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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268507

RESUMO

Importance: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations have identified more than 100 schizophrenia-associated loci. A schizophrenia GWAS in a unique Indian population offers novel findings. Objective: To discover and functionally evaluate genetic loci for schizophrenia in a GWAS of a unique Indian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This GWAS included a sample of affected individuals, family members, and unrelated cases and controls. Three thousand ninety-two individuals were recruited and diagnostically ascertained via medical records, hospitals, clinics, and clinical networks in Chennai and surrounding regions. Affected participants fulfilled DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Unrelated control participants had no personal or family history of psychotic disorder. Recruitment, genotyping, and analysis occurred in consecutive phases beginning January 1, 2001. Recruitment was completed on February 28, 2018, and genotyping and analysis are ongoing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression with schizophrenia. Results: The study population included 1321 participants with schizophrenia, 885 family controls, and 886 unrelated controls. Among participants with schizophrenia, mean (SD) age was 39.1 (11.4) years, and 52.7% were male. This sample demonstrated uniform ethnicity, a degree of inbreeding, and negligible rates of substance abuse. A novel genome-wide significant association was observed between schizophrenia and a chromosome 8q24.3 locus (rs10866912, allele A; odds ratio [OR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.17-1.38]; P = 4.35 × 10-8) that attracted support in the schizophrenia Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 data (rs10866912, allele A; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06]; P = 7.56 × 10-4). This locus has undergone natural selection, with the risk allele A declining in frequency from India (approximately 72%) to Europe (approximately 43%). rs10866912 directly modifies the abundance of the nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (NAPRT1) transcript in brain cortex (normalized effect size, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = 5.8 × 10-13). NAPRT1 encodes a key enzyme for niacin metabolism. In Indian lymphoblastoid cell lines, (risk) allele A of rs10866912 was associated with NAPRT1 downregulation (AA: 0.74, n = 21; CC: 1.56, n = 17; P = .004). Preliminary zebrafish data further suggest that partial loss of function of NAPRT1 leads to abnormal brain development. Conclusions and Relevance: Bioinformatic analyses and cellular and zebrafish gene expression studies implicate NAPRT1 as a novel susceptibility gene. Given this gene's role in niacin metabolism and the evidence for niacin deficiency provoking schizophrenialike symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases such as pellagra and Hartnup disease, these results suggest that the rs10866912 genotype and niacin status may have implications for schizophrenia susceptibility and treatment.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; 169(9): 963-73, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22885689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs). METHOD: The family sample included 2,461 individuals from 631 pedigrees (581 in the primary European-ancestry analyses). Association was tested for single SNPs and genetic pathways. Polygenic scores based on family study results were used to predict case-control status in the Schizophrenia Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) data set, and consistency of direction of effect with the family study was determined for top SNPs in the PGC GWAS analysis. Within-family segregation was examined for schizophrenia-associated rare CNVs. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant associations were observed for single SNPs or for pathways. PGC case and control subjects had significantly different genome-wide polygenic scores (computed by weighting their genotypes by log-odds ratios from the family study) (best p=10(-17), explaining 0.4% of the variance). Family study and PGC analyses had consistent directions for 37 of the 58 independent best PGC SNPs (p=0.024). The overall frequency of CNVs in regions with reported associations with schizophrenia (chromosomes 1q21.1, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, and 22q11.2 and the neurexin-1 gene [NRXN1]) was similar to previous case-control studies. NRXN1 deletions and 16p11.2 duplications (both of which were transmitted from parents) and 22q11.2 deletions (de novo in four cases) did not segregate with schizophrenia in families. CONCLUSIONS: Many common SNPs are likely to contribute to schizophrenia risk, with substantial overlap in genetic risk factors between multiply affected families and cases in large case-control studies. Our findings are consistent with a role for specific CNVs in disease pathogenesis, but the partial segregation of some CNVs with schizophrenia suggests that researchers should exercise caution in using them for predictive genetic testing until their effects in diverse populations have been fully studied.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
J Neurosci ; 31(9): 3261-70, 2011 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21368038

RESUMO

The human cerebral cortex is a complex network of functionally specialized regions interconnected by axonal fibers, but the organizational principles underlying cortical connectivity remain unknown. Here, we report evidence that one such principle for functional cortical networks involves finding a balance between maximizing communication efficiency and minimizing connection cost, referred to as optimization of network cost-efficiency. We measured spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy monozygotic (16 pairs) and dizygotic (13 pairs) twins and characterized cost-efficient properties of brain network functional connectivity between 1041 distinct cortical regions. At the global network level, 60% of the interindividual variance in cost-efficiency of cortical functional networks was attributable to additive genetic effects. Regionally, significant genetic effects were observed throughout the cortex in a largely bilateral pattern, including bilateral posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortices, and lateral temporal and inferomedial occipital regions. Genetic effects were stronger for cost-efficiency than for other metrics considered, and were more clearly significant in functional networks operating in the 0.09-0.18 Hz frequency interval than at higher or lower frequencies. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that brain networks evolved to satisfy competitive selection criteria of maximizing efficiency and minimizing cost, and that optimization of network cost-efficiency represents an important principle for the brain's functional organization.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Am J Psychiatry ; 166(2): 206-15, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18829870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study of ethnically homogeneous populations may help to identify schizophrenia risk loci. The authors conducted a genomewide linkage scan for schizophrenia in an Indian population. METHOD: Participants were 441 individuals (262 affected probands and siblings) who were recruited primarily from one ethnically homogeneous group, the Tamil Brahmin caste, although individuals from other geographically proximal castes also participated. Genotyping of 124 affected sibling pair pedigrees was performed with 402 short tandem repeat polymorphisms. Linkage analyses were conducted using nonparametric exponential LOD (logarithm of the odds ratio for linkage) scores and parametric heterogeneity LOD scores. Parametric heterogeneity scores were calculated using simple dominant and recessive models, correcting for multiple statistics. The data were examined for evidence of consanguinity. Genomewide significance levels were determined using 10,000 gene dropping simulations. RESULTS: These findings revealed genomewide significant linkage to chromosome 1p31.1, through the use of both exponential and heterogeneity LOD scores, incorporating correction for multiple statistics and mild consanguinity. The estimated sibling recurrence risk associated with this putative locus was 1.95. Analysis for heterogeneity LOD scores also detected suggestive linkage to chromosomes 13q22.1 and 16q12.2. Using 117 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), family-based association analyses of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B), the closest schizophrenia candidate gene, detected no convincing evidence of association, suggesting that the chromosome 1 peak represents a novel risk locus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study-to the authors' knowledge-to report significant linkage of schizophrenia to chromosome 1p31.1. Further investigation of this chromosome region in diverse populations is warranted to identify underlying sequence variants.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Consanguinidade , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia , Escore Lod , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/etnologia
5.
Am J Psychiatry ; 165(4): 497-506, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18198266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors carried out a genetic association study of 14 schizophrenia candidate genes (RGS4, DISC1, DTNBP1, STX7, TAAR6, PPP3CC, NRG1, DRD2, HTR2A, DAOA, AKT1, CHRNA7, COMT, and ARVCF). This study tested the hypothesis of association of schizophrenia with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes using the largest sample to date that has been collected with uniform clinical methods and the most comprehensive set of SNPs in each gene. METHOD: The sample included 1,870 cases (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) and 2,002 screened comparison subjects (i.e. controls), all of European ancestry, with ancestral outliers excluded based on analysis of ancestry-informative markers. The authors genotyped 789 SNPs, including tags for most common SNPs in each gene, SNPs previously reported as associated, and SNPs located in functional domains of genes such as promoters, coding exons (including nonsynonymous SNPs), 3' untranslated regions, and conserved noncoding sequences. After extensive data cleaning, 648 SNPs were analyzed for association of single SNPs and of haplotypes. RESULTS: Neither experiment-wide nor gene-wide statistical significance was observed in the primary single-SNP analyses or in secondary analyses of haplotypes or of imputed genotypes for additional common HapMap SNPs. Results in SNPs previously reported as associated with schizophrenia were consistent with chance expectation, and four functional polymorphisms in COMT, DRD2, and HTR2A did not produce nominally significant evidence to support previous evidence for association. CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that common SNPs in these genes account for a substantial proportion of the genetic risk for schizophrenia, although small effects cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Genótipo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo
6.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 9(4): 531-9, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16899160

RESUMO

Numerous studies have reported association between variants in the dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (dysbindin) gene (DTNBP1) and schizophrenia. However, the pattern of results is complex and to date, no specific risk marker or haplotype has been consistently identified. The number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in these studies has ranged from 5 to 20. We attempted to replicate previous findings by testing 16 SNPs in samples of 41 Australian pedigrees, 194 Australian cases and 180 controls, and 197 Indian pedigrees. No globally significant evidence for association was observed in any sample, despite power calculations indicating sufficient power to replicate several previous findings. Possible explanations for our results include sample differences in background linkage disequilibrium and/or risk allele effect size, the presence of multiple risk alleles upon different haplotypes, or the presence of a single risk allele upon multiple haplotypes. Some previous associations may also represent false positives. Examination of Caucasian HapMap phase II genotype data spanning the DTNBP1 region indicates upwards of 40 SNPs are required to satisfactorily assess all nonredundant variation within DTNBP1 and its potential regulatory regions for association with schizophrenia. More comprehensive studies in multiple samples will be required to determine whether specific DTNBP1 variants function as risk factors for schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Alelos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disbindina , Proteínas Associadas à Distrofina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 78(2): 315-33, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16400611

RESUMO

We report the clinical characteristics of a schizophrenia sample of 409 pedigrees--263 of European ancestry (EA) and 146 of African American ancestry (AA)--together with the results of a genome scan (with a simple tandem repeat polymorphism interval of 9 cM) and follow-up fine mapping. A family was required to have a proband with schizophrenia (SZ) and one or more siblings of the proband with SZ or schizoaffective disorder. Linkage analyses included 403 independent full-sibling affected sibling pairs (ASPs) (279 EA and 124 AA) and 100 all-possible half-sibling ASPs (15 EA and 85 AA). Nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis of all families detected two regions with suggestive evidence of linkage at 8p23.3-q12 and 11p11.2-q22.3 (empirical Z likelihood-ratio score [Z(lr)] threshold >/=2.65) and, in exploratory analyses, two other regions at 4p16.1-p15.32 in AA families and at 5p14.3-q11.2 in EA families. The most significant linkage peak was in chromosome 8p; its signal was mainly driven by the EA families. Z(lr) scores >2.0 in 8p were observed from 30.7 cM to 61.7 cM (Center for Inherited Disease Research map locations). The maximum evidence in the full sample was a multipoint Z(lr) of 3.25 (equivalent Kong-Cox LOD of 2.30) near D8S1771 (at 52 cM); there appeared to be two peaks, both telomeric to neuregulin 1 (NRG1). There is a paracentric inversion common in EA individuals within this region, the effect of which on the linkage evidence remains unknown in this and in other previously analyzed samples. Fine mapping of 8p did not significantly alter the significance or length of the peak. We also performed fine mapping of 4p16.3-p15.2, 5p15.2-q13.3, 10p15.3-p14, 10q25.3-q26.3, and 11p13-q23.3. The highest increase in Z(lr) scores was observed for 5p14.1-q12.1, where the maximum Z(lr) increased from 2.77 initially to 3.80 after fine mapping in the EA families.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neuregulina-1 , Linhagem
8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 121B(1): 1-6, 2003 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12898567

RESUMO

A single nucleotide polymorphism (TNF(-308A)) within the promoter region of the gene encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has been significantly associated with schizophrenia in a study of Italian patients and control subjects Boin et al. [2001: Mol Psychiatry 6:79-82]. We have applied case-control analyses to examine TNF promoter haplotypes (containing TNF(-308) and two additional promoter variants: TNF(-376) and TNF(-238)) in four schizophrenia cohorts drawn from Australian, Indian Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, and Brahmin populations. In addition, we have applied the sibling transmission disequilibrium (STD) test to promoter haplotypes within 81 trios drawn from Australian Caucasian pedigrees with multiple schizophrenia cases, and 86 trios drawn from the Brahmin population of Tamil Nadu province in Southern India. Within each of these cohorts, we found no evidence of recombination between these tightly linked promoter variants, supporting previous studies which demonstrated that only a subset of the eight possible haplotypes exist. Of the four observed haplotypes, we and others have observed only one carries the TNF(-308A) variant allele. We report no significant differences in TNF promoter haplotype frequencies between the patient and control groups within each population, although the Indian Fijian cohort showed a trend towards reduced TNF(-308A) alleles amongst schizophrenia cases (P = 0.07). We found no evidence of bias in TNF promoter haplotype transmission to schizophrenia probands. Very similar results were obtained when only the TNF(-308) polymorphism was considered. Taken together, these data provide no support for the involvement of TNF promoter variants TNF(-308), TNF(-376), and TNF(-238) in schizophrenia susceptibility within four ethnically distinct cohorts.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Austrália , Fiji , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
9.
Science ; 296(5568): 739-41, 2002 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11976456

RESUMO

Reports of substantial evidence for genetic linkage of schizophrenia to chromosome 1q were evaluated by genotyping 16 DNA markers across 107 centimorgans of this chromosome in a multicenter sample of 779 informative schizophrenia pedigrees. No significant evidence was observed for such linkage, nor for heterogeneity in allele sharing among the eight individual samples. Separate analyses of European-origin families, recessive models of inheritance, and families with larger numbers of affected cases also failed to produce significant evidence for linkage. If schizophrenia susceptibility genes are present on chromosome 1q, their population-wide genetic effects are likely to be small.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Esquizofrenia/genética , África , Alelos , Austrália , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Genótipo , Humanos , Escore Lod , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Estados Unidos
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