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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657122

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, severity and presence of symptoms of respiratory tract infections and COVID-19, in patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction compared to individuals without thyroid diseases, during the peak month of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands. Subjects and methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all patients currently under follow-up at the Radboud UMC for thyroid dysfunction received a digital questionnaire. Primary outcomes were incidence of self-reported sickness and cases diagnosed with COVID-19. We compared these primary outcomes between these patients and individuals without thyroid diseases that received the same questionnaire, recruited from the Human Functional Genomics Cohort at the Radboud UMC. Results: In total, 238 patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction and 161 controls were included. Patients did not report more sickness (30.7% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.752) or microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (1.7% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.351). COVID-19 clinical diagnosis was more frequently made in patients with thyroid diseases (4.2% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.032), despite overall lower incidence of self-reported respiratory related symptoms (52.8% vs. 63.8%; p = 0.028), compared to controls. Sub-group analysis between patients with autoimmune and not-autoimmune thyroid dysfunction did not reveal significant associations with respect to any of the outcome measures. Conclusion: This retrospective survey of a cohort of patients with from a tertiary academic hospital suggests that pre-existing thyroid dysfunction, independent from the aetiology, does not lead to an apparent risk to develop respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 related symptoms.

2.
Annu Rev Virol ; 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676081

RESUMO

Trained immunity is defined as the de facto memory characteristics induced in innate immune cells after exposure to microbial stimuli after infections or certain types of vaccines. Through epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of innate immune cells after exposure to these stimuli, trained immunity induces an enhanced nonspecific protection by improving the inflammatory response upon restimulation with the same or different pathogens. Recent studies have increasingly shown that trained immunity can, on the one hand, be induced by exposure to viruses; on the other hand, when induced, it can also provide protection against heterologous viral infections. In this review we explore current knowledge on trained immunity and its relevance for viral infections, as well as its possible future uses. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 9 is September 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

3.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 91, 2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innate immunity genes have been reported to affect susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and colitis in mice. Dectin-1, a receptor for fungal cell wall ß-glucans, has been clearly implicated in gut microbiota modulation and modification of the susceptibility to gut inflammation. Here, we explored the role of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 (another receptor for fungal cell wall molecules) deficiency in intestinal inflammation. DESIGN: Susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was assessed in wild-type, Dectin-1 knockout (KO), Dectin-2KO, and double Dectin-1KO and Dectin-2KO (D-1/2KO) mice. Inflammation severity, as well as bacterial and fungal microbiota compositions, was monitored. RESULTS: While deletion of Dectin-1 or Dectin-2 did not have a strong effect on DSS-induced colitis, double deletion of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 significantly protected the mice from colitis. The protection was largely mediated by the gut microbiota, as demonstrated by fecal transfer experiments. Treatment of D-1/2KO mice with opportunistic fungal pathogens or antifungal agents did not affect the protection against gut inflammation, suggesting that the fungal microbiota had no role in the protective phenotype. Amplicon-based microbiota analysis of the fecal bacterial and fungal microbiota of D-1/2KO mice confirmed the absence of changes in the mycobiota but strong modification of the bacterial microbiota. We showed that bacteria from the Lachnospiraceae family were at least partly involved in this protection and that treatment with Blautia hansenii was enough to recapitulate the protection. CONCLUSIONS: Deletion of both the Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 receptors triggered a global shift in the microbial gut environment, affecting, surprisingly, mainly the bacterial population and driving protective effects in colitis. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family seem to play a central role in this protection. These findings provide new insights into the role of the Dectin receptors, which have been described to date as affecting only the fungal population, in intestinal physiopathology and in IBD. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Colite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Micobioma , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Cell Immunol ; 378: 104555, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696852

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is a deep mycosis caused by dimorphic species of the genus Sporothrix, with differences in pathogenicity between S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis species. Recently, it was discovered that the cell wall peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from S. brasiliensis has additional unknown rhamnose residues. We hypothesize that the structural differences of Sporothrix spp PRMs impact the host's immune response and may explain the severity of sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. We demonstrate that S. brasiliensis yeasts and its PRM (S.b PRM) induced a strong inflammatory response in human PBMCs, with high production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß and induction of T-helper cytokines IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-22. In contrast, S. schenckii yeasts and its PRM induced higher concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), which resulted in low production of T-helper cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. CR3 and dectin-1 were required for cytokine induction by both PRMs, while TLR2 and TLR4 were required for the response of S.s PRM and S.b PRM, respectively. IL-1ß and IL-1α production induced by S. brasiliensis yeasts and S.b PRM were dependent on inflammasome and caspase-1 activation. S. schenckii and S.s PRM were able to induce IL-1ß independent of ROS. In conclusion, these findings improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of Sporothrix spp. by reporting differences of immunological responses induced by S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. The study also opens the gateway for novel treatment strategies targeting local inflammation and tissue destruction induced by S. brasiliensis infection through IL-1 inhibition.

5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662644

RESUMO

Biologics that block the T-helper-17 pathway are very effective in the treatment of psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases. However, interleukin-17 is also crucial for antifungal host defense, and clinical trial data suggest an increase in the incidence of Candida infections during IL-17 inhibitor (IL-17i) therapy. We investigated the innate and adaptive immune responses of psoriasis patients with a history of skin and/or mucosal candidiasis during IL-17i or IL-12/23i therapy, comparing those responses to healthy controls. Psoriasis patients with IL-17i showed significantly lower CD4+Th1-like (CCR6-CXCR3+CCR4-) and Th1Th17-like (CD4+CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4-) cell percentages. Patient cells stimulated with Candida albicans produced significantly lower IL-6 in the IL-12/23i group and IL-1ß production in the IL-17i group, while the release of TNF-α and ROS was similar between patients and controls. IFN-γ and IL-10 production in response to several stimuli after 7 days was particularly decreased in patients receiving IL-17i therapy. Finally, after stimulation with the polarizing cytokines IL-1ß and IL-23, the Th17 cytokine response was significantly lower in the IL-17i patient group. These innate and adaptive immune response defects can diminish antifungal host immune response and thereby increase susceptibility to candidiasis in patients treated with IL-17i or IL-12/23i.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 862742, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693796

RESUMO

Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important biomarker in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. CRP concentrations are significantly affected by genetic variation. However, whether such genetic variation is causally related to appendicitis risk remains unclear. In this study, the causal relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating CRP concentrations and the risk and severity of acute appendicitis was investigated. Methods: CRP concentrations in serum of appendicitis patients (n = 325) were measured. Appendicitis was categorized as complicated/uncomplicated and gangrenous/non-gangrenous. Imputed SNP data (n = 287) were generated. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on CRP concentrations and appendicitis severity was performed. Intersection and colocalization of the GWAS results were performed with appendicitis and CRP-associated loci from the Pan-UKBB cohort. A functional-genomics approach to prioritize genes was employed. Results: Thirteen percent of significant CRP quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that were previously identified in a large cohort of healthy individuals were replicated in our small patient cohort. Significant enrichment of CRP-QTLs in association with appendicitis was observed. Among these shared loci, the two top loci at chromosomes 1q41 and 8p23.1 were characterized. The top SNP at chromosome 1q41 is located within the promoter of H2.0 Like Homeobox (HLX) gene, which is involved in blood cell differentiation, and liver and gut organogeneses. The expression of HLX is increased in the appendix of appendicitis patients compared to controls. The locus at 8p23.1 contains multiple genes, including cathepsin B (CTSB), which is overexpressed in appendix tissue from appendicitis patients. The risk allele of the top SNP in this locus also increases CTSB expression in the sigmoid colon of healthy individuals. CTSB is involved in collagen degradation, MHC class II antigen presentation, and neutrophil degranulation. Conclusions: The results of this study prioritize HLX and CTSB as potential causal genes for appendicitis and suggest a shared genetic mechanism between appendicitis and CRP concentrations.


Assuntos
Apendicite , Proteína C-Reativa , Doença Aguda , Apendicite/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Cytokine ; 155: 155895, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569383

RESUMO

Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the innate lymphoid lineage and are highly present in the human skin. NK cells can produce a range of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. The role of NK(-T) cells in the immune response towards Borrelia burgdorferi infection was studied. The production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to B. burgdorferi was assessed. Interestingly, CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells were the only cells within the PBMC-fraction that produced IFN-γ during the first 24 h of stimulation. Within the NK(-T) cell fraction, NK cells seemed to be responsible for the IFN-γ production. Since it was previously demonstrated that both TLR2 and NOD2 receptors are involved in the recognition of B. burgdorferi, the expression of both TLR2 and NOD2 mRNA on NK cells was determined. In contrast to TLR2, NOD2 mRNA was upregulated on CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells after Borrelia exposure. Finally, to unravel the mechanisms underlying erythema migrans (EM) development, crosstalk between CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells and keratinocytes was investigated. CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells activated by B. burgdorferi produced soluble mediators strongly inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides, such as ß-defensin-2 and psoriasin in human keratinocytes. In conclusion, CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells produced IFN-γ shortly after exposure to B. burgdorferi and released soluble mediators that were able to activate keratinocytes. These observations underscore the important role of CD56+ (NK + NK-T) cells during early host defence when Borrelia burgdorferi enters the human skin during a tick bite.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Antígeno CD56/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 859387, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35634344

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of COVID-19 patients of European ancestry have identified genetic loci significantly associated with disease severity. Here, we employed the detailed clinical, immunological and multi-omics dataset of the Human Functional Genomics Project (HFGP) to explore the physiological significance of the host genetic variants that influence susceptibility to severe COVID-19. A genomics investigation intersected with functional characterization of individuals with high genetic risk for severe COVID-19 susceptibility identified several major patterns: i. a large impact of genetically determined innate immune responses in COVID-19, with ii. increased susceptibility for severe disease in individuals with defective cytokine production; iii. genetic susceptibility related to ABO blood groups is probably mediated through the von Willebrand factor (VWF) and endothelial dysfunction. We further validated these identified associations at transcript and protein levels by using independent disease cohorts. These insights allow a physiological understanding of genetic susceptibility to severe COVID-19, and indicate pathways that could be targeted for prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , COVID-19/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imunidade , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8991, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35637284

RESUMO

Knowledge about contagiousness is key to accurate management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Epidemiological studies suggest that in addition to transmission through droplets, aerogenic SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributes to the spread of infection. However, the presence of virus in exhaled air has not yet been sufficiently demonstrated. In pandemic situations low tech disposable and user-friendly bedside devices are required, while commercially available samplers are unsuitable for application in patients with respiratory distress. We included 49 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and used a disposable modular breath sampler to measure SARS-CoV-2 RNA load in exhaled air samples and compared these to SARS-CoV-2 RNA load of combined nasopharyngeal throat swabs and saliva. Exhaled air sampling using the modular breath sampler has proven feasible in a clinical COVID-19 setting and demonstrated viral detection in 25% of the patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Faringe , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética
10.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 77: 102190, 2022 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597182

RESUMO

The concept that only adaptive immunity can build immunological memory has been challenged in the past decade. Live attenuated vaccines such as the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, measles-containing vaccines, and the oral polio vaccine have been shown to reduce overall mortality beyond their effects attributable to the targeted diseases. After an encounter with a primary stimulus, epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of bone marrow progenitor cells and functional changes of tissue immune cell populations result in augmented immune responses against a secondary challenge. This process has been termed trained immunity. This review describes the mechanisms leading to trained immunity and summarizes the most important developments from the past few years.

11.
Elife ; 112022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35638288

RESUMO

Background: The large inter-individual variability in immune-cell composition and function determines immune responses in general and susceptibility o immune-mediated diseases in particular. While much has been learned about the genetic variants relevant for type 1 diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms through which these variations exert their effects remain unknown. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 243 patients with T1D of Dutch descent. We applied genetic association analysis on >200 immune-cell traits and >100 cytokine production profiles in response to stimuli measured to identify genetic determinants of immune function, and compared the results obtained in T1D to healthy controls. Results: Genetic variants that determine susceptibility to T1D significantly affect T cell composition. Specifically, the CCR5+ regulatory T cells associate with T1D through the CCR region, suggesting a shared genetic regulation. Genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping analysis of immune traits revealed 15 genetic loci that influence immune responses in T1D, including 12 that have never been reported in healthy population studies, implying a disease-specific genetic regulation. Conclusions: This study provides new insights into the genetic factors that affect immunological responses in T1D. Funding: This work was supported by an ERC starting grant (no. 948207) and a Radboud University Medical Centre Hypatia grant (2018) to YL and an ERC advanced grant (no. 833247) and a Spinoza grant of the Netherlands Association for Scientific Research to MGN CT received funding from the Perspectief Biomarker Development Center Research Programme, which is (partly) financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). AJ was funded by a grant from the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD/AZ Macrovascular Programme 2015). XC was supported by the China Scholarship Council (201706040081).


Every year around the world, over 100,000 people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. This disease develops when the immune system mistakenly destroys the cells that produce a hormone called insulin, leaving affected individuals unable to regulate their blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes patients must rely on regular injections of manufactured insulin to survive. The composition and activity of the human immune system is under genetic control, and people with certain changes in their genes are more susceptible than others to develop type 1 diabetes. Previous studies have identified around 60 locations in the human DNA (known as loci) associated with the condition, but it remains unclear how these loci influence the immune system and whether diabetes will emerge. Chu, Janssen, Koenen et al. explored how variations in genetic information can influence the composition of the immune system, and the type of molecules it releases to perform its role. To do so, blood samples from 243 individuals of Dutch descent with type 1 diabetes were collected, and genetic associations were investigated. The results revealed that a major type of immune actors known as T cells are under the control of genetic factors associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility. For instance, a specific type of T cells showed shared genetic control with type 1 diabetes. In addition, 15 loci were identified that influenced immune responses in the patients. Among those, 12 have never been reported to be involved in immune responses in healthy people, implying that these regions might only regulate the immune system of individuals with type 1 diabetes and other similar disorders. Finally, Chu, Janssen, Koenen et al. propose 11 genes within the identified loci as potential targets for new diabetes medication. These results represent an important resource for researchers exploring the genetic and immune basis of type 1 diabetes, and they could open new avenues for drug development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-14, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545011

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 has been associated with catastrophic inflammation. We present measurements in humans and a new animal model implicating a role in danger-associated molecular patterns. Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured in patients without/with ARDS, and admission calprotectin was associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). An animal model was developed by intravenous injection of plasma from healthy or patients with COVID-19 ARDS into C57/BL6 mice once daily for 3 consecutive days. Mice were treated with one anti-S100A8/A9 antibody, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra or vehicle, and Flo1-2a anti-murine anti-IL-1α monoclonal antibody or the specific antihuman IL-1α antibody XB2001 or isotype controls. Cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in tissues. Calprotectin, but not HMGB1, was elevated in ARDS. Higher suPAR indicated higher calprotectin. Animal challenge with COVID-19 plasma led to inflammatory reactions in murine lung and intestines as evidenced by increased levels of TNFα, IL-6, IFNγ, and MPO. Lung inflammation was attenuated with anti-S100A8/A9 pre-treatment. Anakinra treatment restored these levels. Similar decrease was found in mice treated with Flo1-2a but not with XB2001. Circulating alarmins, specifically calprotectin, of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces tissue-specific inflammatory responses through an IL-1-mediated mechanism. This could be attenuated through inhibition of IL-1 receptor or of IL-1α.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35625981

RESUMO

In this study, we have evaluated whether 57 genome-wide association studies (GWAS)-identified common variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) influence the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) in a population of 304 Caucasian PCa patients and 686 controls. The association of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the risk of PCa was validated through meta-analysis of our data with those from the UKBiobank and FinnGen cohorts, but also previously published genetic studies. We also evaluated whether T2D SNPs associated with PCa risk could influence host immune responses by analysing their correlation with absolute numbers of 91 blood-derived cell populations and circulating levels of 103 immunological proteins and 7 steroid hormones. We also investigated the correlation of the most interesting SNPs with cytokine levels after in vitro stimulation of whole blood, peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages with LPS, PHA, Pam3Cys, and Staphylococcus Aureus. The meta-analysis of our data with those from six large cohorts confirmed that each copy of the FTOrs9939609A, HNF1Brs7501939T, HNF1Brs757210T, HNF1Brs4430796G, and JAZF1rs10486567A alleles significantly decreased risk of developing PCa (p = 3.70 × 10-5, p = 9.39 × 10-54, p = 5.04 × 10-54, p = 1.19 × 10-71, and p = 1.66 × 10-18, respectively). Although it was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing, we also found that the NOTCH2rs10923931T and RBMS1rs7593730 SNPs associated with the risk of developing PCa (p = 8.49 × 10-4 and 0.004). Interestingly, we found that the protective effect attributed to the HFN1B locus could be mediated by the SULT1A1 protein (p = 0.00030), an arylsulfotransferase that catalyzes the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs, and xenobiotic compounds. In addition to these results, eQTL analysis revealed that the HNF1Brs7501939, HNF1Brs757210, HNF1Brs4430796, NOTCH2rs10923931, and RBMS1rs7593730 SNPs influence the risk of PCa through the modulation of mRNA levels of their respective genes in whole blood and/or liver. These results confirm that functional TD2-related variants influence the risk of developing PCa, but also highlight the need of additional experiments to validate our functional results in a tumoral tissue context.

15.
Med (N Y) ; 3(1): 6-24, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590145

RESUMO

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was developed exactly 100 years ago, and it is still the only licensed tuberculosis (TB) vaccine and the most frequently administered of all vaccines worldwide. Despite universal vaccination policies in TB-endemic settings, the burden of TB remains high. Although BCG protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and TB disease, the level of protection varies greatly between age groups and settings. In this review, we present a historical perspective and describe the evidence for BCG's ability to protect against TB as well as the factors that influence protection. We also present the immunological mechanisms through which BCG vaccination induces protection, focusing on T cell, B cell, and innate immunity. Finally, we discuss several possibilities to boost BCG's efficacy, including alternative vaccination routes, BCG revaccination, and use of recombinant BCG vaccines, and describe the knowledge gaps that exist with respect to BCG's protection against TB.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Tuberculose , Vacina BCG , Humanos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464396

RESUMO

The majority of COVID-19 patients experience mild to moderate disease course and recover within a few weeks. An increasing number of studies characterized the long-term changes in the specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses, but how COVID-19 shapes the innate and heterologous adaptive immune system after recovery is less well known. To comprehensively investigate the post-SARS-CoV-2 infection sequelae on the immune system, we performed a multi-omics study by integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing, single-cell ATAC-sequencing, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling, and functional validation experiments in 14 convalescent COVID-19 and 15 healthy individuals. We showed that immune responses generally recover without major sequelae after COVID-19. However, subtle differences persist at the transcriptomic level in monocytes, with downregulation of the interferon pathway, while DNA methylation also displays minor changes in convalescent COVID-19 individuals. However, these differences did not affect the cytokine production capacity of PBMCs upon different bacterial, viral, and fungal stimuli, although baseline release of IL-1Ra and IFN-γ was higher in convalescent individuals. In conclusion, we propose that despite minor differences in epigenetic and transcriptional programs, the immune system of convalescent COVID-19 patients largely recovers to the homeostatic level of healthy individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Convalescença , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic increases healthcare worker (HCW) absenteeism. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may provide non-specific protection against respiratory infections through enhancement of trained immunity. We investigated the impact of BCG vaccination on HCW absenteeism during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: HCWs exposed to COVID-19 patients in nine Dutch hospitals were randomized to BCG vaccine or placebo in a 1:1 ratio, and followed for one year using a mobile phone application. The primary endpoint was the self-reported number of days of unplanned absenteeism for any reason. Secondary endpoints included documented COVID-19, acute respiratory symptoms or fever. This was an investigator-funded study, registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03987919). RESULTS: In March/April 2020, 1511 HCWs were enrolled. The median duration of follow-up was 357 person-days (interquartile range [IQR], 351 to 361). Unplanned absenteeism for any reason was observed in 2.8% of planned working days in the BCG group and 2.7% in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 0.94; 95% credible interval, 0.78-1.15). Cumulative incidences of documented COVID-19 were 14.2% in the BCG and 15.2% in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-1.24). First episodes of self-reported acute respiratory symptoms or fever occurred in 490 (66.2%) and 443 (60.2%) participants, respectively (aHR: 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.28). Thirty-one serious adverse events were reported (13 after BCG, 18 after placebo), none considered related to study medication. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, BCG-vaccination of HCW exposed to COVID-19 patients did not reduce unplanned absenteeism nor documented COVID-19.

18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 13(4): 101943, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381468

RESUMO

Redox metabolism is crucial in host defense. Previously, it was shown that Borrelia burgdorferi induces the antioxidative metabolism in primary human monocytes. In this study, we explore how B. burgdorferi affects the anti-oxidative arm of redox metabolism, i.e. the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to B. burgdorferi and generation of ROS was determined both after acute stimulation and after re-stimulation with a secondary stimulus. Though the spirochete induces very low levels of ROS itself, it dramatically decreases the long-term capacity of PBMCs to generate ROS in response to serum-opsonized zymosan (SOZ). This was followed by a compensatory overshoot in ROS generation at later time points. The PI3K/Akt pathway and intracellular levels of methionine play an important regulatory role in this process. Dysregulation of oxidative metabolism may be a novel mechanism by which the spirochete modulates the human immune system and evades killing.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia burgdorferi/fisiologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , NADP/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6883, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477719

RESUMO

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) involves conditioning regimens which acutely induce side effects, including systemic inflammation, intestinal damage and shifts in the gut microbial composition, some of which may persist chronically. As the gut microbiota affect systemic immune responses, we aimed to investigate whether, post-BMT, the peripheral immune system is modulated as a direct consequence of alterations in the gut microbiota. We show that 24 weeks post-BMT, splenocytes but not peritoneal macrophages display increased cytokine response patterns upon ex-vivo stimulation with various pathogens as compared to untreated controls. The pattern of BMT-induced cytokine responses was transferred to splenocytes, and not to peritoneal macrophages, of healthy controls via co-housing and transferred to germfree mice via transplantation of cecum content. Thus, BMT induces changes in gut microbiota that in their turn increase cytokine responsiveness of splenocytes. Thus, BMT establishes a dominant microbiota that attenuates normalization of the immune-response.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Citocinas , Sistema Imunitário , Camundongos , Baço
20.
Front Genet ; 13: 833190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419030

RESUMO

Humans have a great diversity in phenotypes, influenced by genetic, environmental, nutritional, cultural, and social factors. Understanding the historical trends of physiological traits can shed light on human physiology, as well as elucidate the factors that influence human diseases. Here we built genome-wide polygenic scores for heritable traits, including height, body mass index, lipoprotein concentrations, cardiovascular disease, and intelligence, using summary statistics of genome-wide association studies in Europeans. Subsequently, we applied these scores to the genomes of ancient European populations. Our results revealed that after the Neolithic, European populations experienced an increase in height and intelligence scores, decreased their skin pigmentation, while the risk for coronary artery disease increased through a genetic trajectory favoring low HDL concentrations. These results are a reflection of the continuous evolutionary processes in humans and highlight the impact that the Neolithic revolution had on our lifestyle and health.

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