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1.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197784

RESUMO

Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy/Nelson's syndrome (CTP-BADX/NS) is a severe complication of bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX). The aim of our study was to investigate prevalence, presentation and outcome of CTP-BADX/NS in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) included in the European Registry on Cushing's Syndrome (ERCUSYN). We examined data on 1045 CD patients and identified 85 (8%) who underwent BADX. Of these, 73 (86%) had follow-up data available. Median duration of follow-up since BADX to last visit/death was 7 years (IQR 2-9 years). Thirty-three patients (45%) experienced CTP-BADX/NS after three years (1.5-6) since BADX. Cumulative progression-free survival was 73% at three years, 66% at 5 years and 46% at 10 years. CTP-BADX/NS patients more frequently had a visible tumor at diagnosis of CD than patients without CTP-BADX/NS (p<0.05). Twenty-seven CTP-BADX/NS patients underwent surgery, 48% radiotherapy, and 27% received medical therapy. Median time since diagnosis of CTP-BADX/NS to last follow-up visit was 2 years (IQR, 1-5). Control of tumor progression was not achieved in 16 of 33 (48%) patients, of whom 8 (50%) died after a mean of 4 years. Maximum adenoma size at diagnosis of CD was associated with further tumor growth in CTP-BADX/NS despite treatment (p=0.033). Diagnosis of CTP-BADX/NS, older age, greater UFC levels at diagnosis of CD and initial treatment predicted mortality. In conclusion, CTP-BADX/NS was reported in 45% of the ERCUSYN patients who underwent BADX, and control of tumor growth was reached in half of them. Future studies are needed to establish effective strategies of prevention and treatment.

2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141235

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system that affects the thyroid gland. It is usually treatable and, in most cases, curable. The central issues are how to improve knowledge on TC, to accurately identify cases at an early stage that can benefit from effective intervention, optimise therapy, and reduce the risk of overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. Questions remain about management, about treating all patients in referral centres, and about which treatment should be proposed to any individual patient and how this can be optimised. The European Alliance for Personalised Medicine (EAPM) hosted an expert panel discussion to elucidate some of the challenges, and to identify possible steps towards effective responses at the EU and member state level, particularly in the context of the opportunities in the European Union's evolving initiatives-notably its Beating Cancer Plan, its Cancer Mission, and its research funding programmes. Recommendations emerging from the panel focus on improved infrastructure and funding, and on promoting multi-stakeholder collaboration between national and European initiatives to complement, support, and mutually reinforce efforts to improve patient care.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 187(4): 497-505, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947635

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has an excellent prognosis but unknown late effects of treatment. The initial cardiac evaluation showed subclinical diastolic dysfunction in 20% of adult survivors. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine the clinical course of this finding. Methods: This multicenter study, conducted between 2018 and 2020, re-evaluated survivors after 5 years. The primary endpoint was echocardiographic diastolic cardiac function (depicted by the mean of the early diastolic septal and early diastolic lateral tissue velocity (e' mean)). Secondary endpoints were other echocardiographic parameters and plasma biomarkers. Results: Follow-up evaluation was completed in 47 (71.2%) of 66 survivors who had completed their initial evaluation. Of these 47 survivors, 87.2% were women. The median age was 39.8 years (range: 18.8-60.3), and the median follow-up after the initial diagnosis was 23.4 years (range: 10.2-48.8). Between the first and second evaluation, the e' mean significantly decreased by 2.1 cm/s (s.d. 2.3 cm/s, P < 0.001). The median left ventricular ejection fraction did not significantly change (58.0% vs 59.0%, P= NS). In the best explanatory model of e' mean, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that BMI and age were significantly associated with e' mean (ß coefficient: -0.169, 95% CI: -0.292; -0.047, P = 0.008 and ß coefficient: -0.177, 95% CI: -0.240; -0.113, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions and relevance: In these relatively young survivors of pediatric DTC, diastolic function decreased significantly during 5-year follow-up and is possibly more pronounced than in normal aging. This finding requires further follow-up to assess clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Criança , Diástole , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Sobreviventes , Função Ventricular Esquerda
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002346

RESUMO

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine cancer. Particularly the incidence of small clinically indolent tumors has been increasing significantly during the last decades because of increased diagnostic scrutiny, while the DTC-related mortality remained unchanged. In light of the increased awareness of the significant risk of detecting clinically indolent tumors and the potential harm and burden associated with overly diagnosis and the treatment, the approach towards management of DTC recently underwent a critical appraisal. The focus lays on reducing the unnecessary burden for patients with very low risk DTC and the correct identification of those who require treatment that is more intensive and/or follow-up. Management of DTC includes a range of different modalities, making multidisciplinary collaboration expedient. In this review, we elaborate on the recent developments in diagnosis, staging and management of DTC with specific focus on the more individualized risk assessment-based approach.

5.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 66(4): 472-480, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657122

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, severity and presence of symptoms of respiratory tract infections and COVID-19, in patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction compared to individuals without thyroid diseases, during the peak month of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands. Subjects and methods: In this retrospective observational cohort study, all patients currently under follow-up at the Radboud UMC for thyroid dysfunction received a digital questionnaire. Primary outcomes were incidence of self-reported sickness and cases diagnosed with COVID-19. We compared these primary outcomes between these patients and individuals without thyroid diseases that received the same questionnaire, recruited from the Human Functional Genomics Cohort at the Radboud UMC. Results: In total, 238 patients with pre-existing thyroid dysfunction and 161 controls were included. Patients did not report more sickness (30.7% vs. 29.2%; p = 0.752) or microbiologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (1.7% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.351). COVID-19 clinical diagnosis was more frequently made in patients with thyroid diseases (4.2% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.032), despite overall lower incidence of self-reported respiratory related symptoms (52.8% vs. 63.8%; p = 0.028), compared to controls. Sub-group analysis between patients with autoimmune and not-autoimmune thyroid dysfunction did not reveal significant associations with respect to any of the outcome measures. Conclusion: This retrospective survey of a cohort of patients with from a tertiary academic hospital suggests that pre-existing thyroid dysfunction, independent from the aetiology, does not lead to an apparent risk to develop respiratory tract infections and COVID-19 related symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
6.
Endocr Connect ; 11(8)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731242

RESUMO

Objective: This study assessed the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients undergoing 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-PET/CT for an indeterminate (Bethesda III/IV) thyroid nodule. FDG-PET/CT accurately rules out malignancy and prevents 40% of futile diagnostic surgeries in these nodules. Design: Secondary analyses of HRQoL data from a randomised controlled multicentre trial (NCT02208544) in 126 patients from 15 hospitals in the Netherlands were done. Methods: Longitudinal HRQoL assessment was performed using the EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L), the RAND 36-item Health Survey v2.0 (RAND-36), and the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire on baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to the date of the FDG-PET/CT scan. Results: Patients who were randomised to active surveillance following an FDG-negative nodule instead of diagnostic surgery reported stable HRQoL scores throughout the year. Univariate analysis indicated better HRQoL for patients undergoing surveillance than surgical patients with benign histopathology on multiple physical and psychosocial domains. Univariate within-group analysis suggested both temporary and continued HRQoL deteriorations in patients with benign histopathology over time. Multivariate within-group analysis demonstrated no significant longitudinal HRQoL changes in patients undergoing active surveillance. In contrast, in patients with benign histopathology, worse HRQoL was observed with regard to ThyPRO cognitive impairment (P = 0.01) and cosmetic complaints (P = 0.02), whereas goitre symptoms (P < 0.001) and anxiety (P = 0.04) improved over time. In patients with malignant histopathology, anxiety also decreased (P = 0.05). Conclusions: The reassurance of a negative FDG-PET/CT resulted in sustained HRQoL throughout the first year of active surveillance. Diagnostic surgery for a nodule with benign histopathology resulted in more cognitive impairment and physical problems including cosmetic complaints, but improved goitre symptoms and anxiety. Anxiety was also reduced in patients with malignant histopathology.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(6): e2276-e2283, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While most of the variation in thyroid function is determined by genetic factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified via genome-wide association analyses have only explained ~5% to 9% of this variance so far. Most SNPs were in or nearby genes with no known role in thyroid hormone (TH) regulation. Therefore, we performed a large-scale candidate gene study investigating the effect of common genetic variation in established TH regulating genes on serum thyrotropin [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)] and thyroxine (FT4) concentrations. METHODS: SNPs in or within 10 kb of 96 TH regulating genes were included (30 031 TSH SNPs, and 29 962 FT4 SNPs). Associations were studied in 54 288 individuals from the ThyroidOmics Consortium. Linkage disequilibrium-based clumping was used to identify independently associated SNPs. SNP-based explained variances were calculated using SumHer software. RESULTS: We identified 23 novel TSH-associated SNPs in predominantly hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis genes and 25 novel FT4-associated SNPs in mainly peripheral metabolism and transport genes. Genome-wide SNP variation explained ~21% (SD 1.7) of the total variation in both TSH and FT4 concentrations, whereas SNPs in the 96 TH regulating genes explained 1.9% to 2.6% (SD 0.4). CONCLUSION: Here we report the largest candidate gene analysis on thyroid function, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of genetic variants determining TSH and FT4 concentrations. Interestingly, these candidate gene SNPs explain only a minor part of the variation in TSH and FT4 concentrations, which substantiates the need for large genetic studies including common and rare variants to unravel novel, yet unknown, pathways in TH regulation.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tiroxina
8.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 49(6): 1970-1984, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981165

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the impact of an [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven diagnostic workup to rule out malignancy, avoid futile diagnostic surgeries, and improve patient outcomes in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. METHODS: In this double-blinded, randomised controlled multicentre trial, 132 adult euthyroid patients with scheduled diagnostic surgery for a Bethesda III or IV thyroid nodule underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT and were randomised to an [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven or diagnostic surgery group. In the [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven group, management was based on the [18F]FDG-PET/CT result: when the index nodule was visually [18F]FDG-positive, diagnostic surgery was advised; when [18F]FDG-negative, active surveillance was recommended. The nodule was presumed benign when it remained unchanged on ultrasound surveillance. In the diagnostic surgery group, all patients were advised to proceed to the scheduled surgery, according to current guidelines. The primary outcome was the fraction of unbeneficial patient management in one year, i.e., diagnostic surgery for benign nodules and active surveillance for malignant/borderline nodules. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Subgroup analyses were performed for non-Hürthle cell and Hürthle cell nodules. RESULTS: Patient management was unbeneficial in 42% (38/91 [95% confidence interval [CI], 32-53%]) of patients in the [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven group, as compared to 83% (34/41 [95% CI, 68-93%]) in the diagnostic surgery group (p < 0.001). [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven management avoided 40% (25/63 [95% CI, 28-53%]) diagnostic surgeries for benign nodules: 48% (23/48 [95% CI, 33-63%]) in non-Hürthle cell and 13% (2/15 [95% CI, 2-40%]) in Hürthle cell nodules (p = 0.02). No malignant or borderline tumours were observed in patients under surveillance. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value, and benign call rate (95% CI) of [18F]FDG-PET/CT were 94.1% (80.3-99.3%), 39.8% (30.0-50.2%), 95.1% (83.5-99.4%), 35.2% (25.4-45.9%), and 31.1% (23.3-39.7%), respectively. CONCLUSION: An [18F]FDG-PET/CT-driven diagnostic workup of indeterminate thyroid nodules leads to practice changing management, accurately and oncologically safely reducing futile surgeries by 40%. For optimal therapeutic yield, application should be limited to non-Hürthle cell nodules. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02208544 (5 August 2014), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02208544 .


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830850

RESUMO

Innate immune cells constitute a plastic and heterogeneous cell population of the tumor microenvironment. Because of their high tumor infiltration and close interaction with resident tumor cells, they are compelling targets for anti-cancer therapy through either ablation or functionally reprogramming. Kinase inhibitors (KIs) that target aberrant signaling pathways in tumor proliferation and angiogenesis have been shown to have additional immunological effects on myeloid cells that may contribute to a protective antitumor immune response. However, in patients with malignancies, these effects are poorly described, warranting meticulous research to identify KIs' optimal immunomodulatory effect to support developing targeted and more effective immunotherapy. As many of these KIs are currently in clinical trials awaiting approval for the treatment of several types of solid cancer, we evaluate here the information on this drug class's immunological effects and how such mechanisms can be harnessed to improve combined treatment regimens in cancer.

11.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 266, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest interconnections between thyroid status, metabolism, and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but causality remains to be proven. The present study aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between thyroid status and cardiovascular disease and to characterize the metabolomic profile associated with thyroid status. METHODS: Multi-cohort two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was performed utilizing genome-wide significant variants as instruments for standardized thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) within the reference range. Associations between TSH and fT4 and metabolic profile were investigated in a two-stage manner: associations between TSH and fT4 and the full panel of 161 metabolomic markers were first assessed hypothesis-free, then directional consistency was assessed through Mendelian randomization, another metabolic profile platform, and in individuals with biochemically defined thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Circulating TSH was associated with 52/161 metabolomic markers, and fT4 levels were associated with 21/161 metabolomic markers among 9432 euthyroid individuals (median age varied from 23.0 to 75.4 years, 54.5% women). Positive associations between circulating TSH levels and concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein subclasses and components, triglycerides, and triglyceride content of lipoproteins were directionally consistent across the multivariable regression, MR, metabolomic platforms, and for individuals with hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Associations with fT4 levels inversely reflected those observed with TSH. Among 91,810 CAD cases and 656,091 controls of European ancestry, per 1-SD increase of genetically determined TSH concentration risk of CAD increased slightly, but not significantly, with an OR of 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.07; p value 0.16), whereas higher genetically determined fT4 levels were not associated with CAD risk (OR 1.00 per SD increase of fT4; 95% CI 0.96-1.04; p value 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: Lower thyroid status leads to an unfavorable lipid profile and a somewhat increased cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Tireotropina , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tiroxina , Adulto Jovem
12.
Thyroid ; 31(11): 1707-1714, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514857

RESUMO

Background: Survivors of pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) receive thyrotropin-suppressive therapy to minimize disease recurrence. However, knowledge about long-term effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in pediatric DTC survivors is scarce, as is the information regarding long-term consequences of permanent hypoparathyroidism on BMD. We evaluated BMD in pediatric DTC survivors and investigated if BMD was affected by subclinical hyperthyroidism and/or permanent hypoparathyroidism during long-term follow-up. Methods: In this nationwide longitudinal study, we determined BMD in the lumbar spine and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 65 pediatric DTC survivors. Measurements were repeated after minimal 5 years of follow-up in 46 pediatric DTC survivors. BMD results were evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and WHO. At both visits, we determined biochemical parameters and markers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [ß-CTX]) and formation (N-propeptide of type I collagen [PINP] and osteocalcin). Results: First and second BMD measurements were done after a median follow-up of 17.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.0-25.0) and 23.5 (IQR 14.0-30.0) years after diagnosis, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 15 years (IQR 13.0-17.0). Twenty-nine percent of the survivors had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In most survivors, BMD T- and Z-scores were within the reference range during both BMD evaluations. However, after 23.5 years of follow-up, a low BMD was found in 13.0%. In the 13 survivors with permanent hypoparathyroidism, BMD values did not differ after 5 years of follow-up compared with baseline values or in comparison with the 33 survivors without permanent hypoparathyroidism. During follow-up, turnover markers ß-CTX and PINP remained stable. Conclusions: This longitudinal study of pediatric DTC survivors demonstrated normal and stable median lumbar spine and femur BMD values after a median time of 17 and 23.5 years after diagnosis. However, compared with controls, a lower BMD was still found in 13.0% after prolonged follow-up despite intensive follow-up. Based on the studied follow-up period, these data do not provide convincing evidence in support of standard monitoring of bone mass among DTC survivors, but may be restricted to individual cases at low frequency. Trial Registration: This follow-up study was registered in The Netherlands Trial Register under no. NL3280 (www.trialregister.nl/trial/3280).


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos , Sobreviventes
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(6): 775-782, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582359

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Whilst radioactive iodine (RAI) is often administered in the treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), long-term data on male fertility after RAI are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term male fertility after RAI for DTC, and to compare semen quality before and after RAI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Multicenter study including males with DTC ≥2 years after their final RAI treatment with a cumulative activity of ≥3.7 GBq. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen analysis, hormonal evaluation, and a fertility-focused questionnaire. Cut-off scores for 'low semen quality' were based on reference values of the general population as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). RESULTS: Fifty-one participants had a median age of 40.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 34.0-49.6) years upon evaluation and a median follow-up of 5.8 (IQR: 3.0-9.5) years after their last RAI administration. The median cumulative administered activity of RAI was 7.4 (range: 3.7-23.3) GBq. The proportion of males with a low semen volume, concentration, progressive motility, or total motile sperm count did not differ from the 10th percentile cut-off of a general population (P = 0.500, P = 0.131, P = 0.094, and P = 0.500, respectively). Cryopreserved semen was used by 1 participant of the 20 who had preserved semen. CONCLUSIONS: Participants had a normal long-term semen quality. The proportion of participants with low semen quality parameters scoring below the 10th percentile did not differ from the general population. Cryopreservation of semen of males with DTC is not crucial for conceiving a child after RAI administration but may be considered in individual cases.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/efeitos da radiação , Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Espermatozoides/tendências , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Análise do Sêmen/tendências , Contagem de Espermatozoides/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Immunol ; 207(2): 696-708, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261668

RESUMO

Different components of the immune response show large variability between individuals, but they also vary within the same individual because of host and environmental factors. In this study, we report an extensive analysis of the immune characteristics of 56 individuals over four timepoints in 1 single year as part of the Human Functional Genomics Project. We characterized 102 cell subsets using flow cytometry; quantified production of eight cytokines and two chemokines in response to 20 metabolic, bacterial, fungal, and viral stimuli; and measured circulating markers of inflammation. Taking advantage of the longitudinal sampling, both seasonal and nonseasonal sources of variability were studied. The circulating markers of inflammation IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and resistin displayed clear seasonal variability, whereas the strongest effect was observed for α-1 antitrypsin. Cytokine production capacity also showed strong seasonal changes, especially after stimulation with the influenza virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Escherichia coli Furthermore, we observed moderate seasonality effects on immune cell counts, especially in several CD4+/CD8+ T cell subpopulations. Age of the volunteers was an important factor influencing IFN-γ and IL-22 production, which matched the strong impact of age on several T cell subsets. Finally, on average, genetics accounted for almost 50% of the interindividual variance not already explained by age, sex, and body mass index, although this varies strongly for different parameters. In conclusion, seasonality is an important environmental factor that influences immune responses, in addition to specific genetic and nongenetic host factors, and this may well explain the seasonal variation in the incidence and severity of immune-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Imunidade/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano
15.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236051

RESUMO

In the current study, we followed 839 household contacts (HHCs) of tuberculosis (TB) patients for 2 years and identified the factors that enhanced the development of TB. Fourteen of the 17 HHCs who progressed to TB were in the 15- to 30-year-old age group. At baseline (the "0" time point, when all the individuals were healthy), the concentration of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) was lower, and there were increased numbers of Tregs in PBMCs of TB progressors. At baseline, PBMCs from TB progressors stimulated with early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate antigen (CFP-10) produced less IL-1α. Thyroid hormones inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth in macrophages in an IL-1α-dependent manner. Mtb-infected Thra1PV/+ (mutant thyroid hormone receptor) mice had increased mortality and reduced IL-1α production. Our findings suggest that young HHCs who exhibit decreased production of thyroid hormones are at high risk of developing active TB disease.


Assuntos
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Tiroxina , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-1alfa/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Proteção , Tiroxina/biossíntese , Tiroxina/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
16.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 198, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies highlight the role of metabolites in immune diseases, but it remains unknown how much of this effect is driven by genetic and non-genetic host factors. RESULT: We systematically investigate circulating metabolites in a cohort of 500 healthy subjects (500FG) in whom immune function and activity are deeply measured and whose genetics are profiled. Our data reveal that several major metabolic pathways, including the alanine/glutamate pathway and the arachidonic acid pathway, have a strong impact on cytokine production in response to ex vivo stimulation. We also examine the genetic regulation of metabolites associated with immune phenotypes through genome-wide association analysis and identify 29 significant loci, including eight novel independent loci. Of these, one locus (rs174584-FADS2) associated with arachidonic acid metabolism is causally associated with Crohn's disease, suggesting it is a potential therapeutic target. CONCLUSION: This study provides a comprehensive map of the integration between the blood metabolome and immune phenotypes, reveals novel genetic factors that regulate blood metabolite concentrations, and proposes an integrative approach for identifying new disease treatment targets.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/sangue , Alanina/imunologia , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Ácido Araquidônico/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Ácido Glutâmico/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Oncol Lett ; 22(2): 590, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149901

RESUMO

Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most frequent endocrine tumor with a good prognosis after primary treatment in most cases. By contrast, 30-40% of patients with metastatic DTC are unresponsive to 131I radioactive iodide (RAI) treatment due to tumor dedifferentiation. Currently, underlying molecular mechanisms of dedifferentiation remain elusive and predictive biomarkers are lacking. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify molecular biomarkers in primary tumors associated with RAI refractoriness. A retrospective cohort was gathered consisting of RAI-sensitive patients with DTC and RAI-refractory patients with poorly DTC. In all patients, extensive intratumoral mutation profiling, gene fusions analysis, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation analysis and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded-compatible RNA sequencing were performed. Genetic analyses revealed an increased mutational load in RAI-refractory DTC, including mutations in AKT1, PTEN, TP53 and TERT promoter. Transcriptomic analyses revealed profound differential expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), with up to 100-fold higher expression in RAI-refractory DTC compared with in RAI-sensitive DTC cases. ELISA revealed significant lower IGF2 plasma concentrations after surgery and subsequent 131I RAI therapy in patients with DTC compared with pretreatment baseline. Overall, the current findings suggested that the tumor-promoting growth factor IGF2 may have a potential role in acquiring RAI refractoriness.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(7): 1994-2009, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713408

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in patients with bacterial sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. Severely ill patients may present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called nonthyroidal illness syndrome, and several studies have linked thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) to homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of absolute lymphocyte counts, circulating TSH, T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, albumin, and inflammatory biomarkers was performed in 2 independent hospitalized study populations: bacterial sepsis (n = 224) and COVID-19 patients (n = 161). A subgroup analysis was performed in patients with severe lymphopenia and normal lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Only T3 significantly correlated (ρ = 0.252) with lymphocyte counts in patients with bacterial sepsis, and lower concentrations were found in severe lymphopenic compared to nonlymphopenic patients (n = 56 per group). Severe lymphopenic COVID-19 patients (n = 17) showed significantly lower plasma concentrations of TSH, T4, FT4, and T3 compared to patients without lymphopenia (n = 18), and demonstrated significantly increased values of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Remarkably, after 1 week of follow-up, the majority (12 of 15) of COVID-19 patients showed quantitative recovery of their lymphocyte numbers, whereas TSH and thyroid hormones remained mainly disturbed. CONCLUSION: Abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections, like bacterial sepsis and COVID-19, but future studies need to establish whether a causal relationship is involved.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Síndromes do Eutireóideo Doente/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/imunologia , Sepse/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Síndromes do Eutireóideo Doente/sangue , Síndromes do Eutireóideo Doente/imunologia , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Masculino , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/imunologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/imunologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tireotropina/imunologia
19.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 44(3): 611-625, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534128

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) treatment is based on the ability of thyroid follicular cells to accumulate radioactive iodide (RAI). However, in a subset of NMTC patients tumor dedifferentiation occurs, leading to RAI resistance. Digoxin has been demonstrated to restore iodide uptake capacity in vitro in poorly differentiated and anaplastic NMTC cells, termed redifferentiation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of digoxin in TPO-Cre/LSL-BrafV600E mice and digoxin-treated NMTC patients. METHODS: Mice with thyroid cancer were subjected to 3D ultrasound for monitoring tumor growth and 124I PET/CT for measurement of intratumoral iodide uptake. Post-mortem analyses on tumor tissues comprised gene expression profiling and measurement of intratumoral autophagy activity. Through PALGA (Dutch Pathology Registry), archived tumor material was obtained from 11 non-anaplastic NMTC patients who were using digoxin. Clinical characteristics and tumor material of these patients were compared to 11 matched control NMTC patients never treated with digoxin. RESULTS: We found that in mice, tumor growth was inhibited and 124I accumulation was sustainably increased after short-course digoxin treatment. Post-mortem analyses revealed that digoxin treatment increased autophagy activity and enhanced expression of thyroid-specific genes in mouse tumors compared to vehicle-treated mice. Digoxin-treated NMTC patients exhibited significantly higher autophagy activity and a higher differentiation status as compared to matched control NMTC patients, and were associated with favourable clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: These in vivo data support the hypothesis that digoxin may represent a repositioned adjunctive treatment modality that suppresses tumor growth and improves RAI sensitivity in patients with RAI-refractory NMTC.


Assuntos
Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Tolerância a Radiação/efeitos dos fármacos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Radiossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
20.
Immunology ; 163(2): 155-168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454989

RESUMO

The endocrine and the immune systems interact by sharing receptors for hormones and cytokines, cross-control and feedback mechanisms. To date, no comprehensive study has assessed the impact of thyroid hormones on immune homeostasis. By studying immune phenotype (cell populations, antibody concentrations, circulating cytokines, adipokines and acute-phase proteins, monocyte-platelet interactions and cytokine production capacity) in two large independent cohorts of healthy volunteers of Western European descent from the Human Functional Genomics Project (500FG and 300BCG cohorts), we identified a crucial role of the thyroid hormone thyroxin (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) on the homeostasis of lymphocyte populations. TSH concentrations were strongly associated with multiple populations of both effector and regulatory T cells, whereas B-cell populations were significantly associated with free T4 (fT4). In contrast, fT4 and TSH had little impact on myeloid cell populations and cytokine production capacity. Mendelian randomization further supported the role of fT4 for lymphocyte homeostasis. Subsequently, using a genomics approach, we identified genetic variants that influence both fT4 and TSH concentrations and immune responses, and gene set enrichment pathway analysis showed enrichment of fT4-affected gene expression in B-cell function pathways, including the CD40 pathway, further supporting the importance of fT4 in the regulation of B-cell function. In conclusion, we show that thyroid function controls the homeostasis of the lymphoid cell compartment. These findings improve our understanding of the immune responses and open the door for exploring and understanding the role of thyroid hormones in the lymphocyte function during disease.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
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