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1.
Int. j. artif. organs ; 45(1): 3-4, Jan. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1147026

RESUMO

It is established that coronaviruses are transmitted most through aerosols produced when an infected individual coughs or sneezes.1 Although there is no clear evidence of person-to-person airborne transmission, it is possible that part of this component could be due to microscopic respiratory droplets at short to medium distances (up to several meters, or room scale) and deposits from respiratory droplets on surfaces.2,3 However, recent studies revealed that infected patients can potentially be a source of the virus not only through respiratory but also fecal­oral or body fluid routes, raising also the theoretical possibility of bloodborne transmission.4 Based on these arguments, the possibility has also been raised of some equipment that could be a new source of transmission, like the membranes used for extracorporeal oxygenation, which act the same as lungs and also have a direct contact with the blood. Most centers worldwide report a reduction in the cardiac procedures due to the pandemic, however emergency surgeries with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) procedures have been performed every day. Despite guidelines and modifications for operating theatre preparation for the management of suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients submitted to cardiac surgery, many aspects still need to be clarified.5 Potential risk of transmission with these membranes exists, so much that Dres et al.6 reported a study evaluating the risks of SARS-CoV-2 dissemination through membranes used for extra corporeal organ support in critically ill patients, within 48 h after ECMO and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) initiation. They investigated whether SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the dialysis effluent fluid or in the condensate collected from the ECMO membrane gas outlet, when the virus was present in the lower respiratory tract and the plasma. Results showed that in 25 patients on veno-venous ECMO, SARSCoV-2 RNA was not detected in the membrane oxygenator gas outlet condensate in any of 25 patients of whom 13 were plasma RNA positive. Also, they were not able to measure any SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the dialysate of those patients who additionally were treated by CRRT.


Assuntos
Oxigenadores de Membrana , Coronavirus , Aerossóis , Membranas
2.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1359687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of volatile anesthetics on the rates of postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiac death after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). DESIGN: A post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgical operating rooms. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing elective, isolated CABG. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to receive a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). The primary outcome was hemodynamically relevant MI (MI requiring high-dose inotropic support or prolonged intensive care unit stay) occurring within 48 hours from surgery. The secondary outcome was 1-year death due to cardiac causes. Measurements and main Results: A total of 5,400 patients were enrolled between April 2014 and September 2017 (2,709 patients randomized to the volatile anesthetics group and 2,691 to TIVA). The mean age was 62 ± 8.4 years, and the median baseline ejection fraction was 57% (50-67), without differences between the 2 groups. Patients in the volatile group had a lower incidence of MI with hemodynamic complications both in the per-protocol (14 of 2,530 [0.6%] v 27 of 2,501 [1.1%] in the TIVA group; p = 0.038) and as-treated analyses (16 of 2,708 [0.6%] v 29 of 2,617 [1.1%] in the TIVA group; p = 0.039), but not in the intention-to-treat analysis (17 of 2,663 [0.6%] v 28 of 2,667 [1.0%] in the TIVA group; p = 0.10). Overall, deaths due to cardiac causes were lower in the volatile group (23 of 2,685 [0.9%] v 40 of 2,668 [1.5%] than in the TIVA group; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: An anesthetic regimen, including volatile agents, may be associated with a lower rate of postoperative MI with hemodynamic complication in patients undergoing CABG. Furthermore, it may reduce long-term cardiac mortality.


Assuntos
Transplantes , Desflurano , Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos
3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(3): 645-653, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503890

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiac anesthesia is a subspecialty of cardiac and pediatric anesthesiology dedicated to the perioperative care of patients with congenital heart disease. Members of the Congenital and Education Subcommittees of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (EACTAIC) agreed on the necessity to develop an EACTAIC pediatric cardiac anesthesia fellowship curriculum. This manuscript represents a consensus on the composition and the design of the EACTAIC Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship program. This curriculum provides a basis for the training of future pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists by clearly defining the theoretical and practical requirements for fellows and host centers.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestesiologia , Anestesiologia/educação , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , Currículo , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos
4.
J. cardiothoracic vasc. anest ; 35(8): 2447-2453, Aug. 2021. graf, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1353857

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetic agents to maintain bispectral index (BIS) below 50 in 50% of patients was defined as MACBIS50. The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent to maintain BIS below 50 in patients during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective and observational study. SETTING: Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen consecutive patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anesthesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classes III and IV, between the ages of 40 and 70, were included in the study. METHODS: All patients underwent inhalation induction with facial mask using sevoflurane (Cristália) in 100% oxygen, pancuronium (Cristália) 0.1 mg/kg, and sufentanil (Cristália) 0.5 µg/kg intravenously (IV) administered. A single bolus dose of sufentanil, 1.0 µg/kg IV, was administered before surgical incision. MACBIS50 was calculated using the midpoint concentration of patients involving a crossover (BIS < or ≥50) according to Dixon's Up-and-Down method. The Up-and-Down sequence also was analyzed by probit test that enabled the authors to obtain the effective dose 50 (ED50) and effective dose 95 (ED95) of sevoflurane to maintain a BIS value <50, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients were analyzed in this study. MACBIS50 of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent was 0.82% (95% CI 0.47-1.16) in patients aged 40 to 70 undergoing CABG during normothermic CPB. The ED50 and ED95 of sevoflurane to maintain a BIS value <50 for the same context were 0.73% (95% CI 0.45-1.00) and 1.39 (95% CI 0.42-2.37) by means of probit analysis, respectively. CONCLUSION: MACBIS50 of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent was 0.82% in patients undergoing CABG during normothermic CPB.


Assuntos
Inalação , Sevoflurano , Anestésicos
5.
J. cardiothoracic vasc. anest ; (21): 645-653, Aug. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1354048

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pediatric cardiac anesthesia is a subspecialty of cardiac and pediatric anesthesiology dedicated to the perioperative care of patients with congenital heart disease. Members of the Congenital and Education Subcommittees of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (EACTAIC) agreed on the necessity to develop an EACTAIC pediatric cardiac anesthesia fellowship curriculum. This manuscript represents a consensus on the composition and the design of the EACTAIC Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship program. This curriculum provides a basis for the training of future pediatric cardiac anesthesiologists by clearly defining the theoretical and practical requirements for fellows and host centers.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Anestesiologia , Assistência Perioperatória
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(4): 1115-1124, Apr. 2021. graf., ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1177345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess current practice in adult cardiac surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) across European and non-European countries. DESIGN: International, multicenter, web-based survey including 28 multiple choice questions addressing hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation parameters, organ protection measures, and the monitoring and usage of anesthetic drugs as part of the anesthetic and perfusion practice during CPB. SETTING: Online survey endorsed by the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of anesthesiology departments in European and non-European adult cardiac surgical centers. INTERVENTIONS: None. Measurements and Main Results: The survey was distributed via e-mail to European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists members (n = 797) and kept open for 1 month. The response rate was 34% (n = 271). After exclusion of responses from the same centers and of incomplete answers, data from 202 cardiac centers in 56 countries, of which 67% of centers were university hospitals, were analyzed. Optimization of pump flows and tissue oxygenation parameters during CPB were applied by the majority of centers, with target flow rates of >2.2 L/min/m2 in 93% (n = 187) of centers and mean arterial blood pressures between 51 and 90 mmHg in 85% (n = 172). Hemoglobin transfusion triggers were either individualized or between 7 and 8 g/dL in 92% (n = 186) of centers. Mixed venous oxyhemoglobin saturations were assessed routinely in 59% (n = 120) and lactate in 88% (n = 178) of cardiac surgery units. Noninvasive cerebral saturation monitoring was used in a subgroup of patients or routinely in 84% (n = 169) of sites, and depth-of-anesthesia monitoring was used routinely in 53% (n = 106). Transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheters were used routinely or in subgroups of patients in 97% (n = 195) and 71% (n = 153) of centers, respectively. The preferred site for temperature monitoring was the nasopharynx in 66% (n = 134) of centers. Anesthetic techniques were variable, with 26% of centers (n = 52) using low-tidal-volume ventilation and 28% (n = 57) using continuous positive airway pressure during CPB. Volatile agents were used routinely as the only agent during CPB in 36% sites (n = 73) and propofol in 47% (n = 95). Other drugs routinely administered included magnesium in 45% (n = 91), steroids in 18% (n = 37), tranexamic acid in 88% (n = 177), and aprotinin in 15% (n = 30) of the centers. CONCLUSION: This international CPB survey revealed that techniques for optimization of pump flow and oxygenation during CPB usually were applied. Furthermore, cerebral and hemodynamic monitoring devices were frequently used during CPB. However, most CPB-related anesthetic techniques and medications were more variable. More high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to assess anesthetic techniques and organ protection.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Torácica , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Perfusão
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 25, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent experimental evidence shows that sevoflurane can reduce the inflammatory response during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, this observation so far has not been assessed in an adequately powered randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We plan to include one hundred patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass who will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetics during cardiopulmonary bypass or total intravenous anesthesia. The primary endpoint of the study is to assess the inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass by measuring PMN-elastase serum levels. Secondary endpoints include serum levels of other pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα), anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGFß and IL-10), and microRNA expression in peripheral blood to achieve possible epigenetic mechanisms in this process. In addition clinical endpoints such as presence of major complications in the postoperative period and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay will be assessed. DISCUSSION: The trial may determine whether adding volatile anesthetic during cardiopulmonary bypass will attenuate the inflammatory response. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02672345 . Registered on February 2016 and updated on June 2020.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(8): 2447-2453, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of volatile anesthetic agents to maintain bispectral index (BIS) below 50 in 50% of patients was defined as MACBIS50. The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent to maintain BIS below 50 in patients during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective and observational study. SETTING: Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen consecutive patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anesthesia, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classes III and IV, between the ages of 40 and 70, were included in the study. METHODS: All patients underwent inhalation induction with facial mask using sevoflurane (Cristália) in 100% oxygen, pancuronium (Cristália) 0.1 mg/kg, and sufentanil (Cristália) 0.5 µg/kg intravenously (IV) administered. A single bolus dose of sufentanil, 1.0 µg/kg IV, was administered before surgical incision. MACBIS50 was calculated using the midpoint concentration of patients involving a crossover (BIS < or ≥50) according to Dixon's Up-and-Down method. The Up-and-Down sequence also was analyzed by probit test that enabled the authors to obtain the effective dose 50 (ED50) and effective dose 95 (ED95) of sevoflurane to maintain a BIS value <50, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the mean. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients were analyzed in this study. MACBIS50 of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent was 0.82% (95% CI 0.47-1.16) in patients aged 40 to 70 undergoing CABG during normothermic CPB. The ED50 and ED95 of sevoflurane to maintain a BIS value <50 for the same context were 0.73% (95% CI 0.45-1.00) and 1.39 (95% CI 0.42-2.37) by means of probit analysis, respectively. CONCLUSION: MACBIS50 of sevoflurane as a single hypnotic agent was 0.82% in patients undergoing CABG during normothermic CPB.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Éteres Metílicos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 1-10, Jan. 2021. graf., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1146759

RESUMO

Background: Recent experimental evidence shows that sevoflurane can reduce the inflammatory response during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. However, this observation so far has not been assessed in an adequately powered randomized controlled trial. Methods: We plan to include one hundred patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass who will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetics during cardiopulmonary bypass or total intravenous anesthesia. The primary endpoint of the study is to assess the inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass by measuring PMN-elastase serum levels. Secondary endpoints include serum levels of other pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα), anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGFß and IL-10), and microRNA expression in peripheral blood to achieve possible epigenetic mechanisms in this process. In addition, clinical endpoints such as presence of major complications in the postoperative period and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay will be assessed. Discussion: The trial may determine whether adding volatile anesthetic during cardiopulmonary bypass will attenuate the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Sevoflurano , Anestésicos
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(4): 1115-1124, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess current practice in adult cardiac surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) across European and non-European countries. DESIGN: International, multicenter, web-based survey including 28 multiple choice questions addressing hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation parameters, organ protection measures, and the monitoring and usage of anesthetic drugs as part of the anesthetic and perfusion practice during CPB. SETTING: Online survey endorsed by the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists. PARTICIPANTS: Representatives of anesthesiology departments in European and non-European adult cardiac surgical centers. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The survey was distributed via e-mail to European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiologists members (n = 797) and kept open for 1 month. The response rate was 34% (n = 271). After exclusion of responses from the same centers and of incomplete answers, data from 202 cardiac centers in 56 countries, of which 67% of centers were university hospitals, were analyzed. Optimization of pump flows and tissue oxygenation parameters during CPB were applied by the majority of centers, with target flow rates of >2.2 L/min/m2 in 93% (n = 187) of centers and mean arterial blood pressures between 51 and 90 mmHg in 85% (n = 172). Hemoglobin transfusion triggers were either individualized or between 7 and 8 g/dL in 92% (n = 186) of centers. Mixed venous oxyhemoglobin saturations were assessed routinely in 59% (n = 120) and lactate in 88% (n = 178) of cardiac surgery units. Noninvasive cerebral saturation monitoring was used in a subgroup of patients or routinely in 84% (n = 169) of sites, and depth-of-anesthesia monitoring was used routinely in 53% (n = 106). Transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheters were used routinely or in subgroups of patients in 97% (n = 195) and 71% (n = 153) of centers, respectively. The preferred site for temperature monitoring was the nasopharynx in 66% (n = 134) of centers. Anesthetic techniques were variable, with 26% of centers (n = 52) using low-tidal-volume ventilation and 28% (n = 57) using continuous positive airway pressure during CPB. Volatile agents were used routinely as the only agent during CPB in 36% sites (n = 73) and propofol in 47% (n = 95). Other drugs routinely administered included magnesium in 45% (n = 91), steroids in 18% (n = 37), tranexamic acid in 88% (n = 177), and aprotinin in 15% (n = 30) of the centers. CONCLUSION: This international CPB survey revealed that techniques for optimization of pump flow and oxygenation during CPB usually were applied. Furthermore, cerebral and hemodynamic monitoring devices were frequently used during CPB. However, most CPB-related anesthetic techniques and medications were more variable. More high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to assess anesthetic techniques and organ protection.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Adulto , Anestesiologistas , Humanos , Pulmão , Perfusão
11.
Int. j. artif. organs ; 43(7): 1-6, July., 2020. gráfico, imagem, ilustraçao, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1123307

RESUMO

Introduction: The use of volatile agents during cardiopulmonary bypass allows a "single drug anesthesia" and is associated with reduced peak postoperative troponin levels. Connecting the exhaust systems to the oxygenator's gas outlet port is mandatory and allows to prevent operating room (but not atmospheric) pollution by volatile agents. The aim of this study was to create a prototype filter for volatile agents and to test its adsorption efficacy during an ex-vivo simulated conventional cardiopulmonary bypass test. Methods: We carried out bench tests to conceive a prototype filter that could prevent room and environment pollution without damaging membrane oxygenators. We performed the tests at the Engineering Center for Circulatory Assistance Laboratory, Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology, São Paulo, Brazil. Bench tests included simulation of integral adsorption tests, filter dimensions and design, flow versus pressure curve, sizing, and tightness. Results: Calgon AT 410 was the best kind of activated charcoal granules for adsorption of sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. Filter dimension tests showed that a chamber of 30-cm width over 10-cm diameter filled with 200g of the Calgon AT410 granules was the minimum required to fully adsorb sevoflurane for 90min. Adsorption tests showed that the prototype filter fully adsorbed isoflurane in 100±2.3min, sevoflurane in 95±3.4min, and desflurane in 95±4.3min. Conclusion: The new version of our prototype filter adsorbed most of the volatile anesthetics agents during an ex-vivo simulated conventional cardiopulmonary bypass test.


Assuntos
Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Poluição do Ar , Anestesia , Rins Artificiais
12.
Catheter. cardiovasc. interv ; 70(2): 134-139, mar. 2020. ilustraçao, tabela
Artigo em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1127637

RESUMO

Introdução: Nos dias atuais, exames de ecocardiografia transesofágica (ETE) são realizados de forma frequente sob sedação em regime ambulatorial. A sedação está relacionada com aumento de intercorrências nas vias aéreas. Dentro desse contexto, desenvolvemos uma cânula orofaríngea de duplo-lúmen com finalidade de manutenção da via aérea pérvia, reduzindo riscos aos pacientes durante procedimentos endoscópicos sob sedação. O principal objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar a incidência de dessaturação em uma série de casos de pacientes adultos submetidos a ETE ambulatorial sob sedação com o uso da cânula orofaríngea. Métodos: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes sedados com midazolam e propofol intravenoso. A cânula foi inserida após perda da consciência e os pacientes foram mantidos com ventilação espontânea. Analisados saturação de oxigênio, capnometria, frequência cardíaca e pressão arterial não invasiva, além de dados subjetivos: patência das vias aéreas, manuseio e inserção da cânula e conforto ao examinador. Resultados: A incidência de dessaturação leve foi de 23.3% e não houve dessaturação grave em nenhum caso. A inserção da cânula orotraqueal foi considerada fácil em 29 pacientes (96,6%) e o manuseio da sonda de ETE foi adequada em 93,33% dos exames realizados. Conclusões: A realização dos exames de ETE sob sedação com auxílio da cânula orofaríngea de duplo lúmen apresentou baixa incidência de dessaturação nos pacientes avaliados, além de permitir análise do CO2 expirado durante a realização dos exames.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Cânula , Anestesia , Sedação Consciente
13.
N. Engl. j. med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
16.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e82913, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24391726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effect of dexmedetomidine on length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and time to extubation is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent studies were independently searched in BioMedCentral, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials (updated February first 2013). Randomized studies (dexmedetomidine versus any comparator) were included if including patients mechanically ventilated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Co-primary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (days) and time to extubation (hours). Secondary endpoint was mortality rate at the longest follow-up available. RESULTS: The 27 included manuscripts (28 trials) randomized 3,648 patients (1,870 to dexmedetomidine and 1,778 to control). Overall analysis showed that the use of dexmedetomidine was associated with a significant reduction in length of ICU stay (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.79 [-1.17 to -0.40] days, p for effect <0.001) and of time to extubation (WMD = -2.74 [-3.80 to -1.65] hours, p for effect <0.001). Mortality was not different between dexmedetomidine and controls (risk ratio = 1.00 [0.84 to 1.21], p for effect = 0.9). High heterogeneity between included studies was found. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies suggests that dexmedetomidine could help to reduce ICU stay and time to extubation, in critically ill patients even if high heterogeneity between studies might confound the interpretation of these results.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Extubação , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
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