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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532868

RESUMO

In the general population, psychosis risk phenotypes occur independently of attenuated prodromal syndromes. Neurobiological correlates of vulnerability could help to understand their meaningfulness. Interactions between the occurrence of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and other psychological factors e.g., distress related to PLE, may distinguish psychosis-prone individuals from those without risk of future psychotic disorder. We aimed to investigate whether (a) correlates of total PLE and distress, and (b) symptom dimension-specific moderation effects exist at the brain structural level in non-help-seeking adults reporting PLE below and above the screening criterion for clinical high-risk (CHR). We obtained T1-weighted whole-brain MRI scans from 104 healthy adults from the community without psychosis CHR states for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Brain structural associations with PLE and PLE distress were analysed with multiple linear regression models. Moderation of PLE by distress severity of two types of positive symptoms from the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) screening inventory was explored in regions-of-interest after VBM. Total PQ-16 score was positively associated with grey matter volume (GMV) in prefrontal regions, occipital fusiform and lingual gyri (p < 0.05, FDR peak-level corrected). Overall distress severity and GMV were not associated. Examination of distress severity on the positive symptom dimensions as moderators showed reduced strength of the association between PLE and rSFG volume with increased distress severity for perceptual PLE. In this study, brain structural variation was related to PLE level, but not distress severity, suggesting specificity. In healthy individuals, positive relationships between PLE and prefrontal volumes may indicate protective features, which supports the insufficiency of PLE for the prediction of CHR. Additional indicators of vulnerability, such as distress associated with perceptual PLE, change the positive brain structure relationship. Brain structural findings may strengthen clinical objectives through disentanglement of innocuous and risk-related PLE.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 759, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437004

RESUMO

Psychosis is the most common neuropsychiatric side-effect of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is still unknown which factors determine individual proneness to psychotic symptoms. Schizotypy is a multifaceted personality trait related to psychosis-proneness and dopaminergic neurotransmission in healthy subjects. We investigated whether (1) PD patients exhibit lower schizotypy than controls and (2) dopamine-related neuropsychiatric side-effects can be predicted by higher schizotypy. In this cross-sectional study, we used the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences in 56 PD patients (12 women, mean ± sd age: 61 ± 11 years) receiving their usual dopaminergic medication and 32 age-matched healthy controls (n = 32; 18 women, mean ± sd age: 57 ± 6 years). We further compared schizotypy scores of patients with (n = 18, 32.1%) and without previously experienced psychosis. We found that patients exhibited lower schizotypy than controls. Further, patients with a history of psychosis exhibited higher schizotypy than patients without these symptoms. Using an information theoretic measure and a machine learning approach, we show that schizotypy yields the greatest predictive value for dopamine-associated hallucinations compared to other patient characteristics and disease related factors. Our results indicate an overlap between neural networks associated with schizotypy and the pathophysiology of PD and a relationship between schizotypy and psychotic side-effects of dopaminergic medication.

3.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274408

RESUMO

Time perspective refers to humans' concept of integrating and evaluating temporal position and evaluation of memories, emotions, and experiences. We tested the hypothesis that different aspects of time perspective, as assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) are related to variation of brain structure in non-clinical subjects. Analysing data from n = 177 psychiatrically healthy subjects using voxel-based morphometry with the CAT12 software package, we identified several significant (p < 0.05 FWE, cluster-level corrected) associations. The factors past negative, reflecting a negative attitude towards past events and present fatalistic, measuring a hopeless and fatalistic attitude towards future life, were both negatively associated with grey matter volumes of the anterior insula. The ZTPI factor future was negatively associated with precuneus grey matter. There was no association of ZTPI scores with gyrification using an absolute mean curvature method, a marker of early brain development. These findings provide a link between a general psychological construct of time perspective and brain structural variations in key areas related to time keeping (anterior insula) and the default mode network (precuneus), both of which overlap with variation in behavioral aspects and psychopathology.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 594466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244301

RESUMO

Subjects with ultra-high risk (UHR) states for psychosis show brain structural volume changes similar to first-episode psychosis and also elevated incidence of environmental risk factors like childhood trauma. It is unclear, however, whether early neurodevelopmental trajectories are altered in UHR. We screened a total of 12,779 first-year Chinese students to enroll 36 UHR subjects (based on clinical interviews) and 59 non-UHR healthy controls for a case-control study of markers of early neurodevelopment. Subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning and clinical characterization, including the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). We then used the CAT12 toolbox to analyse structural brain scans for cortical surface complexity, a spherical harmonics-based marker of early neurodevelopmental changes. While we did not find statistically significant differences between the groups, a trend level finding for reduced cortical complexity (CC) in UHR vs. non-UHR subjects emerged in the left superior temporal cortex (and adjacent insular and transverse temporal cortices), and this trend level association was significantly moderated by childhood trauma (CTQ score). Our findings indicate that UHR subjects tend to show abnormal cortical surface morphometry, in line with recent research; more importantly, however, this association seems to be considerably modulated by early environmental impacts. Hence, our results provide an indication of environmental or gene × environment interactions on early neurodevelopment leading up to elevated psychosis risk.

6.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113398, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920524

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for numerous mental disorders. However, the specificity of CM types in mental disorders is still being discussed. The present study examined the prevalence of five CM types in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 107), bipolar disorder (BD; n = 103), depression (MDD; n = 604; with the two subgroups Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) and non-chronic MDD), and in healthy controls (HC; n = 715). Additionally, associations between CM types, symptom severity, and age of onset were investigated. The prevalence of all CM types was higher in the patient groups compared to HC. Emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical neglect were reported most frequently in all groups. Notably, patients with PDD reported more CM of all types than patients with non-chronic MDD. The severity of depression was associated with emotional abuse and neglect; anxiety with emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse; positive SZ symptoms with physical neglect; negative symptoms with emotional and physical neglect; and mania with sexual abuse and physical neglect. CM was associated with a younger age of onset in MDD and BD. The high prevalence of CM in patients with severe mental disorders highlights the importance of considering this issue in the treatment of such patients.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness. METHODS: A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects. RESULTS: Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801319

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η²p = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η²p = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η²p = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η²p = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η²p = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors. RESULTS: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy. CONCLUSIONS: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).

10.
Schizophr Bull ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691055

RESUMO

Numerous studies have implicated involvement of the hippocampus in the etiology and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology, and reduced hippocampal volume is one of the most robust brain abnormalities reported in schizophrenia. Recent studies indicate that early stages of schizophrenia are specifically characterized by reductions in anterior hippocampal volume; however, studies have not examined hippocampal volume reductions in subclinical schizotypy. The present study was the first to examine the associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy dimensions with hippocampal subfield volumes in a large sample (n = 195) of nonclinically ascertained young adults, phenotyped using the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Hippocampal subfields were analyzed from high-resolution 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging scans testing anatomical models, including anterior vs posterior regions and the cornu ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum subfields separately for the left and right hemispheres. We demonstrate differential spatial effects across anterior vs posterior hippocampus segments across different dimensions of the schizotypy risk phenotype. The interaction of negative and disorganized schizotypy robustly predicted left hemisphere volumetric reductions for the anterior and total hippocampus, and anterior CA and DG, and the largest reductions were seen in participants high in negative and disorganized schizotypy. These findings extend previous early psychosis studies and together with behavioral studies of hippocampal-related memory impairments provide the basis for a dimensional neurobiological hippocampal model of schizophrenia risk. Subtle hippocampal subfield volume reductions may be prevalent prior to the onset of detectable prodromal clinical symptoms of psychosis and play a role in the etiology and development of such conditions.

11.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(6): 1524-1534, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic-like experiences (PLE) are present in nonclinical populations, yet their association with brain structural variation, especially markers of early neurodevelopment, is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cortical surface gyrification, a putative marker of early brain development, is associated with PLE in healthy subjects. METHODS: We analyzed gyrification from 3 Tesla MRI scans (using CAT12 software) and PLE (positive, negative, and depressive symptom dimensions derived from the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, CAPE) in 103 healthy participants (49 females, mean age 29.13 ± 9.37 years). A subsample of 63 individuals completed tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Estimated IQ and a composite neuropsychological score were used to explore mediation pathways via cognition. RESULTS: Positive PLE distress was negatively associated with gyrification of the left precuneus. PLE depression dimension showed a negative association with gyrification in the right supramarginal and temporal region. There was no significant mediating effect of cognition on these associations. CONCLUSION: Our results support a neurobiological psychosis spectrum, for the first time linking an early developmental imaging marker (rather than volume) to dimensional subclinical psychotic symptoms. While schizophrenia risk, neurodevelopment, and cognitive function might share genetic risk factors, additional mediation analyses did not confirm a mediating effect of cognition on the gyrification-psychopathology correlation.

12.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 302: 111104, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474373

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct of subclinical schizophrenia-like behavioural traits and cognition. The recently developed multidimensional schizotypy scale (MSS) provides an improved psychometric assessment of the three main dimensions (positive, negative, and disorganised). We tested the hypothesis that the three dimensions are related to brain structural variation in the precuneus and fronto-thalamo-striatal system in a new non-clinical healthy cohort to support a dimensional model of the psychosis spectrum. We analysed data from 104 subjects with Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) phenotyping and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying CAT12 software, and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS in FSL to test for correlations with MSS scores. MSS subscales and total score were negatively associated with GMV in brain areas including the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral prefrontal and orbital cortex. MSS schizotypy was associated with white matter integrity in anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings provide first direct evidence for an association of schizotypy (as a psychosis risk phenotype) and the fronto-thalamo-striatal system, in both grey and white matter with regionally diverging effects across single dimensions. This provides new evidence arguing for the fronto-striatal system (rather than precuneus) in schizotypy.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLE), resembling key symptoms of psychotic disorders, are common throughout the general population and possibly associated with psychosis risk. There is evidence that such symptoms are also associated with structural brain changes. METHODS: In 672 healthy individuals, we assessed PLE and associated distress with the symptom-checklist-90R (SCL-90R) scales 'schizotypal signs' (STS) and 'schizophrenia nuclear symptoms' (SNS) and analysed associations with voxel- and surfaced-based brain structural parameters derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with CAT12. RESULTS: For SNS, we found a positive correlation with the volume in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus, and a negative correlation with the volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus [p < 0.05 cluster-level Family Wise Error (FWE-corrected]. For STS, we found a negative correlation with the volume of the left and right precentral gyrus (p < 0.05 cluster-level FWE-corrected). Surface-based analyses did not detect any significant clusters with the chosen statistical threshold of p < 0.05. However, in exploratory analyses (p < 0.001, uncorrected), we found a positive correlation of SNS with gyrification in the left insula and rostral middle frontal gyrus and of STS with the left precuneus and insula, as well as a negative correlation of STS with gyrification in the left temporal pole. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that brain structures in areas implicated in schizophrenia are also related to PLE and its associated distress in healthy individuals. This pattern supports a dimensional model of the neural correlates of symptoms of the psychotic spectrum.

14.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 14: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581732

RESUMO

Similar to patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD), healthy subjects at risk for depression show hyperactivation of the amygdala as a response to negative emotional expressions. The medial prefrontal cortex is responsible for amygdala control. Analyzing a large cohort of healthy subjects, we aimed to delineate malfunction in amygdala regulation by the medial prefrontal cortex in subjects at increased risk for depression, i.e., with a family history of affective disorders or a personal history of childhood maltreatment. We included a total of 342 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort (www.for2107.de). An emotional face-matching task was used to identify the medial prefrontal cortex and right amygdala. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was conducted and neural coupling parameters were obtained for healthy controls with and without particular risk factors for depression. We assigned a genetic risk if subjects had a first-degree relative with an affective disorder and an environmental risk if subjects experienced childhood maltreatment. We then compared amygdala inhibition during emotion processing between groups. Amygdala inhibition by the medial prefrontal cortex was present in subjects without those two risk factors, as indicated by negative model parameter estimates. Having a genetic risk (i.e., a family history) did not result in changes in amygdala inhibition compared to no risk subjects. In contrast, childhood maltreatment as environmental risk has led to a significant reduction of amygdala inhibition by the medial prefrontal cortex. We propose a mechanistic explanation for the amygdala hyperactivity in subjects with particular risk for depression, in particular childhood maltreatment, caused by a malfunctioned amygdala downregulation via the medial prefrontal cortex. As childhood maltreatment is a major environmental risk factor for depression, we emphasize the importance of this potential early biomarker.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 273: 310-317, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine attachment insecurity and low social support as potential mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) types and depression severity in patients with a lifetime history of major depressive disorders (MDD). METHOD: Participants with an acute or remitted MDD (N = 580) completed questionnaires about CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), attachment (Relationship Scales Questionnaire), social support (Social Support Questionnaire), and depression severity (Beck Depression Inventory). Mediation and path models with CM types as independent variables, attachment avoidance and anxiety as mediators and depression severity as dependent variable were calculated. In addition, a sequential mediation model with attachment insecurity and social support as mediators of the association between CM and depression was tested. RESULTS: Attachment avoidance and anxiety partially mediated the effect of CM on depression. In the path model including the different CM types, there were significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on depression via attachment anxiety and of emotional neglect on depression via attachment avoidance. Results also supported the hypothesized sequential mediation via attachment insecurity and social support. LIMITATIONS: A cross-sectional design with a retrospective self-report measure of CM was used and the developmental timing of exposure to CM was not considered. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the effect of emotional abuse and emotional neglect on depression is partially mediated by attachment avoidance and anxiety. Further, the results support the hypothesis of a sequential mediation via attachment insecurity and social support. Accordingly, attachment insecurity is discussed as a target of psychotherapy for patients with MDD and CM.

16.
Brain Stimul ; 13(4): 943-952, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS), a novel repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) technique, appears to have antidepressant effects when applied over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unclear. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides in vivo measurements of cerebral metabolites altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) like N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho). We used MRS to analyse effects of iTBS on the associations between the shifts in the NAA and Cho levels during therapy and MDD improvement. METHODS: In-patients with unipolar MDD (N = 57), in addition to treatment as usual, were randomized to receive 20 iTBS or sham stimulations applied over left DLPFC over four weeks. Single-voxel 1H-MRS of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was performed at baseline and follow-up. Increments of concentrations, as well as MDD improvement, were defined as endpoints. We tested a moderated mediation model of effects using the PROCESS macro (an observed variable ordinary least squares and logistic regression path analysis modeling tool) for SPSS. RESULTS: Improvement of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with decrease of Cho/NAA ratio, mediated by NAA. iTBS had a significant moderating effect enhancing the relationship between NAA change and depression improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential neurochemical pathway and mechanisms of antidepressant action of iTBS, which may moderate the improvement of metabolic markers of neuronal viability. iTBS might increase neuroplasticity, thus facilitating normalization of neuronal circuit function.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467648

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities in both mass-univariate and multivariate pattern recognition analyses independent of MDD diagnosis. The most pronounced effects were found for associations between obesity and lower temporo-frontal cortical thickness (maximum Cohen´s d (left fusiform gyrus) = -0.33). The observed regional distribution and effect size of cortical thickness reductions in obesity revealed considerable similarities with corresponding patterns of lower cortical thickness in previously published studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. A higher polygenic risk score for obesity significantly correlated with lower occipital surface area. In addition, a significant age-by-obesity interaction on cortical thickness emerged driven by lower thickness in older participants. Our findings suggest a neurobiological interaction between obesity and brain structure under physiological and pathological brain conditions.

18.
Neuroimage ; 218: 116956, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470572

RESUMO

A common limitation of neuroimaging studies is their small sample sizes. To overcome this hurdle, the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium combines neuroimaging data from many institutions worldwide. However, this introduces heterogeneity due to different scanning devices and sequences. ENIGMA projects commonly address this heterogeneity with random-effects meta-analysis or mixed-effects mega-analysis. Here we tested whether the batch adjustment method, ComBat, can further reduce site-related heterogeneity and thus increase statistical power. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, mixed-effects mega-analyses and ComBat mega-analyses to compare cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes between 2897 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 3141 healthy controls from 33 sites. Specifically, we compared the imaging data between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, covarying for age and sex. The use of ComBat substantially increased the statistical significance of the findings as compared to random-effects meta-analyses. The findings were more similar when comparing ComBat with mixed-effects mega-analysis, although ComBat still slightly increased the statistical significance. ComBat also showed increased statistical power when we repeated the analyses with fewer sites. Results were nearly identical when we applied the ComBat harmonization separately for cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes. Therefore, we recommend applying the ComBat function to attenuate potential effects of site in ENIGMA projects and other multi-site structural imaging work. We provide easy-to-use functions in R that work even if imaging data are partially missing in some brain regions, and they can be trained with one data set and then applied to another (a requirement for some analyses such as machine learning).

19.
Compr Psychiatry ; 101: 152172, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473382

RESUMO

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has repeatedly been linked to alterations in fronto-limbic dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis of disturbed structural connectivity in underlying fibre tracts and their relation to symptom profiles. We analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 18 female BPD patients and 38 female healthy controls. Group comparisons showed significant (p < .05, FDR adjusted) increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the right frontal lobe, including the uncinate fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, as well as overall apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) increases in the anterior and posterior internal capsule. Symptom correlations, based on the BSL-95 questionnaires, within the BPD sample showed significant negative correlations of dysphoria with ADC the left and right anterior thalamic radiation, and positive correlations of fractional anisotropy with self-perception scores in the right superior corona radiata. While our findings add to the fronto-limbic dysfunction model of BPD, they provide additional evidence of links to its affective core pathology, particularly frontotemporal and fronto-thalamic systems.

20.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 36: 10-17, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451266

RESUMO

While the hippocampus remains a region of high interest for neuropsychiatric research, the precise contributors to hippocampal morphometry are still not well understood. We and others previously reported a hippocampus specific effect of a tescalcin gene (TESC) regulating single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7294919) on gray matter volume. Here we aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Two complementary morphometric approaches (voxel based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetric segmentation) were applied in a well-powered cohort from the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorder Cohort Study (MACS) including N=1137 participants (n=636 healthy controls, n=501 depressed patients). rs7294919 homozygous T-allele genotype was significantly associated with lower hippocampal gray matter density as well as with reduced hippocampal volume. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses revealed no further associations with gray matter volume outside the hippocampus. No interaction effects of rs7294919 with depression nor with childhood trauma on hippocampal morphometry could be detected. Hippocampal subfield analyses revealed similar effects of rs7294919 in all hippocampal subfields. In sum, our results replicate a hippocampus specific effect of rs7294919 on brain structure. Due to the robust evidence for a pronounced association between the reported polymorphism and hippocampal morphometry, future research should consider investigating the potential clinical and functional relevance of the reported association.

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