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1.
Odontology ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037112

RESUMO

Different types of brackets seem to influence the disruption of the oral microbial environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of self-ligating brackets on the gingival crevicular fluid levels of the putative periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans sorotype a (Aaa), Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Sixty samples of crevicular fluid of twenty patients (11 boys and 9 girls) were analysed at baseline (T0) and after 30 (T1) and 60 (T2) days of bonding of the self-ligating (In-Ovation®R, Dentsply, GAC or SmartClip™, 3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) and of one conventional bracket (Gemini™, 3 M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) used with elastomeric ligatures. Total DNA from samples was extracted using CTAB-DNA precipitation method and Real-time PCR was performed to analyse bacterial level. Non-parametric Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used for data analysis (p value of < 0.05). F. nucleatum presented a different level among the different brackets at T1 (p = 0.025), the highest level in the Gemini™ bracket when compared to the SmartClip™ bracket (p = 0.043). P. ginigvalis levels increased in the In-Ovation®R (p = 0.028) at T1. The subgingival levels of bacterial species associated with periodontal disease P. ginigvalis increased in the self-ligating brackets In-Ovation®R.Clinical Relevance: Some kinds of brackets could provide more retentive sites than others, and it seems to modulate the subgingival microbiota, since, in this study, we could observe the increase of the species associated with periodontal disease. Preventive protocols should be adopted in the use of self-ligating brackets.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031194

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In addition to essential clinical parameters, orthodontic treatment outcomes should also consider patients' opinions and perceptions, which could be comprehensively clarified with a qualitative scientific approach. Considering that the information on younger patients' views is scarce, the objective of this study was to investigate how adolescent orthodontic patients perceive malocclusion, and their motivations and expectations concerning orthodontic corrective treatment. METHODS: In this descriptive qualitative study, 12 adolescents aged 12 to 14 years and of both genders, covering a heterogeneous collection of malocclusions, were recruited from the waiting list of an Orthodontics Graduate Course. They were individually interviewed before the appliance insertion by an experienced researcher using an interview guide and photographic records to stimulate patients' self-perception of their oral condition. The interviews proceeded simultaneously with transcription analyses until saturation. After the transcription evaluation, the framework analysis technique was performed. RESULTS: Data derived from the transcription analyses were grouped into 3 major themes: perceptions concerning the concepts of normality and abnormality regarding oral health; self-perceptions regarding malocclusion and other discrepancies; and motivations for seeking orthodontic treatment and expectations related to the results. CONCLUSIONS: Attractiveness was exceptionally relevant among adolescent patients. Most interviewees seemed to focus their attention on esthetically upsetting dentofacial traits, which they expected to be corrected by orthodontic treatment. In addition to self-oriented appearance-driven motivations, parents, other health professionals, friends, and peers also influenced adolescents' perception of their need for treatment. The achievement of a normal dentofacial status seems to be closely attached to social and individual aspirations.

3.
Braz Dent J ; 32(3): 32-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755788

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the M1 and M2 macrophage modulation after stimuli with different materials used during endodontic treatment. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cell culture, from males C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, gene expression analysis of markers to M1 and M2 macrophages was performed by qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla and MRC1) and cytokine quantification by Luminex® (GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α) after exposure to the five endodontic sealers: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS and a calcium hydroxide-based paste. For normal values, ANOVA test was used, followed by Tukey post-test. For non-normal values, the Kruskall-Wallis test was used. BioRootTM RCS and EndoSequence BC SealerTM stimulated the highest expression of markers for M1 macrophages, while calcium hydroxide-based paste stimulated the lowest expression of these gene markers. For M2 protein markers, BioRootTM RCS presented the highest stimulation while calcium hydroxide-based paste also presented the lowest stimulation. It was concluded that all the evaluated filling materials increased the genetic expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers: TNF-α and IL-10 respectively. The others proinflammatory mediators showed differences against the filling materials. However, this process did not induce the inflammatory response polarization, resulting in a hybrid macrophage.


Assuntos
Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Animais , Resinas Epóxi , Macrófagos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo
4.
Ann Anat ; 240: 151865, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was investigated if estrogen deficiency during puberty affects the expression of miRNA30a and miRNA503 in maxillary and mandibular growth centers, and also evaluated if ERα and ERß are correlated with miRNA30a and miRNA503 expressions. METHODS: Samples from 12 female Wistar rats randomized into experimental group (OVX) and control group (SHAM). At an age of 45 days animals were euthanized for miRNA expression analyses. RT-qPCR was performed to determine miRNA30a and miRNA503 expression in growth sites: midpalatal suture, condyle, mandibular angle, symphysis/parasymphysis and coronoid process. The data was carried out using the parametric tests at 5% of significance level. RESULTS: miRNA 30a and miRNA503 presented higher levels in the condylar site in SHAM group when compared with OVX (p = 0.002 and p = 0.020, respectively). In the growth centers, a statistical significant difference was observed only for miRNA30a (p = 0.004), when compared mandibular angle with condyle the in OVX group (p = 0.001). A strong positive correlation between miRNA503 and ERα in the condyle of OVX group was observed (r = 0.90; p = 0.039 and it also between miRNA503 and ERß in the coronoid process of the OVX group (r = 0.88; p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that estrogen regulates specific miRNAs in maxillary and mandibular growth centers, which may participate in posttranscriptional regulation of estrogen-regulated genes.

5.
Dent Traumatol ; 37(6): 758-771, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The high rate of root resorption resulting from tooth replantation represents a serious clinical problem. In order to prevent ankylosis and replacement resorption, the contemporary literature highlights the importance of using a flexible stabilization for traumatized teeth. For this purpose, orthodontic devices may be promising for obtaining a better prognosis and periodontal repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an active splinting protocol with controlled force in dog's teeth following replantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty premolar roots from three dogs were used. They were submitted to endodontic treatment, hemisected, atraumatically extracted and subsequently replanted. They were divided into four groups: Passive Stabilization (n = 20)-after 20 min in a dry medium; Active Stabilization (n = 20)-after 20 min in a dry medium; Negative control (n = 10)-immediate replantation and passive Stabilization; and Positive control (n = 10)-90 min of extra-alveolar time and passive Stabilization. The samples were collected and submitted to histologic processing. They were then evaluated for the count of inflammatory cells, expression of neurotrophin 4, osteoclasts, apoptotic cells and collagen fibres. The results were submitted to ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests followed by Tukey or Dunn post-tests (α = 5%). RESULTS: Passive Stabilization with orthodontic brackets without traction used after replantation had the highest number of inflammatory cells (p = .0122), osteoclasts (p = .0013) and percentage of collagen fibres in the periodontal ligament (p < .0001) when compared to Active Stabilization with orthodontic brackets applying amild tensile force. Neurotrophin 4 had no statistically significant difference (p = .05), regardless of the treatment. The apoptotic cells count revealed statistical differences (p < .0001) between Active Stabilization (189.70 ± 47.99) and Positive Control (198.90 ± 88.92) when compared to Passive Stabilization (21.19 ± 32.94). CONCLUSION: The active splinting protocol using orthodontic appliances generating a light and controlled force favoured periodontal ligament repair of replanted teeth.


Assuntos
Reabsorção da Raiz , Anquilose Dental , Avulsão Dentária , Animais , Cães , Ligamento Periodontal , Reabsorção da Raiz/prevenção & controle , Anquilose Dental/prevenção & controle , Avulsão Dentária/cirurgia , Reimplante Dentário
6.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063310

RESUMO

In this study we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding PTH, VDR, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1 were associated with mandibular retrognathism (MR). Samples from biologically-unrelated Brazilian patients receiving orthodontic treatment were included in this study. Pre-orthodontic lateral cephalograms were used to determine the phenotype. Patients with a retrognathic mandible were selected as cases and those with an orthognathic mandible were selected as controls. Genomic DNA was used for genotyping analysis of SNPs in PTH (rs694, rs6256, and rs307247), VDR (rs7975232), CYP24A1 (rs464653), and CYP27B1 (rs927650). Chi-squared or Fisher's tests were used to compare genotype and allele distribution among groups. Haplotype analysis was performed for the SNPs in PTH. The established alpha was p < 0.05. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was used to identify SNP-SNP interactions. A total of 48 (22 males and 26 females) MR and 43 (17 males and 26 females) controls were included. The linear mandibular and the angular measurements were statistically different between MR and controls (p < 0.05). In the genotype and allele distribution analysis, the SNPs rs694, rs307247, and rs464653 were associated with MR (p < 0.05). MDR analyses predicted the best interaction model for MR was rs694-rs927650, followed by rs307247-rs464653-rs927650. Some haplotypes in the PTH gene presented statistical significance. Our results suggest that SNPs in PTH, VDR, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1 genes are associated with the presence of mandibular retrognathism.

7.
J Endod ; 47(10): 1640-1650, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea has been successfully used in the prevention and treatment of several infectious and immunoinflammatory diseases because of its proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiresorptive role, its use as an intracanal dressing has not been proposed. The aim of this study was to develop a formulation based on EGCG for endodontic use by assessing its physicochemical and biological properties. METHODS: Initially, physicochemical characterization of EGCG was performed by ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy to evaluate if the properties were maintained in acidic pH and time (1-6, 24, and 27 hours). After that, biological studies evaluated the developed formulation of EGCG at different concentrations (1.25, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL). The tissue compatibility with subcutaneous tissue of mice was evaluated by plasma leakage after 24 hours and the examination of macroscopic and microscopic features at 7, 21, and 63 days after the insertion of polyethylene tubes containing the formulations. The repair of experimentally induced periapical lesions in dog's teeth by radiographic and histopathologic analysis was also evaluated. The scores were statistically analyzed by the chi-square and Fisher exact test. Analysis of variance followed by the Tukey posttest were used for the quantitative analysis. The significance level was 5%. RESULTS: The physicochemical characterization performed under ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry showed that the EGCG properties remained unaltered in acid pH and function of time, keeping its wavelength to 274 nm. Macroscopic parameters evaluated at 7, 21, and 63 days showed that all concentrations presented no epithelial ulceration or presence of mild superficial tissue necrosis, edema, or vascularization with no significant difference in the control group. During all periods of microscopic examination, all groups presented the absence of abscess foci and edema and the presence of fibrous capsule and neovascularization. The presence of reparative tissue with a gentle presence of neutrophilic inflammatory cells was also observed for all groups, except for the calcium hydroxide paste group, which presented a more pronounced inflammation and tissue necrosis at days 7 and 21 (P < .001). At day 63, all groups presented an absence of inflammatory infiltrate and necrosis. The evaluation of dog teeth showed that treatment with the EGCG formulation provided a reduction of the periapical radiolucent area and allowed the repair of apical and periapical tissues (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The developed formulation based on EGCG from green tea presented physicochemical stability and tissue compatibility and provided the repair of periapical lesions when used as an intracanal dressing.


Assuntos
Catequina , Periodontite Periapical , Animais , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Cães , Camundongos , Tecido Periapical
8.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 32-43, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1345508

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the M1 and M2 macrophage modulation after stimuli with different materials used during endodontic treatment. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cell culture, from males C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice, gene expression analysis of markers to M1 and M2 macrophages was performed by qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla and MRC1) and cytokine quantification by Luminex® (GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) after exposure to the five endodontic sealers: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS and a calcium hydroxide-based paste. For normal values, ANOVA test was used, followed by Tukey post-test. For non-normal values, the Kruskall-Wallis test was used. BioRootTM RCS and EndoSequence BC SealerTM stimulated the highest expression of markers for M1 macrophages, while calcium hydroxide-based paste stimulated the lowest expression of these gene markers. For M2 protein markers, BioRootTM RCS presented the highest stimulation while calcium hydroxide-based paste also presented the lowest stimulation. It was concluded that all the evaluated filling materials increased the genetic expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers: TNF-α and IL-10 respectively. The others proinflammatory mediators showed differences against the filling materials. However, this process did not induce the inflammatory response polarization, resulting in a hybrid macrophage.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a modulação dos macrófagos M1 e M2 após estímulos com diferentes materiais utilizados durante o tratamento endodôntico. Em cultura de células de macrófagos derivados da medula óssea de camundongos machos C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), após a exposição à cinco cimentos endodônticos: AH Plus, Sealapex Xpress, Endosequence BC Sealer, BioRoot RCS e pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio foi realizada a análise da expressão gênica dos marcadores para macrófagos M1 e M2 por qRT-PCR (Cxcl10, CxCL9, iNOS, Arg1, Chil3, Retnla e MRC1) e quantificação de citocinas por Luminex® (GM -CSF, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β e TNF-α). Para valores normais, foi utilizado o teste ANOVA, seguido do pós-teste de Tukey. Para valores não normais, foi utilizado o teste de Kruskall-Wallis. BioRootTM RCS e EndoSequence BC SealerTM estimularam maior expressão de marcadores para macrófagos M1, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio estimulou expressão mais baixa desses marcadores gênicos. Para o marcador de proteínas para M2, BioRootTM RCS apresentou a maior estimulação, enquanto a pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio também apresentou menor estimulação. Concluiu-se que os materiais obturadores avaliados aumentaram a expressão genética de marcadores pró- e anti-inflamatórios: TNF-α e IL-10 respectivamente. Os demais marcadores pró inflamatórios mostraram diferenças em relação aos materiais obturadores. No entanto, esse processo não induziu a polarização da resposta inflamatória, resultando em um macrófago híbrido.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Fenótipo , Teste de Materiais , Resinas Epóxi , Macrófagos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(11): 6201-6209, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in controlling pulpal and periapical inflammation in vivo as a potential coadjutant systemic therapy for pulpitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A suspension containing E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.0 µg/µL) was inoculated into the pulp chamber of the first molars of C57BL/6 mice (n = 72), and the animals were treated daily with indomethacin or celecoxib throughout the experimental periods. After 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, the tissues were removed for histopathological, histoenzymology, histometric, and immunohistochemical evaluation. RESULTS: Inoculation of LPS into the pulp chamber induced the synthesis of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in dental pulp and periapical region. Indomethacin and celecoxib treatment changed the profile of inflammatory cells recruited to dental pulp and to the periapex, which was characterized by a higher mononuclear cell infiltrate, compared to LPS inoculation alone which recruited a higher amount of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Administration of indomethacin for 28 days resulted in the development of apical periodontitis and increased osteoclast recruitment, unlike celecoxib. CONCLUSIONS: NSAIDs indomethacin and celecoxib changed the recruitment of inflammatory cells to a mononuclear profile upon inoculation of LPS into the pup chamber, but indomethacin enhanced periapical bone loss whereas celecoxib did not. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, can change the profile of inflammatory cells recruited to the dental pulp challenged with LPS and might a be potential systemic coadjutant for treatment of pulpitis.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 14, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estrogen is a well-known and important hormone involved in skeletal homeostasis, which regulates genes involved in bone biology. Some studies support that estrogen is important for craniofacial growth and development. Therefore this in vivo animal study aimed to investigate, whether and in which way low estrogen levels in the prepubertal period affect craniofacial development in the postpubertal stage and to quantify the gene expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG in cranial growth sites in ovariectomized estrogen-deficient rats during puberty. METHODS: Control (sham-operated, n = 18) and ovariectomy (OVX, n = 18) surgeries were performed on 21-days-old female Wistar rats. Animals euthanized at an age of 45 days (pubertal stage) were used for gene expression analyses (n = 6 per group) and immunohistochemistry of RANK, RANKL and OPG. Animals euthanized at 63 days of age (post-pubertal stage) were used for craniofacial two-dimensional and three-dimensional craniofacial measurements using µCT imaging (n = 12 per group). RESULTS: In the µCT analysis of the mandible and maxilla many statistically significant differences between sham-operated and OVX groups were observed, such as increased maxillary and mandibular bone length in OVX animals (p < 0.05). Condylar volume was also significantly different between groups (p < 0.05). The sham-operated group showed a higher level of RANK expression in the midpalatal suture (p = 0.036) and the RANKL:OPG ratio levels were higher in the OVX group (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that estrogen deficiency during the prepubertal period is associated with alterations in the maxillary and mandibular bone length and condylar growth.


Assuntos
Mandíbula , Maxila , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Estrogênios , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Puberdade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(5): 660-665, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo bacterial endotoxin (LPS) adhesion in polyurethane and silicone esthetic elastomeric orthodontic ligatures. The null hypotheses tested were: (1) there is no LPS adhesion in esthetic elastomeric orthodontic ligatures; and (2) there is no difference in the LPS adhesion between different brands of these ligatures. METHODS: For the in vitro study, 4 types of esthetic elastomeric ligatures were used (Sani-Ties and Sili-Ties [Dentsply GAC, Islandia, NY;] and Mini Single Case Ligature Stick and Synergy low-friction ligatures [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo]), contaminated or not with endotoxin solution. Replicas of twisted wire and cast stainless steel ligatures were used as control. For the in vivo study, 10 male and 10 female patients, aged 15-30 years, received the same 4 types of ligatures, 1 of each inserted in the maxillary and mandibular canines, randomly. Twenty-one days later, the ligatures were removed, and endotoxin quantification was performed using the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Data were analyzed (α = 0.05) using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's posttest or analysis of variance and Tukey's posttest. RESULTS: GAC silicone group had the lowest median contamination (1.15 endotoxin units/mL; P <0.0001) in vitro. In the in vivo study, the GAC silicone group had the lowest mean contamination (0.577 endotoxin units/mL; P <0.001). In both studies, the other groups did not present a significant difference when compared with each other (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LPS exhibited an affinity for all the tested polyurethane and silicone elastomeric ligatures. GAC silicone ligatures presented with lower amounts of LPS attached to their surfaces. Thus, both null hypotheses were rejected.


Assuntos
Braquetes Ortodônticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Elastômeros , Endotoxinas , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Fios Ortodônticos , Aço Inoxidável , Adulto Jovem
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 2979-2987, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772326

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of caffeic acid in the interface between the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory function in macrophage response against S. mutans. S. mutans (108 cfu/mL) were incubated with caffeic acid to determinate the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and macrophage cells were incubated with caffeic acid to determinate cell viability and toxicity. Anti-inflammatory effects were measured by nitrite accumulation, TNF-α and PGE2 production, and NF-kB phosphorylation, and S. mutans survival following internalization by macrophages was investigated. We found that caffeic acid presented antimicrobial activity against S. mutans (IC50 = 2.938 ± 0.1225 mM) without exerting cytotoxicity. Caffeic acid inhibited nitrite, TNF-α and PGE2 production by the NF-kB dependent pathway, indicating an immunomodulatory property. Caffeic acid also contributed to macrophage bacteria clearance activity. In summary, caffeic acid presented antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(7): 4699-4707, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory infiltrate, osteoclast formation, and expression of MMP-9 during the healing phase following root canal treatment in teeth with apical periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apical periodontitis was induced in dogs teeth, and root canal treatment was performed in a single visit or using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medication. One hundred and eighty days following treatment the presence of inflammation was examined, and the tissues were stained to detect osteoclasts by means of a tartrate resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) assay. Synthesis of MMP-9 was detected using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Teeth with apical periodontitis that had root canal therapy performed in a single visit presented a higher synthesis of MMP-9 compared with root canal treatment using calcium hydroxide. Treatment with calcium hydroxide resulted in a reduced amount of inflammatory cells and MMP-9 positive cells. Osteoclast formation, the number of MMP-9 positive osteoclasts and cementocytes, was reduced following root canal treatment, regardless of the root canal treatment protocol used. CONCLUSION: Root canal treatment reduced the amount of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in periapical area. The use of calcium hydroxide as intracanal medication resulted in a lower synthesis of MMP-9, though the number of osteoclasts and MMP-9 positive osteoclasts were similar between the groups. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Periapical bone repair following root canal treatment is impacted by therapy performed either in single visit or using calcium hydroxide dressing measured by inflammatory cell recruitment, osteoclast formation, and MMP-9 synthesis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Periapical , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Animais , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cavidade Pulpar , Cães , Inflamação , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Osteoclastos , Periodontite Periapical/tratamento farmacológico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
14.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(6): 3651-3662, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To answer the questions: (1) Does reducing estrogen levels influence the microbial composition of the oral cavity? (2) Does the presence of periapical lesion (PL) cause changes in the oral microbiota? (3) Since estrogen deficiency alters the oral microbiota, can this be one of the factors that contribute to the increase of the PL? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: sham (control), ovariectomy (OVX), control with PL (Sham + PL), and OVX + PL. After 9 weeks of OVX, the lower first molars were submitted to PL induction. After 21 days, the microbiological collection of the oral cavity was performed, and the animals were euthanized. The contents were evaluated by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method, to verify the prevalence of 40 bacterial species (divided into 7 microbial complexes). The blocks containing the lower first molars were submitted to histotechnical processing and staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), for the measurement of the periapical lesion area. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests and Tukey and Dunn post-tests, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In conditions of estrogen deficiency, there was alteration of the oral microbiota. The OVX groups had a higher amount of bacteria compared to the SHAM group in most of the microbial complexes (p < 0.001). The animals in the control group (with or without lesion) did not present a statistically significant difference (p > 0.001) in any of the microbial complexes. The PLs in OVX animals were significantly higher compared to SHAM animals (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hypoestrogenicity conditions interfere in the oral microbiota by increasing the amount of bacteria in the saliva and influencing the progression of periapical lesions. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This inedited study shows that deficiency of estrogen leads to alteration of the oral microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Animais , Estrogênios , Feminino , Humanos , Dente Molar , Boca , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Saliva
15.
Lasers Med Sci ; 36(4): 913-926, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150475

RESUMO

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a complementary therapeutic modality for periodontal and endodontic diseases, in which Gram-negative bacteria are directly involved. Currently, there are few evidences regarding the effects of aPDT on bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and it would represent a major step forward in the clinical use of this therapy. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different photosensitizers (PSs) used in aPDT in LPS inhibition. Four PSs were used in this study: methylene blue (MB), toluidine blue (TBO), new methylene blue (NMB), and curcumin (CUR). Different approaches to evaluate LPS interaction with PSs were used, such as spectrophotometry, Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, functional assays using mouse macrophages, and an in vivo model of LPS injection. Spectrophotometry showed that LPS decreased the absorbance of all PSs used, indicating interactions between the two species. LAL assay revealed significant differences in LPS concentrations upon pre-incubation with the different PSs. Interestingly, the inflammatory potential of LPS decreased after previous treatment with the four PSs, resulting in decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. In vivo, pre-incubating curcumin with LPS prevented animals from undergoing septic shock within the established time. Using relevant models to study the inflammatory activity of LPS, we found that all PSs used in this work decreased LPS-induced inflammation, with a more striking effect observed for NMB and curcumin. These data advance the understanding of the mechanisms of LPS inhibition by PSs.


Assuntos
Odontologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
16.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(5): 3249-3255, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was investigate the cranium dimensions of adult female rats, who suffered estrogen deficiency during the prepubertal stage, to assess the impact of estrogen deficiency on craniofacial morphology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two female Wistar rats were divided into ovariectomy (OVX) (n = 11) and sham-operated control (n = 11) groups. Bilateral ovariectomy were performed in both groups at 21 days old (prepubertal stage), and rats were euthanized at an age of 63 days (post-pubertal stage). Micro-CT scans were performed with rat skulls, and the cranium morphometric landmark measurements were taken in the dorsal, lateral, and ventral view positions. Differences in measurements between the OVX and sham control groups were assessed using t test with an established alpha error of 5%. RESULTS: The measures of the rats' skull showed that the inter-zygomatic arch width and anterior cranial base length were significantly larger in OVX group (p = 0.020 and p = 0.050, respectively), whereas the length of parietal bone was significantly higher in the sham group (p = 0.026). For the remaining measurements no significant differences between groups were detected (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that ovariectomized rats had alterations in cranial bone dimensions, demonstrating that estrogens during puberty are important for skull morphology. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To understand the role of estrogen on the postnatal cranium development will impact the clinical diagnose and therapy during childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Crânio , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 24(2): 277-287, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate SNPs in bone- and cartilage-related genes and their interaction in the aetiology of sagittal and vertical skeletal malocclusions. SETTINGS AND SAMPLE POPULATION: This study included 143 patients and classified as follows: skeletal class I (n = 77), class II (n = 47) and class III (n = 19); maxillary retrusion (n = 39), protrusion (n = 52) and well-positioned maxilla (n = 52); mandibular retrognathism (n = 50), prognathism (n = 50) and well-positioned mandible (n = 43); normofacial (n = 72), dolichofacial (n = 55) and brachyfacial (n = 16). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Steiner's ANB, SNA, SNB angles and Ricketts' NBa-PtGn angle were measured to determine the skeletal malocclusion and the vertical pattern. Nine SNPs in BMP2, BMP4, SMAD6, RUNX2, WNT3A and WNT11 were genotyped. Chi-squared test was used to compare genotypes among the groups. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and binary logistic regression analysis, both using gender and age as co-variables, were also used. We performed Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: Significant associations at P < .05 were observed for SNPs rs1005464 (P = .042) and rs235768 (P = .021) in BMP2 with mandibular retrognathism and for rs59983488 (RUNX2) with maxillary protrusion (P = .04) as well as for rs708111 (WNT3A) with skeletal class III (P = .02; dominant model), rs1533767 (WNT11) with a brachyfacial skeletal pattern (P = .01, OR = 0.10; dominant model) and for rs3934908 (SMAD6) with prognathism (P = .02; recessive model). After the Bonferroni correction, none of the SNPs remained associated. The MDR predicted some interaction for skeletal class II, dolichofacial and brachyfacial phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SNPs in BMP2, BMP4, SMAD6, RUNX2, WNT3A and WNT11 could be involved in the aetiology of sagittal and vertical malocclusions.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle , Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Má Oclusão , Cartilagem , Cefalometria , Humanos , Má Oclusão/genética , Má Oclusão Classe III de Angle/genética , Mandíbula , Maxila , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(3): 1255-1264, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that mimics the effects of osteoprotegerin in bone metabolism, as a topical treatment of root surface to be used prior to delayed tooth replantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six rats' right incisors were used. Teeth were extracted and divided into: delayed replantation without root surface treatment (control); delayed replantation with root surface treatment with denosumab 60 mg/mL and 30 mg/mL, respectively, for 10 min both experimentals groups. After that, the root canals were filled with calcium hydroxide and replanted. After 15 and 60 days, the animals were euthanized, and the samples were collected and processed for microscopic analysis. Histological sections were performed, and stained with HE to describe the dental characteristics, measure ankylosis, replacement resorption, and dental resorption by conventional microscopy. Also, was performed Brown & Brenn staining and immunohistochemistry for RANKL, OPG, and periostin. RESULTS: Denosumab 60 mg/mL reducted ankylosis (p < 0.0001), replacement resorption (p < 0.0001), and tooth resorption, 60 days after replantation, compared to untreated replanted teeth (p < 0.005). Lower bacterial contamination in root surface in the denosumab treatment groups was found, regardless of the concentration used (p < 0.001). Also, denosumab treatment inhibited the expression of RANKL without modulating OPG. Periostin was observed in periodontal ligament of replanted tooth, although this labelling was absent in the ankylosis areas, in both experimental periods. CONCLUSION: Treatment of the root surface with denosumab at 60 mg/mL of rat teeth before delayed replantation reduced dental root resorption compared with the untreated teeth after 60 days. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Survival of a replanted tooth has been a challenge in clinical practice. The use of a medication, such as denosumab, to limit dental root resorption represents an important therapeutical approach.


Assuntos
Reabsorção da Raiz , Anquilose Dental , Animais , Incisivo , Ligamento Periodontal , Ratos , Reabsorção da Raiz/prevenção & controle , Reimplante Dentário , Raiz Dentária
19.
Braz Dent J ; 32(6): 66-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019020

RESUMO

The aim of the present in vivo study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of sports mouthguards, surface roughness, and the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate spray in the disinfection of these devices. A randomized, blinded cross-over clinical trial was performed with twenty 9 to 13 years old children who practiced martial arts and participated in all phases of the study. They were instructed to wear mouthguards 3 alternated days a week for 1 hour and, after use, to spray sterile tap water or chlorhexidine 0.12%. The mouthguards were analyzed by MTT assay, Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and confocal laser microscopy prior and after use for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and t-Student, and Pearson correlation tests, with 5% significance level. Were observed that mouthguards of the control group were more contaminated with cariogenic microorganisms than those of the chlorhexidine group (p<0.05). The mouthguards use of spray of chlorhexidine reduced significantly the bacteria contamination compared with control group (p = 0.007). The surface roughness of the mouthguards increased significantly after use, irrespective of application of chlorhexidine spray. A moderate correlation (r=0.59) was observed between surface roughness and the cariogenic microorganism's contamination only for control group. Sports mouthguards had intense microbial contamination and increased surface roughness after its use. The use of chlorhexidine spray was effective for reducing the mouthguards contamination used by children.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Criança , Desinfecção , Humanos , Streptococcus mutans
20.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(2): 1-12, 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1178040

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue response after different protocols to photodynamic therapy (PDT). In Phase 1, were tested the diode laser (used for 1min) associated to the photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride solution (PCS) in different concentrations. In Phase 2 ­ the diode laser and LED were tested associated to two different photosensitizers, PCS and Curcumin, in different exposure times of light application. Material and Methods: After 7, 21 and 63-days the animals were euthanized and the subcutaneous tissue processed to histological analysis. Qualitative and semi-quantitative descriptions of the inflammatory process and immunohistochemical technique were performed. The obtained data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-test (α= 0.5). Results: On Phase 1, the tissue response was very similar among the groups. For the inflammatory infiltrate, PCS with concentration of 10mg/mL exhibited the most intense reaction (p > 0.05). On Phase 2, at 7-days period, the analyzed parameters presented small magnitude and after 21 and 63-days, all the parameters demonstrated tissue compatibility. Conclusion: Both photosensitizers presented proper tissue compatibility regardless the different concentrations used on Phase 1 and different durations of light exposure on Phase 2 (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a resposta do tecido subcutâneo após terapia fotodinâmica, utilizando na Fase 1 - laser diodo por 1min e solução fotossensibilizadora de cloreto de fenotiazina (CF) em diferentes concentrações e Fase 2 - laser diodo e LED e dois fotossensibilizadores, CF e Curcumina, em diferentes tempos de exposição da aplicação de luz. Material e Métodos: Após 7, 21 e 63 dias, foram realizadas descrições qualitativas e semiquantitativas do processo inflamatório e técnica de imunoistoquímica. Os dados foram analisados pelo pós-teste de Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn (α = 0,5). Resultados: Na Fase 1, a resposta do tecido foi muito semelhante. O infiltrado inflamatório, na concentração de 10 mg / mL, exibiu reação mais intensa (p > 0,05). Na Fase 2, aos 7 dias, os parâmetros analisados apresentaram pequena magnitude. Aos 21 e 63 dias, todos os parâmetros demonstraram compatibilidade com o tecido. Conclusão: Ambos os fotossensibilizadores apresentaram compatibilidade de tecido adequada, independentemente das diferentes concentrações utilizadas na Fase 1 e diferentes durações de exposição à luz na Fase 2 (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Fotoquimioterapia , Ratos Endogâmicos , Curcumina , Tela Subcutânea
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