Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 196
Filtrar
1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692161

RESUMO

Genetic ataxias are associated with mutations in hundreds of genes with high phenotypic overlap complicating clinical diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) has increased the overall diagnostic rate considerably. However, the upper limit of this method remains ill-defined, hindering efforts to address the remaining diagnostic gap. To further assess the role of rare coding variation in ataxic disorders, we reanalyzed our previously published exome cohort of 76 predominantly adult and sporadic onset patients, expanded the total number of cases to 260, and introduced analyses for copy number variation and repeat expansion in a representative subset. For new cases (n=184), our resulting clinically relevant detection rate remained stable at 47% with 24% classified as pathogenic. Reanalysis of the previously sequenced 76 patients modestly improved the pathogenic rate by 7%. For the combined cohort (n=260), the total observed clinical detection rate was 52% with 25% classified as pathogenic. Published studies of similar neurological phenotypes report comparable rates. This consistency across multiple cohorts suggests that, despite continued technical and analytical advancements, an ~50% diagnostic rate marks a relative ceiling for current WES-based methods and more comprehensive genome-wide assessment is needed to identify the missing causative genetic etiologies for cerebellar ataxia and related neurodegenerative diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 18: 580-589, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678734

RESUMO

Systemic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for DMD exon skipping has proven effective for reframing DMD mRNA, rescuing dystrophin expression, and slowing disease progression in animal models. In humans with Duchenne muscular dystrophy treated with AOs, low levels of dystrophin have been induced, and modest slowing of disease progression has been observed, highlighting the need for improved efficiency of human skipping drugs. Here, we demonstrate that dantrolene and Rycals S107 and ARM210 potentiate AO-mediated exon skipping of exon 44 or exon 45 in patient-derived myotube cultures with appropriate mutations. Further, dantrolene is shown to boost AO-mediated exon skipping in patient-derived, induced cardiomyocyte cultures. Our findings further validate the ryanodine receptors (RyR) as the likely target responsible for exon skip boosting and demonstrate potential applicability beyond exon 51 skipping. These data provide preclinical support of dantrolene trial as an adjuvant to AO-mediated exon-skipping therapy in humans and identify a novel Rycal, ARM210, for development as a potential exon-skipping booster. Further, they highlight the value of mutation-specific DMD culture models for basic discovery, preclinical drug screening and translation of personalized genetic medicines.

3.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672265

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the dystrophin-encoding DMD gene. While Duchenne is most commonly caused by large intragenic deletions that cause frameshift and complete loss of dystrophin expression, in-frame deletions in DMD can result in the expression of internally truncated dystrophin proteins and may be associated with a milder phenotype. In this study, we describe two individuals with large in-frame 5' deletions (exon 3-23 and exon 3-28) that remove the majority of the N-terminal region, including part of the actin binding and central rod domains. Both patients had progressive muscle weakness during childhood but are observed to have a relatively mild disease course compared to typical Duchenne. We show that in muscle biopsies from both patients, truncated dystrophin is expressed at the sarcolemma. We have additionally developed a patient-specific fibroblast-derived cell model, which can be inducibly reprogrammed to form myotubes that largely recapitulate biopsy findings for the patient with the exon 3-23 deletion, providing a culture model for future investigation of this unusual case. We discuss these mutations in the context of previously reported 5' in-frame DMD deletions and relevant animal models, and review the spectrum of phenotypes associated with these deletions.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the value of transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) in ascertaining the consequence of DNA variants on RNA transcripts to improve the diagnostic rate from exome or genome sequencing for undiagnosed Mendelian diseases spanning a wide spectrum of clinical indications. METHODS: From 234 subjects referred to the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, University of California-Los Angeles clinical site between July 2014 and August 2018, 113 were enrolled for high likelihood of having rare undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions despite thorough prior clinical evaluation. Exome or genome sequencing and RNAseq were performed, and RNAseq data was integrated with genome sequencing data for DNA variant interpretation genome-wide. RESULTS: The molecular diagnostic rate by exome or genome sequencing was 31%. Integration of RNAseq with genome sequencing resulted in an additional seven cases with clear diagnosis of a known genetic disease. Thus, the overall molecular diagnostic rate was 38%, and 18% of all genetic diagnoses returned required RNAseq to determine variant causality. CONCLUSION: In this rare disease cohort with a wide spectrum of undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions, RNAseq analysis increased the molecular diagnostic rate above that possible with genome sequencing analysis alone even without availability of the most appropriate tissue type to assess.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 908-925, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817854

RESUMO

Pathogenic de novo variants in the X-linked gene SLC35A2 encoding the major Golgi-localized UDP-galactose transporter required for proper protein and lipid glycosylation cause a rare type of congenital disorder of glycosylation known as SLC35A2-congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG; formerly CDG-IIm). To date, 29 unique de novo variants from 32 unrelated individuals have been described in the literature. The majority of affected individuals are primarily characterized by varying degrees of neurological impairments with or without skeletal abnormalities. Surprisingly, most affected individuals do not show abnormalities in serum transferrin N-glycosylation, a common biomarker for most types of CDG. Here we present data characterizing 30 individuals and add 26 new variants, the single largest study involving SLC35A2-CDG. The great majority of these individuals had normal transferrin glycosylation. In addition, expanding the molecular and clinical spectrum of this rare disorder, we developed a robust and reliable biochemical assay to assess SLC35A2-dependent UDP-galactose transport activity in primary fibroblasts. Finally, we show that transport activity is directly correlated to the ratio of wild-type to mutant alleles in fibroblasts from affected individuals.

7.
Biomark Med ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499689

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal inherited genetic disorder that results in progressive muscle weakness and ultimately loss of ambulation, respiratory failure and heart failure. Cardiac MRI (MRI) plays an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and clinical care of boys with DMD and associated cardiomyopathies. Conventional cardiac MRI biomarkers permit measurements of global cardiac function and presence of fibrosis, but changes in these measures are late manifestations. Emerging MRI biomarkers of myocardial function and structure include the estimation of rotational mechanics and regional strain using MRI tagging; T1-mapping; and T2-mapping, a marker of inflammation, edema and fat. These emerging biomarkers provide earlier insights into cardiac involvement in DMD, improving patient care and aiding the evaluation of emerging therapies.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 948-967, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526868

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions due to defects in genes involved in development and function of the nervous system. Individuals with NDD, in addition to their primary neurodevelopmental phenotype, may also have accompanying syndromic features that can be very helpful diagnostically especially those with recognizable facial appearance. In this study, we describe ten similarly affected individuals from six unrelated families of different ethnic origins having bi-allelic truncating variants in TMEM94, which encodes for an uncharacterized transmembrane nuclear protein that is highly conserved across mammals. The affected individuals manifested with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial features including triangular face, deep set eyes, broad nasal root and tip and anteverted nostrils, thick arched eye brows, hypertrichosis, pointed chin, and hypertelorism. Birthweight in the upper normal range was observed in most, and all but one had congenital heart defects (CHD). Gene expression analysis in available cells from affected individuals showed reduced expression of TMEM94. Global transcriptome profiling using microarray and RNA sequencing revealed several dysregulated genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival that are predicted to have an impact on cardiotoxicity hematological system and neurodevelopment. Loss of Tmem94 in mouse model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 was embryonic lethal and led to craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities and abnormal neuronal migration pattern, suggesting that this gene is important in craniofacial, cardiovascular, and nervous system development. Our study suggests the genetic etiology of a recognizable dysmorphic syndrome with NDD and CHD and highlights the role of TMEM94 in early development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2131-2139, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added. METHODS: We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care. RESULTS: A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund.).

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289454

RESUMO

Like other single gene disorders, muscular dystrophy displays a range of phenotypic heterogeneity even with the same primary mutation. Identifying genetic modifiers capable of altering the course of muscular dystrophy is one approach to deciphering gene-gene interactions that can be exploited for therapy development. To this end, we used an intercross strategy in mice to map modifiers of muscular dystrophy. We interrogated genes of interest in an interval on mouse chromosome 10 associated with body mass in muscular dystrophy as skeletal muscle contributes significantly to total body mass. Using whole genome sequencing of the two parental mouse strains combined with deep RNA sequencing, we identified the Met62Ile substitution in the Dusp6 gene from the DBA/2J mouse strain. DUSP6 is a broadly expressed dual specificity phosphatase protein, which binds and dephosphorylates ERK, leading to decreased ERK activity. We found that the Met62Ile substitution reduced the interaction between DUSP6 and ERK resulting in increased ERK phosphorylation and ERK activity. In dystrophic muscle, DUSP6 Met62Ile is strongly upregulated to counteract its reduced activity. We found that myoblasts from the DBA/2J background were insensitive to a specific small molecule inhibitor of DUSP6, while myoblasts expressing the canonical DUSP6 displayed enhanced proliferation after exposure to DUSP6 inhibition. These data identify DUSP6 as an important regulator of ERK activity in the setting of muscle growth and muscular dystrophy.

11.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in KAT6A have recently been identified as a cause of syndromic developmental delay. Within 2 years, the number of patients identified with pathogenic KAT6A variants has rapidly expanded and the full extent and variability of the clinical phenotype has not been reported. METHODS: We obtained data for patients with KAT6A pathogenic variants through three sources: treating clinicians, an online family survey distributed through social media, and a literature review. RESULTS: We identified 52 unreported cases, bringing the total number of published cases to 76. Our results expand the genotypic spectrum of pathogenic variants to include missense and splicing mutations. We functionally validated a pathogenic splice-site variant and identified a likely hotspot location for de novo missense variants. The majority of clinical features in KAT6A syndrome have highly variable penetrance. For core features such as intellectual disability, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications, genotype- phenotype correlations show that late-truncating pathogenic variants (exons 16-17) are significantly more prevalent. We highlight novel associations, including an increased risk of gastrointestinal obstruction. CONCLUSION: Our data expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum for individuals with genetic pathogenic variants in KAT6A and we outline appropriate clinical management.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1828: 309-326, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171550

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Most deletions, duplications, or indels lead to shift of mRNA reading frame, which prevent the production of dystrophin protein. DMD is the leading fatal genetic disorder in childhood. One therapeutic strategy aims to skip one or more exons to restore reading frame to enable the production of internally truncated proteins with partial functionality. However, to date the efficiency of this strategy is suboptimal. Here we present methods for assessing exon skipping using AON alone or in combination with skip booster in the context of human DMD patient fibroblast derived myotubes and in the mdx mouse model of DMD.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 245-260, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057031

RESUMO

Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) encodes a member of the IRF2BP family of transcriptional regulators. Currently the biological function of this gene is obscure, and the gene has not been associated with a Mendelian disease. Here we describe seven individuals who carry damaging heterozygous variants in IRF2BPL and are affected with neurological symptoms. Five individuals who carry IRF2BPL nonsense variants resulting in a premature stop codon display severe neurodevelopmental regression, hypotonia, progressive ataxia, seizures, and a lack of coordination. Two additional individuals, both with missense variants, display global developmental delay and seizures and a relatively milder phenotype than those with nonsense alleles. The IRF2BPL bioinformatics signature based on population genomics is consistent with a gene that is intolerant to variation. We show that the fruit-fly IRF2BPL ortholog, called pits (protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A), is broadly detected, including in the nervous system. Complete loss of pits is lethal early in development, whereas partial knockdown with RNA interference in neurons leads to neurodegeneration, revealing a requirement for this gene in proper neuronal function and maintenance. The identified IRF2BPL nonsense variants behave as severe loss-of-function alleles in this model organism, and ectopic expression of the missense variants leads to a range of phenotypes. Taken together, our results show that IRF2BPL and pits are required in the nervous system in humans and flies, and their loss leads to a range of neurological phenotypes in both species.

15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1193-1202, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907980

RESUMO

Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping is an emerging therapeutic for individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Skipping of exons adjacent to common exon deletions in DMD using AONs can produce in-frame transcripts and functional protein. Targeted skipping of DMD exons 8, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 53, and 55 is predicted to benefit 47% of affected individuals. We observed a correlation between mutation subgroups and age at loss of ambulation in the Duchenne Registry, a large database of phenotypic and genetic data for DMD (N = 765). Males amenable to exon 44 (N = 74) and exon 8 skipping (N = 18) showed prolonged ambulation compared to other exon skip groups and nonsense mutations (P = 0.035 and P < 0.01, respectively). In particular, exon 45 deletions were associated with prolonged age at loss of ambulation relative to the rest of the exon 44 skip amenable cohort and other DMD mutations. Exon 3-7 deletions also showed prolonged ambulation relative to all other exon 8 skippable mutations. Cultured myotubes from DMD patients with deletions of exons 3-7 or exon 45 showed higher endogenous skipping than other mutations, providing a potential biological rationale for our observations. These results highlight the utility of aggregating phenotypic and genotypic data for rare pediatric diseases to reveal progression differences, identify potentially confounding factors, and probe molecular mechanisms that may affect disease severity.

16.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 53, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the expanding use of next-gen sequencing (NGS) to diagnose the thousands of rare Mendelian genetic diseases, it is critical to be able to interpret individual DNA variation. To calculate the significance of finding a rare protein-altering variant in a given gene, one must know the frequency of seeing a variant in the general population that is at least as damaging as the variant in question. METHODS: We developed a general method to better interpret the likelihood that a rare variant is disease causing if observed in a given gene or genic region mapping to a described protein domain, using genome-wide information from a large control sample. Based on data from 2504 individuals in the 1000 Genomes Project dataset, we calculated the number of individuals who have a rare variant in a given gene for numerous filtering threshold scenarios, which may be used for calculating the significance of an observed rare variant being causal for disease. Additionally, we calculated mutational burden data on the number of individuals with rare variants in genic regions mapping to protein domains. RESULTS: We describe methods to use the mutational burden data for calculating the significance of observing rare variants in a given proportion of sequenced individuals. We present SORVA, an implementation of these methods as a web tool, and we demonstrate application to 20 relevant but diverse next-gen sequencing studies. Specifically, we calculate the statistical significance of findings involving multi-family studies with rare Mendelian disease and a large-scale study of a complex disorder, autism spectrum disorder. If we use the frequency counts to rank genes based on intolerance for variation, the ranking correlates well with pLI scores derived from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) dataset (ρ = 0.515), with the benefit that the scores are directly interpretable. CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a strategy that is useful for vetting candidate genes from NGS studies and allows researchers to calculate the significance of seeing a variant in a given gene or protein domain. This approach is an important step towards developing a quantitative, statistics-based approach for presenting clinical findings.

17.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 11: 180-191, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858053

RESUMO

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in DMD, resulting in loss of dystrophin, which is essential to muscle health. DMD "exon skipping" uses anti-sense oligo-nucleotides (AONs) to force specific exon exclusion during mRNA processing to restore reading frame and rescue of partially functional dystrophin protein. Although exon-skipping drugs in humans show promise, levels of rescued dystrophin protein remain suboptimal. We previously identified dantrolene as a skip booster when combined with AON in human DMD cultures and short-term mdx dystrophic mouse studies. Here, we assess the effect of dantrolene/AON combination on DMD exon-23 skipping over long-term mdx treatment under conditions that better approximate potential human dosing. To evaluate the dantrolene/AON combination treatment effect on dystrophin induction, we assayed three AON doses, with and without oral dantrolene, to assess multiple outcomes across different muscles. Meta-analyses of the results of statistical tests from both the quadriceps and diaphragm assessing contributions of dantrolene beyond AON, across all AON treatment groups, provide strong evidence that dantrolene modestly boosts exon skipping and dystrophin rescue while reducing muscle pathology in mdx mice (p < 0.0087). These findings support a trial of combination dantrolene/AON to increase exon-skipping efficacy and highlight the value of combinatorial approaches and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug re-purposing for discovery of unsuspected therapeutic application and rapid translation.

18.
Elife ; 72018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784083

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) plays fundamental roles in synaptic plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Here, we describe a new recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome with global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Using linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we found that this disease maps to chromosome 5q31.1-q34 and is caused by a biallelic germline mutation in CAMK2A. The missense mutation, p.His477Tyr is located in the CAMK2A association domain that is critical for its function and localization. Biochemically, the p.His477Tyr mutant is defective in self-oligomerization and unable to assemble into the multimeric holoenzyme.In vivo, CAMK2AH477Y failed to rescue neuronal defects in C. elegans lacking unc-43, the ortholog of human CAMK2A. In vitro, neurons derived from patient iPSCs displayed profound synaptic defects. Together, our data demonstrate that a recessive germline mutation in CAMK2A leads to neurodevelopmental defects in humans and suggest that dysfunctional CAMK2 paralogs may contribute to other neurological disorders.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007392, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768410

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000832.].

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(9): 1642-1653, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528394

RESUMO

Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase IIß (CaMKIIß). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKIIß signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise. These data suggest a role for CAPN3 and CaMKIIß in gene regulation that takes place during adaptation to endurance exercise. To assess whether CAPN3- CaMKIIß signaling influences skeletal muscle remodeling in other contexts, we subjected C3KO and wild type mice to hindlimb unloading and reloading and assessed CaMKIIß signaling and gene expression by RNA-sequencing. After induced atrophy followed by 4 days of reloading, both CaMKIIß activation and expression of inflammatory and cellular stress genes were increased. C3KO muscles failed to activate CaMKIIß signaling, did not activate the same pattern of gene expression and demonstrated impaired growth at 4 days of reloading. Moreover, C3KO muscles failed to activate inducible HSP70, which was previously shown to be indispensible for the inflammatory response needed to promote muscle recovery. Likewise, C3KO showed diminished immune cell infiltration and decreased expression of pro-myogenic genes. These data support a role for CaMKIIß signaling in induction of HSP70 and promotion of the inflammatory response during muscle growth and remodeling that occurs after atrophy, suggesting that CaMKIIß regulates remodeling in multiple contexts: endurance exercise and growth after atrophy.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA