began. An online SPE-HPLC-MS/MS was used to measure 10 long-chain PFASs in serum from blood collected cross-sectionally during 2011-2015 from a subset of participants in the California Teachers Study. Results from multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that serum concentrations of nearly all PFASs declined on average 10% to 20% per year. Serum levels of perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) did not significantly decline. With the exception of PFHxS, the downward trend in serum concentrations was evident for all PFASs across all ages, although declines were comparatively steeper among the oldest women. These findings suggest that the phase-out of some common PFASs has resulted in reduced human exposures to them. The lack of a decline for PFHxS suggests that these exposures may be ongoing and underscores the importance of continued biomonitoring and research efforts to elucidate current pathways of exposure.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1462-1465, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864454

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have focused on the relationship of exonic variation with breast cancer and subtypes defined by tumor markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2.Methods: We genotyped 1,764 breast cancer patients and 1,400 controls from the California Teachers Study cohort using the Infinium HumanExome Beadchip. Individual variant and gene-based analyses were conducted for overall breast cancer and by individual tumor marker subtype.Results: No exonic variants or gene-based analyses were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer overall or by ER-, PR-, or HER2-defined subtype.Conclusions: We did not detect any novel statistically significant exonic variants with overall breast cancer risk or by subtype.Impact: Exonic variants in the exome chip may not be associated with overall breast cancer or subtype susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1462-5. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(8): 4697-4704, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28304169

RESUMO

In response to health concerns and widespread human exposures, two widely used commercial formulations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were banned in the United States in 2005. Initial biomonitoring data have provided early indications of reduced human exposures since these bans took effect. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in PBDE serum levels among a population of older California women during a four-year period, beginning approximately five years after these formulations were banned. Automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry were used to measure PBDE levels in blood collected during 2011-2015 among 1253 women (ages 40-94) participating in the California Teachers Study. Only congeners with detection frequencies (DF) ≥ 75% were included in the present analysis: BDE-47 (DF = 88%); BDE-100 (DF = 78%); and BDE-153 (DF = 80%). Results from age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted linear regression analyses indicated modest, but statistically significant, average annual percent increases in the serum concentrations of all three PBDEs over the four-year study period. While not without limitations, these results, in the context of other biomonitoring data, suggest that earlier reported declines in PBDE levels may have plateaued and may now be starting to increase. Further biomonitoring to ascertain current trends and determinants of population exposures is warranted.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Idoso , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extração em Fase Sólida
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(4): 541-552, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196846

RESUMO

Background: Neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) has been found to be associated with breast cancer risk. It remains unclear whether this association applies across racial/ethnic groups independent of individual-level factors and is attributable to other neighborhood characteristics.Methods: We examined the independent and joint associations of education and nSES with odds of breast cancer. Residential addresses were geocoded for 2,838 cases and 3,117 controls and linked to nSES and social and built environment characteristics. We estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multilevel logistic regression controlling for individual-level breast cancer risk factors and assessed the extent to which nSES associations were due to neighborhood characteristics.Results: Women living in the highest versus lowest nSES quintile had a nearly 2-fold greater odds of breast cancer, with elevated odds (adjusted ORs, 95% CI) for non-Hispanic whites (NHWs; 2.27; 1.45-3.56), African Americans (1.74; 1.07-2.83), U.S.-born Hispanics (1.82; 1.19-2.79), and foreign-born Hispanics (1.83; 1.06-3.17). Considering education and nSES jointly, ORs were increased for low education/high nSES NHWs (1.83; 1.14-2.95), high education/high nSES NHWs (1.64; 1.06-2.54), and high education/high nSES foreign-born Hispanics (2.17; 1.52-3.09) relative to their race/ethnicity/nativity-specific low education/low nSES counterparts. Adjustment for urban and mixed-land use characteristics attenuated the nSES associations for most racial/ethnic/nativity groups except NHWs.Conclusions: Our study provides empirical evidence for a role of neighborhood environments in breast cancer risk, specifically social and built environment attributes.Impact: Considering the role of neighborhood characteristics among diverse populations may offer insights to understand racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 541-52. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(2): 145-154, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28130633

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. METHODS: Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. CONCLUSIONS: Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to clinical attention.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Desemprego , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 185(3): 238-246, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073765

RESUMO

Large-scale environmental epidemiologic studies often rely on exposure estimates based on linkage to residential addresses. This approach, however, is limited by the lack of residential histories typically available for study participants. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using address data from LexisNexis (a division of RELX, Inc., Dayton, Ohio), a commercially available credit reporting company, to construct residential histories for participants in the California Teachers Study (CTS), a prospective cohort study initiated in 1995-1996 to study breast cancer (n = 133,479). We evaluated the degree to which LexisNexis could provide retrospective addresses prior to study enrollment, as well as the concordance with existing prospective CTS addresses ascertained at the time of the completion of 4 self-administered questionnaires. For approximately 80% of CTS participants, LexisNexis provided at least 1 retrospective address, including nearly 25,000 addresses completely encompassed by time periods prior to enrollment. This approach more than doubled the proportion of the study population for whom we had an address of residence during the childbearing years-an important window of susceptibility for breast cancer risk. While overall concordance between the prospective addresses contained in these 2 data sources was good (85%), it was diminished among black women and women under the age of 40 years.


Assuntos
Contabilidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California , Estudos de Coortes , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 132, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28003027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health epidemic and an important breast cancer risk factor. The relationship between interrelated body measurements is complex and most studies fail to account for this complexity. We identified key aspects of body size which jointly, over the life-course (since adolescence), are associated with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer risk. METHODS: Among 109,862 women participating in the California Teachers Study cohort, 3844 were diagnosed with invasive ER+ breast cancer between 1997-1998 and December 2011. Based on validated self-reported height and weight at age 18, baseline, and 10-year follow up and waist circumference at 2-year and 10-year follow up, we identified 16 a priori body-size phenotypes. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Premenopausal breast cancer was influenced by adolescent, but not adult, body size (HR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.86 for body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥25 vs <20 at age 18). Among postmenopausal women currently using hormone therapy, only those with the greatest body size had increased breast cancer risk (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.64 for height ≥67 inches and adult BMI ≥25 vs height <67). Among postmenopausal women not currently using hormone therapy, the relationship between body size and risk was complex, with the largest effects of adiposity among short women. Among short women, those with gluteal adiposity (HR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.77-4.10) and those who continued to gain weight throughout adulthood (HR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.60-4.12) were at greatest risk, whereas those who had been overweight/obese since adolescence were not at increased risk (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 0.84-2.10). Height was associated with a small increased risk, with borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Considering absolute body mass in adolescence and at two points in adulthood, dynamic changes in adiposity over time, and body fat distribution, we identified obesity phenotypes associated with ER+ breast cancer risk. Our approach more clearly identifies specific risk groups than do analyses that evaluate similar measures separately. These findings may aid in improving risk prediction models and developing targeted interventions, and may clarify inconsistent findings across studies.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Receptores Estrogênicos , Professores Escolares , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Risco
13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 27(12): 1419-1428, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27804057

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is a public health epidemic and a major risk factor for endometrial cancer. Here, we identify key aspects of body size which jointly, over the life-course (since adolescence), are associated with endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: Among 88,142 participants in the California Teachers Study, 887 were diagnosed with invasive type 1 endometrial cancer between 1997-1998 and 2012. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with life-course body size phenotypes, which incorporated validated measures. RESULTS: Among women currently using hormone therapy, endometrial cancer risk was only associated with height (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.32-2.40 for ≥67 vs. <67 inches). Among women not using hormone therapy, tall women who were overweight/obese in adolescence (HR 4.33, 95% CI 2.51-7.46) or who became overweight/obese as adults (HR 4.74, 95% CI 2.70-8.32) were at greatest risk. CONCLUSIONS: Considering absolute body mass, changes in adiposity over time, and body fat distribution together, instead of each measure alone, we identified lifetime obesity phenotypes associated with endometrial cancer risk. These results more clearly define specific risk groups, and may explain inconsistent findings across studies, improve risk prediction models, and aid in developing targeted interventions for endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(7): 3945-53, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906616

RESUMO

As consumer products treated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) reach the end of their life cycle, they often are discarded into solid-waste facilities, offering a potential reservoir for exposure. The likelihood of exposures to PBDEs by residents living near those sites rarely has been explored. This study collected blood samples from 923 female participants in the California Teachers Study in 2011-2013 and examined the association between participants' residential proximity to solid-waste facilities with potential release of PBDEs and serum levels of three congeners (BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153). General linear regression analysis was used to examine the association, adjusting for age, race, body-mass index, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and urban residency. Compared to participants living >10 km from any selected site, those living within 2 km had 45% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 5-100%) and BDE-100 (95% CI: 0-109%) levels, and those living between 2 and 10 km had 35% higher BDE-47 (95% CI: 0-82%) and 29% higher BDE-100 (95% CI: -9 to 82%) levels. No associations were found for BDE-153. Living close to some solid waste sites may be related to higher serum BDE-47 and BDE-100 levels. Studies with comprehensive exposure assessments are needed to confirm these initial observations.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Características de Residência , Resíduos Sólidos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue
16.
Epidemiology ; 26(3): 365-73, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies show increased breast cancer risk from exposure to xenoestrogens, but few have explored exposures via ambient air, which could impact large populations. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the association between breast cancer risk and residential exposures to ambient estrogen disruptors among participants in a large cohort study, the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants consisted of 112,379 women free of breast cancer and living at a California address in 1995/1996. Eleven hazardous air pollutants from the US Environmental Protection Agency 2002 list were identified as estrogen disruptors based on published endocrine disrupting chemical lists and literature review. Census-tract estrogen disruptor air concentrations modeled by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2002 were assigned to participants' baseline addresses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios associated with exposure to each estrogen disruptor and a summary measure of nine estrogenic hazardous air pollutants among all participants and selected subgroups, adjusting for age, race/birthplace, socioeconomic status, and known breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: Five thousand three hundred sixty-one invasive breast cancer cases were identified between 1995 and 2010. No associations were found between residential exposure to ambient estrogen disruptors and overall breast cancer risk or hormone receptor-positive breast cancer risk, nor among targeted subgroups of participants (pre-/peri-menopausal women, post-menopausal women, never-smokers, non-movers, and never-smoking non-movers). However, elevated risks for hormone receptor-negative tumors were observed for higher exposure to cadmium compounds and possibly inorganic arsenic among never-smoking non-movers. CONCLUSION: Long-term, low-dose exposure to ambient cadmium compounds or possibly inorganic arsenic may be a risk factor for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Health ; 14: 14, 2015 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25636809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that higher breast cancer rates in urban areas persist after accounting for the prevalence of known risk factors, leading to speculation that urban environmental exposures, such as air pollution, may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Combining modeled ambient air concentrations with data from a large prospective cohort of California women with over 15 years of follow-up, we examined the relationship between breast cancer incidence and modeled concentrations of air pollutants shown to be mammary gland carcinogens (MGCs). METHODS: The study population of 112,378 California Teachers Study participants included 5,676 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Modeled annual average ambient air concentrations of 24 MGCs from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were linked to participants' addresses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with residential MGC levels. MGCs were examined individually and as a combined summary variable for all participants, in selected subsets, and by tumor hormone responsiveness. RESULTS: Initial models yielded some evidence for increased risk for several compounds, including acrylamide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroprene, 4,4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline), propylene oxide, and vinyl chloride, but after adjustment for multiple comparisons, only results for propylene oxide and vinyl chloride remained statistically significant. In subset analyses, estrogen-receptor positive or progesterone-receptor positive (ER+/PR+) tumors were associated with higher ambient levels of acrylamide, benzidine, carbon tetrachloride, ethylidene dichloride, and vinyl chloride, while ER-/PR- tumors were associated with higher ambient levels of benzene. Interesting results for different compounds were observed within certain subsets of the population. CONCLUSION: While our initial models yielded several elevated risk estimates, after adjusting for multiple comparisons and breast cancer risk factors, most hazard ratios were no longer statistically significant. Our subset analyses, however, suggest that elevated risk may be associated with some compounds for certain subgroups of interest. A summary variable for all 24 MGCs did not offer any advantage over the models for individual compounds. Results must be interpreted cautiously, as estimated exposure was limited to modeled annual average ambient air concentrations, and could not account for other sources or routes other than inhalation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(11): 2218-28, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25368397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population is heterogeneous and rapidly growing in the United States, with a high proportion concentrated in California. Although traditionally assumed to have lower rates of breast cancer than non-Hispanic white women, recent studies have suggested considerable variation in incidence by AAPI ethnic group, with rates in some exceeding those in non-Hispanic whites. The potential role of environmental toxicants has not been well explored and may provide insights into these patterns. METHODS: We created an exposure potential index (EPI) score for 24 hazardous air pollutants modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment considered to be mammary gland carcinogens, and compared values at the census tract level for "geographically concentrated" AAPI groups throughout the State. "Geographically concentrated" populations were defined as census tracts with at least 100 individuals from a specified racial/ethnic population as enumerated by the 2000 Census. RESULTS: Although EPI scores differed little between census tracts with aggregated AAPI (mean EPI = 0.53) and non-Hispanic white women (mean EPI = 0.63), there was substantial variation between tracts for disaggregated AAPI groups, with notably higher EPI scores for tracts enumerated for Korean or Japanese women (mean EPI of 0.78 and 0.77, respectively) compared with other AAPI groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the importance of disaggregating data for the heterogeneous AAPI population to identify differences in potential environmental exposures across groups. IMPACT: Future cancer etiology studies should examine environmental exposure differences within and across groups for the diverse AAPI population.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Carcinógenos Ambientais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia Sudeste/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Censos , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Medição de Risco , Estatística como Assunto
19.
JAMA ; 312(9): 902-14, 2014 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25182099

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Bilateral mastectomy is increasingly used to treat unilateral breast cancer. Because it may have medical and psychosocial complications, a better understanding of its use and outcomes is essential to optimizing cancer care. OBJECTIVE: To compare use of and mortality after bilateral mastectomy, breast-conserving therapy with radiation, and unilateral mastectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational cohort study within the population-based California Cancer Registry; participants were women diagnosed with stages 0-III unilateral breast cancer in California from 1998 through 2011, with median follow-up of 89.1 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Factors associated with surgery use (from polytomous logistic regression); overall and breast cancer-specific mortality (from propensity score weighting and Cox proportional hazards analysis). RESULTS: Among 189,734 patients, the rate of bilateral mastectomy increased from 2.0% (95% CI, 1.7%-2.2%) in 1998 to 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.9%) in 2011, an annual increase of 14.3% (95% CI, 13.1%-15.5%); among women younger than 40 years, the rate increased from 3.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-5.0%) in 1998 to 33% (95% CI, 29.8%-36.5%) in 2011. Bilateral mastectomy was more often used by non-Hispanic white women, those with private insurance, and those who received care at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center (8.6% [95% CI, 8.1%-9.2%] among NCI cancer center patients vs 6.0% [95% CI, 5.9%-6.1%] among non-NCI cancer center patients; odds ratio [OR], 1.13 [95% CI, 1.04-1.22]); in contrast, unilateral mastectomy was more often used by racial/ethnic minorities (Filipina, 52.8% [95% CI, 51.6%-54.0%]; OR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.90-2.11] and Hispanic, 45.6% [95% CI, 45.0%-46.2%]; OR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.13-1.20] vs non-Hispanic white, 35.2% [95% CI, 34.9%-35.5%]) and those with public/Medicaid insurance (48.4% [95% CI, 47.8%-48.9%]; OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.11] vs private insurance, 36.6% [95% CI, 36.3%-36.8%]). Compared with breast-conserving surgery with radiation (10-year mortality, 16.8% [95% CI, 16.6%-17.1%]), unilateral mastectomy was associated with higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.32-1.39]; 10-year mortality, 20.1% [95% CI, 19.9%-20.4%]). There was no significant mortality difference compared with bilateral mastectomy (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.94-1.11]; 10-year mortality, 18.8% [95% CI, 18.6%-19.0%]). Propensity analysis showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Use of bilateral mastectomy increased significantly throughout California from 1998 through 2011 and was not associated with lower mortality than that achieved with breast-conserving surgery plus radiation. Unilateral mastectomy was associated with higher mortality than were the other 2 surgical options.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastectomia Segmentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco , Programa de SEER
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 23(6): 1067-79, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24842625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Incorporating 22 years of incidence data through 2009, we extend examination of these trends among a wide array of subgroups defined by patient (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity), tumor (tumor size and stage), and neighborhood (socioeconomic status and residence in ethnic enclaves) characteristics, to identify possible reasons for this increase. METHODS: Thyroid cancer incidence data on 10,940 men and 35,147 women were obtained from the California Cancer Registry for 1988-2009. Population data were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and incidence trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression to evaluate the timing and magnitude of change [annual percentage change (APC) and rate ratios]. RESULTS: The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer continues to increase in both men (APC, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.5-6.3 for 1998-2009) and women (APC, 3.8; 95% CI, 3.4-4.2 for 1998-2001 and APC, 6.3; 95% CI, 5.7-6.9 for 2001-2009). Increasing incidence was observed in all subgroups examined. CONCLUSIONS: Although some variation in the magnitude or temporality of the increase in thyroid cancer incidence exists across subgroups, the patterns (i) suggest that changes in diagnostic technology alone do not account for the observed trends and (ii) point to the importance of modifiable behavioral, lifestyle, or environmental factors in understanding this epidemic. IMPACT: Given the dramatic and continued increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates, studies addressing the causes of these trends are critical. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1067-79. ©2014 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , California , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
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