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1.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572075

RESUMO

For decades, the complement system, the central pillar of innate immune response, was recognized as a protective mechanism against cancer cells and the manipulation of complement effector functions in cancer setting offered a great opportunity to improve monoclonal antibody-based cancer immunotherapies. Similarly, cellular senescence, the process of cell cycle arrest that allow DNA and tissue repair has been traditionally thought to be able to suppress tumor progression. However, in recent years, extensive research has identified the complement system and cellular senescence as two main inducers of tumour growth in the context of chronic, persistent inflammation named inflammaging. Here, we discuss the data describing the ambivalent role of senescence in cancer with a particular focus on tumors that are strongly dependent on complement activation and can be understood by a new, senescence-related point of view: prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma.

2.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 181, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Neurological involvement is the most common extra-renal complication of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli-hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) or typical HUS. On brain magnetic resonance examination, main neurological signs encompass acute lesions of the basal ganglia and the white matter, which could usually regress after Eculizumab infusion. In contrast, peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations in typical HUS are very rare and, when occurring, they require a careful management of neurological sequelae and an intensive multidisciplinary neuro-rehabilitation program. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present two pediatric cases of severe and complicated typical HUS with PNS manifestations who required therapeutic treatment and an intensive multidisciplinary neuro-rehabilitation program. In both cases, PNS manifestations were followed by the recovery from typical HUS-related severe central neurological damage and manifested mainly with marked bilateral motor deficit and hyporeflexia/areflexia in the lower limbs. The peripheral polyneuropathy was treated with immunosuppressive therapy (methylprednisolone boluses, i.v. immunoglobulins, plasma exchange), followed by a prolonged intensive neuro-rehabilitation program. After 8 months of rehabilitation, both patients gained complete functional recovery. CONCLUSIONS: PNS manifestations during typical HUS are a rare event and potentially leading to severe disability. A timely clinical assessment is mandatory to set up a prompt therapeutic and rehabilitation program and to obtain a complete clinical and functional recovery.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445576

RESUMO

CD40 crosslinking plays an important role in regulating cell migration, adhesion and proliferation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CD40/CD40L interaction on RCC cells activates different intracellular pathways but the molecular mechanisms leading to cell scattering are not yet clearly defined. Aim of our study was to investigate the main intracellular pathways activated by CD40 ligation and their specific involvement in RCC cell migration. CD40 ligation increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH (2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, CD40 crosslinking activated different transcriptional factors on RCC cell lines: AP-1, NFkB and some members of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) family. Interestingly, the specific inhibition of NFAT factors by cyclosporine A, completely blocked RCC cell motility induced by CD40 ligation. In tumor tissue, we observed a higher expression of NFAT factors and in particular an increased activation and nuclear migration of NFATc4 on RCC tumor tissues belonging to patients that developed metastases when compared to those who did not. Moreover, CD40-CD40L interaction induced a cytoskeleton reorganization and increased the expression of integrin ß1 on RCC cell lines, and this effect was reversed by cyclosporine A and NFAT inhibition. These data suggest that CD40 ligation induces the activation of different intracellular signaling pathways, in particular the NFATs factors, that could represent a potential therapeutic target in the setting of patients with metastatic RCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Ligante de CD40/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Antígenos CD40/genética , Ligante de CD40/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2325: 65-77, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053051

RESUMO

Enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (Elispot) is a quantitative method for measuring relevant parameters of T-cell activation. The sensitivity of Elispot allows the detection of low-frequency antigen-specific T-cells that secrete cytokines and effector molecules, such as granzyme B and perforin. Cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) studies have taken advantage with this high-throughput technology by providing insights of quantity and immune kinetics. Accuracy, sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of Elispot resulted in a wide range of applications in research as well as in diagnostic field. Actually, CTL monitoring by Elispot is a gold standard for the evaluation of antigen-specific T-cell immunity in clinical trials and vaccine candidates where the ability to detect rare antigen-specific T-cells is of relevance for immune diagnostic. The most utilized Elispot assay is the Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test, a marker for CD8+ CTL activation, but Elispot can be also used to distinguish different subsets of activated T-cells by using other cytokines such as T-helper (Th) 1 type cells (characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21 and TNF-α), Th2 (producing cytokines like IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13), and Th17 (IL-17) cells.The reliability of Elispot generated data, by the evaluation of T-cell frequency recognizing individual antigen/peptide, is the core of this method currently applied widely to investigate specific immune responses in cancer, infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. The Elispot Assay is competing with other methods measuring single-cell cytokine production, e.g., intracellular cytokine by FACS or Milteny cytokine secretion assay. Other types of lymphocyte frequency and function assays include limiting dilution assay (LDA), cytotoxic T-cell assay (CTL), and tetramer staining. Compared with respect to sensitivity the Elispot Assay is outranking other methods to define frequency of antigen-specific lymphocytes. The method described herein would like to offer helpful and clear protocols for researchers that apply Elispot. IFN-γ and Perforin Elispot assays will be described.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , ELISPOT/métodos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2325: 107-124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053054

RESUMO

Tissue microarray (TMA) is a smart technical innovation recently imposed in pathology research. This technology provides a high-throughput analysis of multiple tissues at the same time. The technique allows faster analysis and considerably reducing costs for the staining because many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases are assembled on a single histologic slide. This versatile technique may improve conventional microscopic techniques to detect and characterize cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be effectively employed in CTL characterization to identify the location and distribution of target antigens in tissues by staining with a specific antibody. The antibody may be conjugated to either a fluorescent or enzymatic label, and the location of the label seen through a microscope approximates the position of the target antigen.This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations associated with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.


Assuntos
Imunofluorescência/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Anticorpos , Antígenos , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Inclusão em Parafina/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807333

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test and internally validate serum Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) levels as a potential PCa biomarker to predict prostate biopsy (PBx) results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum PSA and serum PTX3 were prospectively assessed in patients scheduled for PBx at our Institution due to increased serum PSA levels or abnormal digital rectal examination. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analysis, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and decision curve analysis (DCA), were used to test the accuracy of serum PTX3 in predicting anyPCa and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) defined as Gleason Grade (GG) ≥ 2. RESULTS: Among the 455 eligible patients, PCa was detected in 49% and csPCa in 25%. During univariate analysis, PTX3 outperformed other variables in predicting both anyPCa and csPCa. The addition of PTX3 to multivariable models based on standard clinical variables, significantly increased each model's predictive accuracy for anyPCa (AUC from 0.73 to 0.82; p < 0.001) and csPCa (AUC from 0.79 to 0.83; p < 0.001). At DCA, PTX3, and PTX3, density showed higher net benefit than PSA and PSA density and increased the net benefit of multivariable models in deciding when to perform PBx. CONCLUSIONS: Serum PTX3 levels might be of clinical utility in predicting prostate biopsy results. Should our findings be confirmed, this novel reflex test could be used to reduce the number and burden of unnecessary prostate biopsies.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 10920-10933, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875620

RESUMO

Pentraxins are a family of evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition molecules with pivotal roles in innate immunity and inflammation, such as opsonization of pathogens during bacterial and viral infections. In particular, the long Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has been shown to regulate several aspects of vascular and tissue inflammation during solid organ transplantation. Our study investigated the role of PTX3 as possible modulator of Complement activation in a swine model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We demonstrated that I/R injury induced early PTX3 deposits at peritubular and glomerular capillary levels. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed PTX3 deposits co-localizing with CD31+ endothelial cells. In addition, PTX3 was associated with infiltrating macrophages (CD163), dendritic cells (SWC3a) and myofibroblasts (FSP1). In particular, we demonstrated a significant PTX3-mediated activation of classical (C1q-mediated) and lectin (MBL-mediated) pathways of Complement. Interestingly, PTX3 deposits co-localized with activation of the terminal Complement complex (C5b-9) on endothelial cells, indicating that PTX3-mediated Complement activation occurred mainly at the renal vascular level. In conclusion, these data indicate that PTX3 might be a potential therapeutic target to prevent Complement-induced I/R injury.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Biópsia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Sus scrofa
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(6): 8026-8039, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758105

RESUMO

CVD remains the major cause of mortality with graft functioning in Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), with an estimated risk of CV events about 50-fold higher than in the general population. Many strategies have been considered to reduce the CV risk such as the use of mTOR inhibitors. We evaluate whether chronic mTOR inhibition might influence CV aging in KTRs studying the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect. We retrospectively analyzed 210 KTRs with stable graft function on therapy with CNI and mycophenolic acid (Group A, 105 pts.), or with CNI and mTORi (Everolimus, Group B, 105 pts.). The presence of mTOR inhibitor in immunosuppressive therapy was associated to increase serum levels of Klotho with concomitant reduction in FGF-23, with a significant decrease in left ventricular mass. In addition, KTRs with mTORi improved mitochondrial function/biogenesis in PBMC with more efficient oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity. Finally, group B KTRs presented reduced levels of inflammaging markers such as reduced serum pentraxin-3 and p21ink expression in PBMC. In conclusion, we demonstrated that mTOR inhibition in immunosuppressive protocols prevents the occurrence and signs of CV aging in KTRs.


Assuntos
Everolimo/farmacologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Transplante de Rim , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Transplantados , Adulto , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biogênese de Organelas
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 574271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162990

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel class of immunotherapy drugs that have improved the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancers as metastatic melanoma, non-small lung cancer or renal cell carcinoma. These humanized monoclonal antibodies target inhibitory receptors (e.g. CTLA-4, PD-1, LAG-3, TIM-3) and ligands (PD-L1) expressed on T lymphocytes, antigen presenting cells and tumor cells and elicit an anti-tumor response by stimulating immune system. Nevertheless, the improved overall survival is complicated by the manifestation of Immune-related Adverse Effects (irAEs). During treatment with ICIs, the most common adverse kidney effect is represented by the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) with the acute tubulointerstitial nephritis as recurrent histological feature. The mechanisms involved in ICIs-induced AKI include the re-activation of effector T cells previously stimulated by nephrotoxic drugs (i.e. by antibiotics), the loss of tolerance versus self-renal antigens, the increased PD-L1 expression by tubular cells or the establishment of a pro-inflammatory milieu with the release of self-reactive antibodies. For renal transplant recipient treated with ICIs, the increased incidence of rejection is a serious concern. Therefore, the combination of ICIs with mTOR inhibitors represents an emerging strategy. Finally, it is relevant to anticipate which patients under ICIs would experience severe irAEs and from a kidney perspective, to predict patients with higher risk of AKI. Here, we provide a detailed overview of ICIs-related nephrotoxicity and the recently described multicenter studies. Several factors have been reported as biomarkers of ICIs-irAEs, in this review we speculate on potential biomarkers for ICIs-associated AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/imunologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Proteínas de Checkpoint Imunológico/imunologia , Imunossenescência , Transplante de Rim , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18400, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110136

RESUMO

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an essential component of the innate immune system and a recognized modulator of Complement cascade. The role of Complement system in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer has been largely underestimated. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of PTX3 as possible modulator of Complement activation in the development of this neoplasia. We performed a single center cohort study; from January 2017 through December 2018, serum and prostate tissue samples were obtained from 620 patients undergoing prostate biopsy. A group of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent a second biopsy within 12-36 months demonstrating the presence of a prostate cancer (Group A, n = 40) or confirming the diagnosis of BPH (Group B, N = 40). We measured tissue PTX3 protein expression together with complement activation by confocal microscopy in the first and second biopsy in group A and B patients. We confirmed that that PTX3 tissue expression in the first biopsy was increased in group A compared to group B patients. C1q deposits were extensively present in group A patients co-localizing and significantly correlating with PTX3 deposits; on the contrary, C1q/PTX3 deposits were negative in group B. Moreover, we found a significantly increased expression of C3a and C5a receptors within resident cells in group A patient. Interestingly, C1q/PTX3 deposits were not associated with activation of the terminal Complement complex C5b-9; moreover, we found a significant increase of Complement inhibitor CD59 in cancer tissue. Our data indicate that PTX3 might play a significant pathogenic role in the development of this neoplasia through recruitment of the early components of Complement cascade with hampered activation of terminal Complement pathway associated with the upregulation of CD59. This alteration might lead to the PTX3-mediated promotion of cellular proliferation, angiogenesis and insensitivity to apoptosis possible leading to cancer cell invasion and migration.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(10): 1474-1483, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Active antibody-mediated rejection is the main cause of kidney transplant loss, sharing with SLE the alloimmune response and the systemic activation of the IFN-α pathway. IgE-mediated immune response plays a key role in the development of SLE nephritis and is associated with IFN-α secretion. The aim of our study was to investigate IgE-mediated immune response in antibody-mediated rejection. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a cross-sectional study of 56 biopsy-proven antibody-mediated rejection study participants, 80 recipients with normal graft function/histology (control), 16 study participants with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and six participants with SLE. We evaluated graft IgE deposition, tryptase (a mast cell marker), and CD203 (a specific marker of activated basophils) by immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy. In addition, we measured serum concentration of human myxovirus resistance protein 1, an IFN-α-induced protein, and anti-HLA IgE. RESULTS: We observed a significantly higher IgE deposition in tubules and glomeruli in antibody-mediated rejection (1766±79 pixels) and SLE (1495±43 pixels) compared with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (582±122 pixels) and control (253±50 pixels). Patients with antibody-mediated rejection, but not control patients and patients with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, presented circulating anti-HLA IgE antibodies, although with a low mean fluorescence intensity. In addition, immunofluorescence revealed the presence of both mast cells and activated basophils in antibody-mediated rejection but not in control and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. The concentration of circulating basophils was significantly higher in antibody-mediated rejection compared with control and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy. MxA serum levels were significantly higher in antibody-mediated rejection compared with control and correlated with the extent of IgE deposition. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that IgE deposition and the subsequent recruitment of basophils and mast cells within the kidney transplant might play a role in antibody-mediated rejection.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899575

RESUMO

Chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) is the major cause of kidney transplant failure. The molecular mechanisms underlying this event are still poorly defined and this lack of knowledge deeply influences the potential therapeutic strategies. The aim of our study was to analyze the phosphoproteome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), to identify cellular signaling networks differentially activated in CAMR. Phosphoproteins isolated from PBMCs of biopsy proven CAMR, kidney transplant recipients with normal graft function and histology and healthy immunocompetent individuals, have been investigated by proteomic analysis. Phosphoproteomic results were confirmed by Western blot and PBMCs' confocal microscopy analyses. Overall, 38 PBMCs samples were analyzed. A differential analysis of PBMCs' phosphoproteomes revealed an increase of lactotransferrin, actin-related protein 2 (ARPC2) and calgranulin-B in antibody-mediated rejection patients, compared to controls. Increased expression of phosphorylated ARPC2 and its correlation to F-actin filaments were confirmed in CAMR patients. Our results are the first evidence of altered cytoskeleton organization in circulating immune cells of CAMR patients. The increased expression of phosphorylated ARPC2 found in the PBMCs of our patients, and its association with derangement of F-actin filaments, might suggest that proteins regulating actin dynamics in immune cells could be involved in the mechanism of CAMR of kidney grafts.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosforilação , Proteômica
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824988

RESUMO

Glomerulonephritis (GN) continues to be one of the main causes of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) with an incidence rating from 10.5% to 38.2%. Therefore, recurrent GN, previously considered to be a minor contributor to graft loss, is the third most common cause of graft failure 10 years after renal transplantation. However, the incidence, pathogenesis, and natural course of recurrences are still not completely understood. This review focuses on the most frequent diseases that recur after renal transplantation, analyzing rate of recurrence, epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis and bimolecular mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy, taking into consideration the limited data available in the literature. First of all, the risk for recurrence depends on the type of glomerulonephritis. For example, recipient patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease present recurrence rarely, but often exhibit rapid graft loss. On the other hand, recipient patients with C3 glomerulonephritis present recurrence in more than 50% of cases, although the disease is generally slowly progressive. It should not be forgotten that every condition that can lead to chronic graft dysfunction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrence. Therefore, a complete workup of renal biopsy, including light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy study, is essential to provide the diagnosis, excluding alternative diagnosis that may require different treatment. We will examine in detail the biomolecular mechanisms of both native and transplanted kidney diseases, monitoring the risk of recurrence and optimizing the available treatment options.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/patologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Recidiva
14.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784471

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI), a critical syndrome characterized by a sudden reduction of renal function, is a common disorder among elderly patients particularly in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AKI is closely associated with both short- and long-term mortality and length of hospital stay and is considered a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Specific hemodynamic, metabolic, and molecular changes lead to increased susceptibility to injury in the aged kidney; therefore, certain causes of AKI such as the prerenal reduction in renal perfusion or vascular obstructive conditions are more common in the elderly; moreover, AKI is often multifactorial and iatrogenic. Older patients present several comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, heart failure) and are exposed to multiple medical interventions such as the use of nephrotoxic contrasts media and medications, which can also trigger AKI. Considering the emerging relevance of this condition, prevention and treatment of AKI in the elderly should be crucial in the internist and emergency setting. This review article summarizes the incidence, the risk factors, the pathophysiology, the molecular mechanisms and the strategies of prevention and treatment of AKI in elderly patients.

15.
Clin Kidney J ; 13(3): 450-460, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699626

RESUMO

Background: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with a broad spectrum of morphological and functional thyroid disorders. Recent studies have shown that low free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels are related to inflammatory status and endothelial activation in ESRD patients on haemodialysis (HD). Limited data exist about a possible relationship between dialysis regimen, namely long nocturnal haemodialysis (LNHD), and thyroid function parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dialysis regimen and thyroid function, and consequently with the main patient outcomes. Methods: To this purpose, we performed a retrospective, single-centre cohort study including 220 incident chronic HD patients treated during an 8-year period (from January 2010 to December 2017). The main clinical and haematochemical parameters, including thyroid function, were evaluated and related to the main patient outcomes. Results: Patients with low fT3 levels (<3.05 ng/mL) showed significantly lower survival rates than patients with normal fT3 levels (>3.05 ng/mL) (P < 0.001), although there were no substantial differences in the demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. After propensity score 1:3 matching of 25 patients treated with nocturnal HD to 75 patients treated with diurnal HD, LNHD patients showed significantly higher survival rates (88.0% versus 61.3%, P = 0.001) and lower incidence of cardiovascular events than patients on diurnal dialysis (8.0% versus 40.0%, P = 0.001). Moreover, an 8-year time-dependent analysis showed that at any time, except for baseline, the rate of patients with fT3 levels >3.05 ng/mL was significantly higher in LNHD patients than in patients treated with diurnal dialysis. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the application of alternative dialysis regimens, also reducing the frequency of low T3, could ameliorate outcomes and therefore reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in HD patients.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671083

RESUMO

Background: The correlation between the severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome related to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS) and involvement of the complement system has been examined in a small number of studies, with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated whether serum C3 levels on admission are associated with neurologic involvement. Methods: To this purpose, 68 consecutive STEC-HUS patients were recruited and main clinical and laboratory variables ad hospital admission were compared between those with or without neurologic involvement. Results: STEC-HUS patients who developed neurologic involvement (NI) showed significant higher leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and hemoglobin, and lower sodium levels as compared with those without. Interestingly, baseline serum levels of C3 were significantly lower in patients with NI as compared with those without (p < 0.001). Moreover, when stratified according to need of Eculizumab rescue therapy due to severe NI, patients treated with this drug showed baseline C3 serum levels significantly lower than those who were not (p < 0.001). Low C3 was independent risk factor for NI in our patients' population when entered as covariate in a multivariate logistic regression analysis including other major variables previously proposed as possible predictors of poor prognosis in STEC-HUS (for instance, leukocyte count, c-reactive protein, sodium levels) (HR 6.401, 95%CI 1.617-25.334, p = 0.008 for C3). To underline the role of complement in the worsening of STEC-HUS patients' clinical conditions and outcomes, all patients were divided into two groups according to the baseline lower vs. normal serum levels of C3 and the main data on care needs were assessed. Interestingly more patients with lower C3 serum levels required renal replacement therapy (p = 0.024), anti-hypertensive therapy (p = 0.011), Intensive Care Unit admission (p = 0.009), and longer hospitalization (p = 0.003), thus displaying significantly more severe disease features as compared with those with normal C3 serum levels. Conclusions: Our data suggests that children with STEC-HUS with decreased C3 concentrations at admission are more likely to develop neurologic involvement and are at increased risk of having severe clinical complications.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114778, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417585

RESUMO

The hexafluoropropylene-oxide-dimer-acid (GenX) is a short-chain perfluoroalkyl substance that was recently introduced following the phase out of PFOA, as an alternative for the process of polymerization. GenX was detected at high concentrations in rivers, drinking water and in sera of exposed workers and recent findings suggested its potential dangerousness for human health. Aim of the study was to assess the consequences of GenX exposure on in vitro thyroid cells with particular attention to the effects on cell-viability, proliferation, DNA-damage and in the thyroid-related genes expression. FRTL-5 rat-thyroid cell line were incubated with increasing concentrations of GenX for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h to assess cell viability by WST-1. DNA-damage was assessed by comet assay and further confirmed by micronucleus assay. The proliferation of survived cells was measured by staining with crystal violet and evaluation of its optical density after incubation with SDS. Changes in TTF-1, Pax8, Tg, TSH-R, NIS and TPO genes expression were evaluated by RT-PCR. GenX exposure reduced FRTL-5 viability in a time and dose-dependent manner (24 h: ANOVA F = 22.286; p < 0.001; 48 h: F = 43.253, p < 0.001; 72 h: F = 49.708, p < 0.001). Moreover, GenX exerted a genotoxic effect, as assessed by comet assay (significant increase in tail-length, olive-tail-moment and percentage of tail-DNA) and micronucleus assay, both at cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic concentrations. Exposure to GenX at concentrations non-cytotoxic exerted a significant lowering of the expression of the regulatory gene TTF-1 (p < 0.05 versus untreated) and higher expression of Pax-8 (p < 0.05 versus untreated) and a down-regulation of NIS (p < 0.05 versus untreated). In addition, cells survived to GenX exposure showed a reduced re-proliferation ability (24 h: ANOVA F = 11,941; p < 0,001; 48 h: F = 93.11; p < 0.001; 72 h F = 21.65; p < 0.001). The exposure to GenX produces several toxic effects on thyroid cells in vitro. GenX is able to promote DNA-damage and to affect the expression of thyroid transcription-factor genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Nucleares , Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , DNA , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados , Ratos , Transativadores
18.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(2)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281759

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the deadliest of all urogenital tumors, whereas it is the third for incidence after prostate and bladder cancer. An early diagnosis of RCC allows patients affected to be promptly treated with effective therapies, significantly increasing their survival rate. In addition, an early and accurate diagnosis avoids inadequate treatment, helps predict disease progression and establish the most appropriate treatments. Unfortunately, small renal tumors are usually asymptomatic, which results in a late diagnosis and, therefore, a low efficacy of treatment. Sensitive biomarkers are thus essential for early detection of RCC and for monitoring its progression. This review summarizes recent discoveries relating to renal tumor biomarkers, their diagnostic and prognostic values, and clinical feasibility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(8): 7585-7602, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345771

RESUMO

Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) belongs to the pentraxine family, innate immune regulators involved in angiogenesis, proliferation and immune escape in cancer. Here, we evaluated PTX3 tissue expression and serum levels as biomarkers of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and analyzed the possible role of complement system activation on tumor site. A 10-year retrospective cohort study including patients undergoing nephrectomy for ccRCC was also performed. PTX3 expression was elevated in both neoplastic renal cell lines and tissues, while it was absent in both normal renal proximal tubular cells (HK2) and normal renal tissues. Analysis of complement system activation on tumor tissues showed the co-expression of PTX3 with C1q, C3aR, C5R1 and CD59, but not with C5b-9 terminal complex. RCC patients showed higher serum PTX3 levels as compared to non-neoplastic patients (p<0.0001). Higher PTX3 serum levels were observed in patients with higher Fuhrman grade (p<0.01), lymph node (p<0.0001), and visceral metastases (p<0.001). Patients with higher PTX3 levels also showed significantly lower survival rates (p=0.002). Our results suggest that expression of PTX3 can affect the immunoflogosis in the ccRCC microenvironment, by activating the classical pathway of CS (C1q) and releasing pro-angiogenic factors (C3a, C5a). The up-regulation of CD59 also inhibits the complement-mediated cellular lysis.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/genética , Proteínas de Fase Aguda , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/biossíntese , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/biossíntese , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164382

RESUMO

High serum levels of microbiota-derived uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular complications. IS and PCS cannot be efficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis (HD), due to their high binding affinity for albumin. This study evaluates the efficacy of a divinylbenzene-polyvinylpyrrolidone (DVB-PVP) cartridge and a synbiotic to reduce uremic toxins in HD patients. First, the in vitro efficacy of DVB-PVP in adsorbing IS and PCS was evaluated. Second, a randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study in HD patients was carried out to establish whether the administration of a synbiotic, either individually and in association with DVB-PVP-HD, could reduce the production of uremic toxins. In vitro data showed that DVB-PVP resin removed a mean of 56% PCS and around 54% IS, after 6 h of perfusion. While, in the in vivo study, the DVB-PVP cartridge showed its adsorbing efficacy only for IS plasma levels. The combination of synbiotic treatment with DVB-PVP HD decreased IS and PCS both at pre- and post-dialysis levels. In conclusion, this study provides the first line of evidence on the synergistic action of gut microbiota modulation and an innovative absorption-based approach in HD patients, aimed at reducing plasma levels of IS and PCS.


Assuntos
Cresóis/sangue , Indicã/sangue , Povidona/administração & dosagem , Diálise Renal , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/sangue , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Vinila/administração & dosagem , Adsorção , Adulto , Cresóis/química , Feminino , Humanos , Indicã/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Povidona/química , Ésteres do Ácido Sulfúrico/química , Compostos de Vinila/química
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