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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials done in infants with low birthweight in west Africa suggest that BCG vaccination reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period, probably because of heterologous protection against non-tuberculous infections. This study investigated whether BCG alters all-cause infectious disease morbidity in healthy infants in a different high-mortality setting, and explored whether the changes are mediated via trained innate immunity. METHODS: This was an investigator-blind, randomised, controlled trial done at one hospital in Entebbe, Uganda. Infants who were born unwell (ie, those who were not well enough to be discharged directly home from the labour ward because they required medical intervention), with major congenital malformations, to mothers with HIV, into families with known or suspected tuberculosis, or for whom cord blood samples could not be taken, were excluded from the study. Any other infant well enough to be discharged directly from the labour ward was eligible for inclusion, with no limitation on gestational age or birthweight. Participants were recruited at birth and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive standard dose BCG 1331 (BCG-Danish) on the day of birth or at age 6 weeks (computer-generated randomisation, block sizes of 24, stratified by sex). Investigators and clinicians were masked to group assignment; parents were not masked. Participants were clinically followed up to age 10 weeks and contributed blood samples to one of three immunological substudies. The primary clinical outcome was physician-diagnosed non-tuberculous infectious disease incidence. Primary immunological outcomes were histone trimethylation at the promoter region of TNF, IL6, and IL1B; ex-vivo production of TNF, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10, and IFNγ after heterologous stimulation; and transferrin saturation and hepcidin levels. All outcomes were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly assigned participants except those whose for whom consent was withdrawn. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry (#59683017). FINDINGS: Between Sept 25, 2014, and July 31, 2015, 560 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive BCG at birth (n=280) or age 6 weeks (n=280). 12 participants assigned to receive BCG at birth and 11 participants assigned to receive BCG at age 6 weeks were withdrawn from the study by their parents shortly after randomisation and were not included in analyses. During the first 6 weeks of life before the infants in the delayed vaccination group received BCG vaccination, physician-diagnosed non-tuberculous infectious disease incidence was lower in infants in the BCG at birth group than in the delayed group (98 presentations in the BCG at birth group vs 129 in the delayed BCG group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·71 [95% CI 0·53-0·95], p=0·023). After BCG in the delayed group (ie, during the age 6-10 weeks follow-up), there was no significant difference in non-tuberculous infectious disease incidence between the groups (88 presentations vs 76 presentations; HR 1·10 [0·87-1·40], p=0·62). BCG at birth inhibited the increase in histone trimethylation at the TNF promoter in peripheral blood mononuclear cells occurring in the first 6 weeks of life. H3K4me3 geometric mean fold-increases were 3·1 times lower at the TNF promoter (p=0·018), 2·5 times lower at the IL6 promoter (p=0·20), and 3·1 times lower at the IL1B promoter (p=0·082) and H3K9me3 geometric mean fold-increases were 8·9 times lower at the TNF promoter (p=0·0046), 1·2 times lower at the IL6 promoter (p=0·75), and 4·6 times lower at the IL1B promoter (p=0·068), in BCG-vaccinated (BCG at birth group) versus BCG-naive (delayed BCG group) infants. No clear effect of BCG on ex-vivo production of TNF, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10, and IFNγ after heterologous stimulation, or transferrin saturation and hepcidin concentration, was detected (geometric mean ratios between 0·68 and 1·68; p≥0·038 for all comparisons). INTERPRETATION: BCG vaccination protects against non-tuberculous infectious disease during the neonatal period, in addition to having tuberculosis-specific effects. Prioritisation of BCG on the first day of life in high-mortality settings might have significant public-health benefits through reductions in all-cause infectious morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust. TRANSLATIONS: For the Luganda and Swahili translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

2.
Semin Immunol ; : 101431, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279383

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is the leading infectious disease killer globally due to a single pathogen. Despite wide deployment of standard drug regimens, modern diagnostics and a vaccine (bacille Calmette Guerin, BCG), the global tuberculosis epidemic is inadequately controlled. Novel, effective vaccine(s) are a crucial element of the World Health Organization End TB Strategy. TB vaccine research and development has recently been catalysed by several factors, including a revised strategy focused first on preventing pulmonary TB in adolescents and adults who are the main source of transmission, and encouraging evaluations of novel efficacy endpoints. Renewed enthusiasm for TB vaccine research has also been stimulated by recent preclinical and clinical advancements. These include new insights into underlying protective immune responses, including potential roles for 'trained' innate immunity and Th1/Th17 CD4+ (and CD8+) T cells. The field has been further reinvigorated by two positive proof of concept efficacy trials: one evaluating a potential new use of BCG in preventing high risk populations from sustained Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and the second evaluating a novel, adjuvanted, recombinant protein vaccine candidate (M72/AS01E) for prevention of disease in adults already infected. Fourteen additional candidates are currently in various phases of clinical evaluation and multiple approaches to next generation vaccines are in discovery and preclinical development. The two positive efficacy trials and recent studies in nonhuman primates have enabled the first opportunities to discover candidate vaccine-induced correlates of protection, an effort being undertaken by a broad research consortium.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263065

RESUMO

The prevalence of Mycobacterium abscessus infections in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has increased in recent years. In this study, we investigate whether immune defects explain the apparent susceptibility to this opportunistic infection in non-CF patients. We performed stimulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and whole blood from 13 patients with M. abscessus pulmonary disease and 13 healthy controls to investigate their cytokine production after 24 h and 7 days. Patients were predominantly women (54%) with a mean age of 59 years; 62% had nodular bronchiectatic disease. Many patients had predisposing pulmonary diseases, such as COPD (46%), and asthma (23%). Patients with COPD showed an impaired interleukin (IL)-6 response to M. abscessus and a reduced IL-17 response to Candida, together with a M. abscessus-specific enhanced IL-22 production. Patients without COPD showed higher levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), an anti-inflammatory molecule. Within the non-COPD patients, those with bronchiectasis showed defective interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to Candida albicans. In conclusion, susceptibility to M. abscessus is likely determined by a combination of immunological defects and predisposing pulmonary disease. The main defect in the innate immune response was a shift of the ratio of IL-1ß to IL-1Ra, which decreased the bioactivity of this pathway in the adaptive immune response. In the adaptive immune response there was defective IL-17 and IFN-γ production. Patients with COPD and bronchiectasis showed different cytokine defects. It is therefore crucial to interpret the immunological results within the clinical background of the patients tested.

6.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(11): ofaa489, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269293

RESUMO

Background: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Africans. Despite universal exposure, only 5%-10% of patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and profound CD4+ T-cell depletion develop disseminated cryptococcosis: host genetic factors may play a role. Prior targeted immunogenetic studies in cryptococcosis have comprised few Africans. Methods: We analyzed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data from 524 patients of African descent: 243 cases (advanced HIV with cryptococcal antigenemia and/or cryptococcal meningitis) and 281 controls (advanced HIV, no history of cryptococcosis, negative serum cryptococcal antigen). Results: Six loci upstream of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) gene, encoding macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were associated with susceptibility to cryptococcosis at P < 10-6 and remained significantly associated in a second South African cohort (83 cases; 128 controls). Meta-analysis of the genotyped CSF1 SNP rs1999713 showed an odds ratio for cryptococcosis susceptibility of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.66; P = 5.96 × 10-8). Ex vivo functional validation and transcriptomic studies confirmed the importance of macrophage activation by M-CSF in host defence against Cryptococcus in HIV-infected patients and healthy, ethnically matched controls. Conclusions: This first genome-wide association study of susceptibility to cryptococcosis has identified novel and immunologically relevant susceptibility loci, which may help define novel strategies for prevention or immunotherapy of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306484

RESUMO

A number of COVID-19 vaccine candidates have shown promising results, but substantial uncertainty remains regarding their effectiveness and global roll-out. Boosting innate immunity with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) or other live attenuated vaccines may also play a role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. BCG has long been known for its non-specific beneficial effects, most likely explained by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of innate immune cells, termed trained immunity. In this issue of the JCI, Rivas et al. add to these arguments by showing that BCG-vaccinated healthcare providers from a Los Angeles healthcare organization had less COVID-19 diagnosis and serology, compared to unvaccinated individuals. Prospective clinical trials are thus warranted to explore BCG effects in COVID-19. We posit that beyond COVID-19, vaccines that elicit trained immunity, such as the BCG, may mitigate the impact of emerging pathogens in future pandemics.

9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 10 07.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331729

RESUMO

A number of clinical trials are currently underway worldwide to assess whether BCG, the old vaccine against tuberculosis, can protect against COVID-19 infection. In this Perspective, we briefly outline the background, the immunological mechanisms (in particular induction of 'innate immune memory' or 'trained immunity'), and further considerations for the potential future use of BCG against viral and other infections.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia
10.
Elife ; 92020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168134

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Monocyte-derived macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques. In patients with atherosclerotic CVD, leukocytes have a hyperinflammatory phenotype. We hypothesize that immune cell reprogramming in these patients occurs at the level of myeloid progenitors. We included 13 patients with coronary artery disease due to severe atherosclerosis and 13 subjects without atherosclerosis in an exploratory study. Cytokine production capacity after ex vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and bone marrow MNCs was higher in patients with atherosclerosis. In BM-MNCs this was associated with increased glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. The BM composition was skewed towards myelopoiesis and transcriptome analysis of HSC/GMP cell populations revealed enrichment of neutrophil- and monocyte-related pathways. These results show that in patients with atherosclerosis, activation of innate immune cells occurs at the level of myeloid progenitors, which adds exciting opportunities for novel treatment strategies.

11.
Nat Immunol ; 21(12): 1517-1527, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169013

RESUMO

CRELD1 is a pivotal factor for heart development, the function of which is unknown in adult life. We here provide evidence that CRELD1 is an important gatekeeper of immune system homeostasis. Exploiting expression variance in large human cohorts contrasting individuals with the lowest and highest CRELD1 expression levels revealed strong phenotypic, functional and transcriptional differences, including reduced CD4+ T cell numbers. These findings were validated in T cell-specific Creld1-deficient mice. Loss of Creld1 was associated with simultaneous overactivation and increased apoptosis, resulting in a net loss of T cells with age. Creld1 was transcriptionally and functionally linked to Wnt signaling. Collectively, gene expression variance in large human cohorts combined with murine genetic models, transcriptomics and functional testing defines CRELD1 as an important modulator of immune homeostasis.

12.
Immunity ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220235

RESUMO

The last few years have witnessed an increasing body of evidence that challenges the traditional view that immunological memory is an exclusive trait of the adaptive immune system. Myeloid cells can show increased responsiveness upon subsequent stimulation with the same or a different stimulus, well after the initial challenge. This de facto innate immune memory has been termed "trained immunity" and is involved in infections, vaccination and inflammatory diseases. Trained immunity is based on two main pillars: the epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of cells. In this review we discuss the latest insights into the epigenetic mechanisms behind the induction of trained immunity, as well as the role of different cellular metabolites and metabolic networks in the induction, regulation and maintenance of trained immunity.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152124

RESUMO

We evaluated the association between germline genetic variants located within the 3'-untranlsated region (polymorphic 3'UTR, ie, p3UTR) of candidate genes involved in multiple myeloma (MM). We performed a case-control study within the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMEnSE) consortium, consisting of 3056 MM patients and 1960 controls recruited from eight countries. We selected p3UTR of six genes known to act in different pathways relevant in MM pathogenesis, namely KRAS (rs12587 and rs7973623), VEGFA (rs10434), SPP1 (rs1126772), IRF4 (rs12211228) and IL10 (rs3024496). We found that IL10-rs3024496 was associated with increased risk of developing MM and with a worse overall survival of MM patients. The variant allele was assayed in a vector expressing eGFP chimerized with the IL10 3'-UTR and it was found functionally active following transfection in human myeloma cells. In this experiment, the A-allele caused a lower expression of the reporter gene and this was also in agreement with the in vivo expression of mRNA measured in whole blood as reported in the GTEx portal. Overall, these data are suggestive of an effect of the IL10-rs3024496 SNP on the regulation of IL10 mRNA expression and it could have clinical implications for better characterization of MM patients in terms of prognosis.

14.
Cell Rep ; 33(7): 108387, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207187

RESUMO

The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) protects against some heterologous infections, probably via induction of non-specific innate immune memory in monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, a process known as trained immunity. Recent studies have revealed that the induction of trained immunity is associated with a bias toward granulopoiesis in bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells, but it is unknown whether BCG vaccination also leads to functional reprogramming of mature neutrophils. Here, we show that BCG vaccination of healthy humans induces long-lasting changes in neutrophil phenotype, characterized by increased expression of activation markers and antimicrobial function. The enhanced function of human neutrophils persists for at least 3 months after vaccination and is associated with genome-wide epigenetic modifications in trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 4. Functional reprogramming of neutrophils by the induction of trained immunity might offer novel therapeutic strategies in clinical conditions that could benefit from modulation of neutrophil effector function.

15.
FEMS Microbiol Rev ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232448

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It exists as a commensal in the oral cavity, gut or genital tract of most individuals, constrained by the local microbiota, epithelial barriers and immune defences. Their perturbation can lead to fungal outgrowth and the development of mucosal infections such as oropharyngeal or vulvovaginal candidiasis, and patients with compromised immunity are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections. The importance of the interplay between fungus, host and microbiota in driving the transition from C. albicans commensalism to pathogenicity is widely appreciated. However, the complexity of these interactions, and the significant impact of fungal, host and microbiota variability upon disease severity and outcome, are less well understood. Therefore, we summarise the features of the fungus that promote infection, and how genetic variation between clinical isolates influences pathogenicity. We discuss antifungal immunity, how this differs between mucosae, and how individual variation influences a person's susceptibility to infection. Also, we describe factors that influence the composition of gut, oral and vaginal microbiotas, and how these affect fungal colonisation and antifungal immunity. We argue that a detailed understanding of these variables, which underlie fungal-host-microbiota interactions, will present opportunities for directed antifungal therapies that benefit vulnerable patients.

16.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 126: 102019, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202351

RESUMO

Inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology and high mortality of tuberculous meningitis. The IL-1ß pathway has been implicated in immunopathology and could be a target for host-directed therapy. IL-1ß was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 225 HIV-uninfected tuberculous meningitis patients in Indonesia compared to controls, but did not predict subsequent mortality, nor did IL-6 or IL-1Ra. Furthermore, genetic loci known to regulate IL1B gene expression did not predict mortality in 443 tuberculous meningitis patients, although two of these loci did predict CSF IL-1ß concentrations. Collectively, these data argue against a role for IL-1ß targeted host-directed therapy in tuberculous meningitis.

17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120314216, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147995

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is characterized by incessant inflammation in the arterial wall in which monocytes and macrophages play a crucial role. During the past few years, it has been reported that cells from the innate immune system can develop a long-lasting proinflammatory phenotype after brief stimulation not only with microbial products but also endogenous atherogenic stimuli. This persistent hyperactivation of the innate immune system is termed trained immunity and can contribute to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Trained immunity is mediated via epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming and occurs both in mature innate immune cells as well as their bone marrow progenitors. In addition to monocytes, other innate immune and nonimmune cells involved in different stages of atherosclerosis can develop comparable memory characteristics. This mechanism provides exciting novel pharmacological targets that can be used to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases.

18.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(4)2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182621

RESUMO

Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) often represent complicated infections in complex patient populations. The Center of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ (EMRC) organizes a biweekly multidisciplinary mycology meeting to discuss patients with severe fungal infections and to provide comprehensive advice regarding diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe the patient population discussed at these meetings during a one-year period with regards to their past medical history, diagnosis, microbiological and other diagnostic test results and antifungal therapy. The majority of patients discussed were adults (83.1%), 62.5% of whom suffered from pulmonary infections or signs/symptoms, 10.9% from otorhinolaryngeal infections and/or oesophagitis, 9.4% from systemic infections and 9.4% from central nervous system infections. Among children, 53.8% had pulmonary infections or signs/symptoms, 23.1% systemic fungal infections and 23.1% other, miscellaneous fungal infections. 52.5% of adult patients with pulmonary infections/symptoms fulfilled diagnostic criteria for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated fungal pathogens in 81.8% of patients, most commonly Aspergillus. A multidisciplinary mycology meeting can be a useful addition to the care for patients with (I)FDs and can potentially aid in identifying healthcare and research needs regarding the field of fungal infections. The majority of patients discussed at the multidisciplinary meetings suffered from pulmonary infections, predominantly CPA.

19.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 448, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Q fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is characterised by a state of prolonged fatigue that is seen in 20% of acute Q fever infections and has major health-related consequences. The molecular mechanisms underlying QFS are largely unclear. In order to better understand its pathogenesis, we applied a multi-omics approach to study the patterns of the gut microbiome, blood metabolome, and inflammatory proteome of QFS patients, and compared these with those of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: The study population consisted of 31 QFS patients, 50 CFS patients, and 72 HC. All subjects were matched for age, gender, and general geographical region (South-East part of the Netherlands). The gut microbiome composition was assessed by Metagenomic sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq platform. A total of 92 circulating inflammatory markers were measured using Proximity Extension Essay and 1607 metabolic features were assessed with a high-throughput non-targeted metabolomics approach. RESULTS: Inflammatory markers, including 4E-BP1 (P = 9.60-16 and 1.41-7) and MMP-1 (P = 7.09-9 and 3.51-9), are significantly more expressed in both QFS and CFS patients compared to HC. Blood metabolite profiles show significant differences when comparing QFS (319 metabolites) and CFS (441 metabolites) patients to HC, and are significantly enriched in pathways like sphingolipid (P = 0.0256 and 0.0033) metabolism. When comparing QFS to CFS patients, almost no significant differences in metabolome were found. Comparison of microbiome taxonomy of QFS and CFS patients with that of HC, shows both in- and decreases in abundancies in Bacteroidetes (with emphasis on Bacteroides and Alistiples spp.), and Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (with emphasis on Ruminococcus and Bifidobacterium spp.). When we compare QFS patients to CFS patients, there is a striking resemblance and hardly any significant differences in microbiome taxonomy are found. CONCLUSIONS: We show that QFS and CFS patients are similar across three different omics layers and 4E-BP1 and MMP-1 have the potential to distinguish QFS and CFS patients from HC.

20.
Eur J Immunol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125159

RESUMO

The IL-1 family member IL-38 (IL1F10) suppresses inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Here, we report that plasma concentrations of IL-38 in 288 healthy Europeans correlate positively with circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts. IL-38 correlated negatively with age (p = 0.02) and was stable in 48 subjects for 1 year. In comparison with primary keratinocytes, IL1F10 expression in CD19+ B cells from PBMC was lower, whereas cell-associated IL-38 expression was comparable. In vitro, IL-38 is released from CD19+ B cells after stimulation with rituximab. Intravenous LPS in humans failed to induce circulating IL-38, compared to 100-fold induction of IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. In a cohort of 296 subjects with body mass index > 27 at high risk for cardiovascular disease, IL-38 plasma concentrations were significantly lower than in healthy subjects (p < 0.0001), and lowest in those with metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05). IL-38 also correlated inversely with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-1Ra, and leptin (p < 0.05). We conclude that a relative deficiency of the B cell product IL-38 is associated with increased systemic inflammation in aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and is consistent with IL-38 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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