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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452019

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the relationship between gene expression profile (GEP) and overall survival (OS) by NanoString following treatment with Vigil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Recurrent ovarian cancer patients (n = 21) enrolled in prior clinical trials. RESULTS: GEP stratified by TISHIGH vs. TISLOW demonstrated OS benefit (NR vs. 5.8 months HR 0.23; p = 0.0379), and in particular, MHC-II elevated baseline expression was correlated with OS advantage (p = 0.038). Moreover, 1-year OS was 75% in TISHIGH patients vs. 25% in TISLOW (p = 0.03795). OS was also correlated with positive γ-IFN ELISPOT response, 36.8 vs. 23.0 months (HR 0.19, p = 0.0098). CONCLUSION: Vigil demonstrates OS benefit in correlation with TISHIGH score, elevated MHC-II expression and positive γ-IFN ELISPOT in recurrent ovarian cancer patients.

2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 127, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) pathway is a key regulator of tumor therapy resistance. We investigated M2698, an oral p70S6K/AKT dual inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer who failed standard therapies. METHODS: M2698 was administered as monotherapy (escalation, 15-380 mg daily; food effect cohort, 240-320 mg daily) and combined with trastuzumab or tamoxifen. RESULTS: Overall, 101 patients were treated (M2698, n = 62; M2698/trastuzumab, n = 13; M2698/tamoxifen, n = 26). Patients were predominantly aged < 65 years, were female, had performance status 1 and were heavily pretreated. There was a dose- and concentration-dependent inhibition of pS6 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor tissue. M2698 was well tolerated; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal, abnormal dreams and fatigue (serious, attributed to M2698: monotherapy, 8.1%; M2698/trastuzumab, 7.7%; M2698/tamoxifen, 11.5% of patients). The recommended phase 2 doses of M2698 were 240 mg QD (monotherapy), 160 mg QD (M2698/trastuzumab) and 160 mg QD/240 mg intermittent regimen (M2698/tamoxifen). In the monotherapy cohort, 27.4% of patients had stable disease at 12 weeks; no objective response was noted. The median progression-free survival (PFS) durations in patients with PAM pathway alterations with and without confounding markers (KRAS, EGFR, AKT2) were 1.4 months and 2.8 months, respectively. Two patients with breast cancer (M2698/trastuzumab, n = 1; M2698/tamoxifen, n = 1) had partial response; their PFS durations were 31 months and 2.7 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: M2698 was well tolerated. Combined with trastuzumab or tamoxifen, M2698 demonstrated antitumor activity in patients with advanced breast cancer resistant to multiple standard therapies, suggesting that it could overcome treatment resistance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01971515. Registered October 23, 2013.

3.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a standard of care for multiple types of cancer, the majority of patients do not respond to this form of immunotherapy. New approaches are required to overcome resistance to immunotherapies. METHODS: We investigated the effects of adenoviral p53 (Ad-p53) gene therapy in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors and selective IL2 or IL15 CD122/132 agonists in the aggressive B16F10 tumor model resistant to immunotherapies. To assess potential mechanisms of action, pre- and post- Ad-p53 treatment biopsies were evaluated for changes in gene-expression profiles by Nanostring IO 360 assays. RESULTS: The substantial synergy of "triplet" Ad-p53 + CD122/132 + anti-PD-1 therapy resulted in potential curative effects associated with the complete tumor remissions of both the primary and contralateral tumors. Interestingly, contralateral tumors, which were not injected with Ad-p53 showed robust abscopal effects resulting in statistically significant decreases in tumor size and increased survival (p < 0.001). None of the monotherapies or doublet treatments induced the complete tumor regressions. Ad-p53 treatment increased interferon, CD8+ T cell, immuno-proteosome antigen presentation, and tumor inflammation gene signatures. Ad-p53 treatment also decreased immune-suppressive TGF-beta, beta-catenin, macrophage, and endothelium gene signatures, which may contribute to enhanced immune checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) efficacy. Unexpectedly, a number of previously unidentified, strongly p53 downregulated genes associated with stromal pathways and IL10 expression identified novel anticancer therapeutic applications. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply the ability of Ad-p53 to induce efficacious local and systemic antitumor immune responses with the potential to reverse resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy when combined with CD122/132 agonists and immune checkpoint blockade. Our findings further imply that Ad-p53 has multiple complementary immune mechanisms of action, which support future clinical evaluation of triplet Ad-p53, CD122/132 agonist, and immune checkpoint inhibitor combination treatment.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207103

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer response to immunotherapy is limited; however, the evaluation of sensitive/resistant target treatment subpopulations based on stratification by tumor biomarkers may improve the predictiveness of response to immunotherapy. These markers include tumor mutation burden, PD-L1, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, homologous recombination deficiency, and neoantigen intratumoral heterogeneity. Future directions in the treatment of ovarian cancer include the utilization of these biomarkers to select ideal candidates. This paper reviews the role of immunotherapy in ovarian cancer as well as novel therapeutics and study designs involving tumor biomarkers that increase the likelihood of success with immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Medicina de Precisão/efeitos adversos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(10): 1988-1995, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315767

RESUMO

Dilpacimab (formerly ABT-165), a novel dual-variable domain immunoglobulin, targets both delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) and VEGF pathways. Here, we present safety, pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and preliminary efficacy data from a phase I study (trial registration ID: NCT01946074) of dilpacimab in patients with advanced solid tumors. Eligible patients (≥18 years) received dilpacimab intravenously on days 1 and 15 in 28-day cycles at escalating dose levels (range, 1.25-7.5 mg/kg) until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. As of August 2018, 55 patients with solid tumors were enrolled in the dilpacimab monotherapy dose-escalation and dose-expansion cohorts. The most common treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) included hypertension (60.0%), headache (30.9%), and fatigue (21.8%). A TRAE of special interest was gastrointestinal perforation, occurring in 2 patients (3.6%; 1 with ovarian and 1 with prostate cancer) and resulting in 1 death. The PK of dilpacimab showed a half-life ranging from 4.9 to 9.5 days, and biomarker analysis demonstrated that the drug bound to both VEGF and DLL4 targets. The recommended phase II dose for dilpacimab monotherapy was established as 3.75 mg/kg, primarily on the basis of tolerability through multiple cycles. A partial response was achieved in 10.9% of patients (including 4 of 16 patients with ovarian cancer). The remaining patients had either stable disease (52.7%), progressive disease (23.6%), or were deemed unevaluable (12.7%). These results demonstrate that dilpacimab monotherapy has an acceptable safety profile, with clinical activity observed in patients with advanced solid tumors.

6.
Future Oncol ; 17(21): 2817-2830, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058833

RESUMO

Patients who have mutations of the genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at an increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1/2 function as tumor suppressor genes, responsible for regulating DNA repair, and play an essential role in homologous recombination. Mutation of BRCA1/2 results in homologous recombination deficiency and genomic instability which drives oncogenesis and cancer proliferation. Recently, BRCA1/2 gene expression has been implicated in regulating immune response. Here we discuss the signaling pathway of BRCA1/2 in relation to breast and ovarian cancer, with emphasis on how dysregulation facilitates the path to malignancy and current treatment options.

7.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753870

RESUMO

Vigil® is a personalized vaccine that enhances tumor neoantigen expression. We investigated for the first time safety and efficacy of Vigil in combination with atezolizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer (OC) patients. This is a randomized, Phase 1 study of Vigil, an autologous tumor tissue transfected vaccine encoding for GMCSF and bi-shRNA-furin thereby creating enhanced immune activation and TGFß expression control. Part 1 is a safety assessment of Vigil (1 × 10e7 cells/mL/21 days) plus atezolizumab (1200 mg/21 days). Part 2 is a randomized study of Vigil first (Vigil-1st) or atezolizumab first (Atezo-1st) for two cycles followed by the combination of both agents. The primary endpoint of the study was the determination of safety. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in the study; three patients to Part 1 and 21 to Part 2. Patients in Part 1 completed combination therapy without dose-limiting toxicity justifying expansion to Part 2. Twenty-one patients were randomized (1:1) to Part 2 to Vigil-1st (n = 11) or Atezo-1st (n = 10). Grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events of Atezo-1st vs. Vigil-1st were 17.2% vs. 5.1%. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (NR) (Vigil-1st) vs. 10.8 months (Atezo-1st) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33). The exploratory subset analysis of BRCAwt suggested improved OS benefit [NR in Vigil-1st vs. 5.2 months in Atezo-1st, HR 0.16, p 0.027]. The Vigil-1st combination therapy with atezolizumab was safe and results in support continued investigation in BRCAwt patients.

8.
Future Oncol ; 17(13): 1683-1694, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726502

RESUMO

Radiation therapy (RT) in some cases results in a systemic anticancer response known as the abscopal effect. Multiple hypotheses support the role of immune activation initiated by RT-induced DNA damage. Optimal radiation dose is necessary to promote the cGAS-STING pathway in response to radiation and initiate an IFN-1 signaling cascade that promotes the maturation and migration of dendritic cells to facilitate antigen presentation and stimulation of cytotoxic T cells. T cells then exert a targeted response throughout the body at areas not subjected to RT. These effects are further augmented through the use of immunotherapeutic drugs resulting in increased T-cell activity. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte presence and TREX1, KPNA2 and p53 signal expression are being explored as prognostic biomarkers.

9.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(3): 676-680, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, Vigil showed significant clinical benefit with improvement in relapse free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in pre-planned subgroup analysis in stage III/IV newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients with BRCA wild type (BRCA-wt) molecular profile. Here we analyze homologous recombination (HR) status of patients enrolled in the Phase 2b VITAL study and determine clinical benefit of Vigil in HR proficient (P) patients. METHODS: Patients were previously enrolled in a Phase 2b, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. All were in complete response with Stage III/IV high grade serious, endometroid or clear cell ovarian cancer. HR status was determined using MyChoice®CDx score (<42 = HRP) (Myriad Genetics, Inc., UT). Post-hoc analyses were carried out using Kaplan Meier and restricted mean survival time (RMST) analysis to evaluate RFS and OS based on HR deficiency (D) status. RESULTS: RFS was improved with Vigil (n = 25) in HRP patients compared to placebo (n = 20) (HR = 0.386; 90% CI 0.199-0.750; p = 0.007), results were verified by RMST (p = 0.017). Similarly, OS benefit was observed in Vigil group compared to placebo (HR = 0.342; 90% CI 0.141-0.832; p = 0.019). Results with OS were also verified with RMST (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Vigil exhibited clinical benefit in HRP molecular profile patients.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(2): 327-333, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have been approved to treat metastatic NSCLC. Pegilodecakin + CPI suggested promising efficacy in phase 1 IVY, providing rationale for randomized phase 2 trials CYPRESS 1 and CYPRESS 2. METHODS: CYPRESS 1 (N = 101) and CYPRESS 2 (N = 52) included Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1 and first-line/second-line metastatic NSCLC, respectively, without known EGFR/ALK mutations. Patients were randomized 1:1; control arms received pembrolizumab (CYPRESS 1) or nivolumab (CYPRESS 2); experimental arms received pegilodecakin + CPI. Patients had programmed death-ligand 1 tumor proportion score of greater than or equal to 50% (CYPRESS 1) or 0% to 49% (CYPRESS 2). Primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) per investigator. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Exploratory end points included immune activation biomarkers. RESULTS: Median follow-up for CYPRESS 1 and CYPRESS 2 was 10.0 and 11.6 months, respectively. Results for pegilodecakin + pembrolizumab versus pembrolizumab were as follows: ORR per investigator 47% versus 44% (OR = 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-2.5); median PFS 6.3 versus 6.1 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.937, 95% CI: 0.54-1.625); and median OS 16.3 months versus not reached (HR = 1.507, 95% CI: 0.708-3.209). Results per blinded independent central review were consistent. Treatment discontinuation rate owing to adverse events (AEs) doubled in the experimental arm (32% versus 15%). AEs with grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related AEs (62% versus 19%) included anemia (20% versus 0%) and thrombocytopenia (12% versus 2%). Results for pegilodecakin + nivolumab versus nivolumab were as follows: ORR per investigator 15% versus 12% (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.3-5.9); median PFS 1.9 versus 1.9 months (HR = 1.006, 95% CI: 0.519-1.951); and median OS 6.7 versus 10.7 months (HR = 1.871, 95% CI: 0.772-4.532). AEs with grade greater than or equal to 3 treatment-related AEs (70.4% versus 16.7%) included anemia (40.7% versus 0%), fatigue (18% versus 0%), and thrombocytopenia (14.8% versus 0%). Biomarker data suggested activation of immunostimulatory signals of interleukin-10R pathway in pegilodecakin-containing arms. CONCLUSIONS: Despite evidence of biological effect in peripheral blood, adding pegilodecakin to CPI did not improve ORR, PFS, or OS, in first-line/second-line NSCLC. Pegilodecakin + CPI has been found to have overall higher toxicity compared with CPI alone, leading to doubling of treatment discontinuation rate owing to AEs.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(12): 1661-1672, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gemogenovatucel-T is an autologous tumour cell vaccine manufactured from harvested tumour tissue, which specifically reduces expression of furin and downstream TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß2. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of gemogenovatucel-T in front-line ovarian cancer maintenance. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial involved 25 hospitals in the USA. Women aged 18 years and older with stage III/IV high-grade serous, endometrioid, or clear cell ovarian cancer in clinical complete response after a combination of surgery and five to eight cycles of chemotherapy involving carboplatin and paclitaxel, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 0 or 1 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to gemogenovatucel-T or placebo by an independent third party interactive response system after successful screening using randomly permuted block sizes of two and four and stratified by extent of surgical cytoreduction and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant chemotherapy. Gemogenovatucel-T (1 × 107 cells per injection) or placebo was administered intradermally (one per month) for a minimum of four and up to 12 doses. Patients, investigators, and clinical staff were masked to patient allocation until after statistical analysis. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival, analysed in the per-protocol population. All patients who received at least one dose of gemogenovatucel-T were included in the safety analysis. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02346747. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2015, and March 2, 2017, 310 patients consented to the study at 22 sites. 217 were excluded. 91 patients received gemogenovatucel-T (n=47) or placebo (n=44) and were analysed for safety and efficacy. The median follow-up from first dose of gemogenovatucel-T was 40·0 months (IQR 35·0-44·8) and from first dose of placebo was 39·8 months (35·5-44·6). Recurrence-free survival was 11·5 months (95% CI 7·5-not reached) for patients assigned to gemogenovatucel-T versus 8·4 months (7·9-15·5) for patients assigned to placebo (HR 0·69, 90% CI 0·44-1·07; one-sided p=0·078). Gemogenovatucel-T resulted in no grade 3 or 4 toxic effects. Two patients in the placebo group had five grade 3 toxic events, including arthralgia, bone pain, generalised muscle weakness, syncope, and dyspnea. Seven patients (four in the placebo group and three in the gemogenovatucel-T group) had 11 serious adverse events. No treatment-related deaths were reported in either of the groups. INTERPRETATION: Front-line use of gemogenovatucel-T immunotherapy as maintenance was well tolerated but the primary endpoint was not met. Further investigation of gemogenovatucel-T in patients stratified by BRCA mutation status is warranted. FUNDING: Gradalis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Endometrioide/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Idoso , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Endometrioide/imunologia , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15(1): 73, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292374

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in significant health, economic, and social ramifications. There are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved prophylactic or therapeutic treatment options for COVID-19. This puts unprecedented product development pressure on the medical science community to define treatment options. Additionally, in the United States of American (USA) further regulatory and quality assurance pressures impact the FDA. The regulatory therapeutic development process is complex as it relates to product mechanism, toxicity profile, and level of efficacy. The advert of a worldwide pandemic however, advanced efficiencies within many of the regulatory agencies worldwide in order to facilitate COVID-19 treatment option development within the USA. Clinical drug development pathways can include several established approaches: investigational new drug (IND), expanded access IND, emergency IND, treatment IND, and emergency use authorization (EUA). Remdesivir, an investigational drug, and hydroxyloroquine, an FDA-approved drug for autoimmune diseases, were the two early potential therapies. This review article examines the expedited FDA review process for remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine, and analyzes data and results from early clinical studies of both drugs.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019493

RESUMO

Resident memory T (TRM) cells are a unique subset of CD8+ T cells that are present within certain tissues and do not recirculate through the blood. Long term memory establishment and maintenance are dependent on tissue population of memory T cells. They are characterized by dual CD69/CD103 positivity, and play a role in both response to viral infection and local cancer immunosurveillance. Human TRM cells demonstrate the increased expression of adhesion molecules to facilitate tissue retention, have reduced proliferation and produce both regulatory and immune responsive cytokines. TRM cell phenotype is often characterized by a distinct expression profile driven by Runx3, Blimp1, and Hobit transcription factors. The accumulation of TRM cells in tumors is associated with increased survival and response to immunotherapies, including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4. In this review, we explore potential mechanisms of TRM cell transformation and maintenance, as well as potential applications for the use of TRM cells in both the development of supportive therapies and establishing more accurate prognoses.

14.
Cancer Lett ; 491: 97-107, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829010

RESUMO

Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have a 5-year survival rate of 8%, the lowest of any cancer in the United States. Traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, such as gemcitabine- and fluorouracil-based regimens, often only prolong survival by months. Effective precision targeted therapy is therefore urgently needed to substantially improve survival. In an effort to expedite approval and delivery of targeted therapy to patients, we utilized a platform to develop a novel combination of FDA approved drugs that would target pancreaticoduodenal homeobox1 (PDX1) and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5) utilizing super-promoters of the target genes to interrogate an FDA approved drug library. We identified and selected metformin, simvastatin and digoxin (C3) as a novel combination of FDA approved drugs, which were shown to effectively target PDX1 and BIRC5 in human PDAC tumors in mice with no toxicity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Digoxina/administração & dosagem , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Survivina/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
15.
Immunotherapy ; 12(14): 1041-1046, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808556

RESUMO

Aim: We describe a case of an advanced disease non-small-cell lung cancer patient with low PD-L1 expression, but high tumor mutation burden (35 muts/Mb) who developed immune-related hypothyroidism and achieved subsequent partial response, while on clinical trial (NCT03382912) with nivolumab and PEGylated IL-10 (Pegilodecakin, ARMO BioSciences/Eli Lilly and Company, IN, USA). Results/conclusion: Results suggest positive antitumor activity to combination IL-10/nivolumab despite low PD-L1 expression but in likely relationship to high tumor mutation burden and in association with immune-mediated thyroid dysfunction in this case.

16.
Oncologist ; 25(11): e1604-e1613, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356383

RESUMO

LESSONS LEARNED: Although this study of idelalisib in patients with PDAC was limited in size and duration because of early termination, idelalisib exposure resulted in an overall safety profile consistent with studies in hematological malignancies, except that the incidences of diarrhea and colitis were reduced in patients with PDAC. Preclinical studies of the PI3K pathway in PDAC and positive clinical results of PI3K inhibition in other cancers support the continued development of PI3K inhibitors in PDAC. BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal solid tumors and is often refractory to treatment. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) δ inhibition influences regulatory immune cell function and improves survival in preclinical PDAC models. Here, idelalisib, an inhibitor of PI3Kδ, was investigated as treatment for metastatic PDAC. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, phase Ib, nonrandomized, dose-escalation study. Study aims were to investigate the maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of idelalisib alone and in combination with chemotherapeutics-nab-paclitaxel and modified (m)FOLFOX6. RESULTS: Because of early termination, only 16 patients were enrolled in the single-agent idelalisib arm, 12 of whom received at least one dose of idelalisib. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (≥25%) related to idelalisib (n = 12) were increased aspartate aminotransferase, pyrexia, and maculopapular rash. One patient presented with diarrhea; no cases of colitis were reported. One patient discontinued treatment because of pyrexia and maculopapular rash; two patients died because of disease progression. CONCLUSION: This study was terminated because factors contributing to safety concerns in phase III studies of idelalisib for hematological malignancies were not fully understood. In this small sample of patients with metastatic PDAC, exposure to idelalisib resulted in safety findings consistent with previous studies, with reduced diarrhea/colitis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Purinas , Quinazolinonas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinonas/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinonas/uso terapêutico
17.
Blood Adv ; 4(9): 1917-1926, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380537

RESUMO

CD27, a costimulatory molecule on T cells, induces intracellular signals mediating cellular activation, proliferation, effector function, and cell survival on binding to its ligand, CD70. Varlilumab, a novel, first-in-class, agonist immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD27 antibody, mediates antitumor immunity and direct killing of CD27+ tumor cells in animal models. This first-in-human, dose-escalation, and expansion study evaluated varlilumab in patients with hematologic malignancies. Primary objectives were to assess safety and the maximum tolerated and optimal biologic doses of varlilumab. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and antitumor activity. In a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design, 30 patients with B-cell (n = 25) or T-cell (n = 5) malignancies received varlilumab (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg IV) as a single dose with a 28-day observation period, followed by weekly dosing (4 doses per cycle, up to 5 cycles, depending on tumor response). In an expansion cohort, 4 additional patients with Hodgkin lymphoma received varlilumab at 0.3 mg/kg every 3 weeks (4 doses per cycle, up to 5 cycles). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Treatment-related adverse events, generally grade 1 to 2, included fatigue, decreased appetite, anemia, diarrhea, and headache. Exposure was linear and dose-proportional across dose groups and resulted in increases in proinflammatory cytokines and soluble CD27. One patient with stage IV Hodgkin lymphoma experienced a complete response and remained in remission at >33 months with no further anticancer therapy. These data support further investigation of varlilumab for hematologic malignancies, particularly in combination approaches targeting nonredundant immune regulating pathways. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01460134.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Doença de Hodgkin , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Fadiga , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
18.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 27(12): 841-853, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341410

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has revolutionized cancer treatment, and produced durable responses in many cancer types. However, there remains a subset of patients that do not respond despite their tumors exhibiting PD-L1 expression, which highlights the need for additional biomarkers relevant to response. Here, we review checkpoint inhibitor signal pathways, resistance and sensitivity mechanisms, as well as response rates. We also investigate the correlation and response to ICI with BRCA1/2 mutation status and homologous recombination deficient tumors. Collectively we show that the use of tumor mutational burden may be effective as an emerging biomarker.

19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(16): 1824-1835, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This phase I study, which to our knowledge is the first-in-human study of this kind, investigates the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of anetumab ravtansine, an antibody-drug conjugate of anti-mesothelin antibody linked to maytansinoid DM4, in patients with advanced, metastatic, or recurrent solid tumors known to express the tumor-differentiation antigen mesothelin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase I, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation and dose-expansion study of anetumab ravtansine enrolled 148 adult patients with multiple solid tumor types. Ten dose-escalation cohorts of patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors (0.15-7.5 mg/kg) received anetumab ravtansine once every 3 weeks, and 6 expansion cohorts of patients with advanced, recurrent ovarian cancer or malignant mesothelioma received anetumab ravtansine at the maximum tolerated dose once every 3 weeks, 1.8 mg/kg once per week, and 2.2 mg/kg once per week. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were enrolled across the 10 dose-escalation cohorts. The maximum tolerated dose of anetumab ravtansine was 6.5 mg/kg once every 3 weeks or 2.2 mg/kg once per week. Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the 6.5 mg/kg once-every-3-weeks, 35 in the 1.8 mg/kg once-per-week, and 36 in the 2.2 mg/kg once-per-week expansion cohorts. The most common drug-related adverse events were fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and keratitis/keratopathy. There were no drug-related deaths. Anetumab ravtansine pharmacokinetics were dose proportional; the average half-life was 5.5 days. Among 148 patients with mesothelioma or ovarian, pancreatic, non-small-cell lung, and breast cancers, 1 had a complete response, 11 had partial responses, and 66 had stable disease. High levels of tumor mesothelin expression were detected in patients with clinical activity. CONCLUSION: Anetumab ravtansine exhibited a manageable safety and favorable pharmacokinetic profile with encouraging preliminary antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with mesothelin-expressing solid tumors. The results allowed for the determination of recommended doses, schedules, and patient populations for anetumab ravtansine in phase II studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Maitansina/administração & dosagem , Maitansina/efeitos adversos , Maitansina/farmacocinética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
20.
Future Oncol ; 16(9): 483-495, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100561

RESUMO

Given recent advances in cancer immune therapy, specifically use of checkpoint inhibitors, understanding the link between autoimmunity and cancer is essential. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects about 1% of the population, and early diagnosis is key to prevent joint damage. Management consists of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs that alter normal immunologic pathways, which could affect malignancy growth and survival. Prolonged immune dysregulation and the resulting inflammatory response associated with development of RA may also lead to increased cancer development risk. RA has long been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [1] and further evidence supports relationship to lung cancer [2]. This review will address the mechanisms behind cancer development and progression in RA patients, biomarkers and assess cancer risk and early detection.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Inflamação , Neoplasias/imunologia , Risco
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