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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875480

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), women also living with HIV (WLWH) have worse survival than women without HIV. Chronic HIV infection may interfere with the effectiveness of BC treatment, contributing to this disparity. We attempted to determine the impact of HIV infection on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) among South African women with BC. METHODS: We evaluated women from the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes cohort study who had stage I-III disease, initiated NACT, underwent definitive breast surgery, and had available surgical pathology reports. We compared pathologic complete response (pCR) rates among women with and without HIV infection, using multivariable logistic regression to control for differences in tumor characteristics. We also evaluated the impact of HIV infection on pCR within subgroups based on patient and tumor factors. RESULTS: Of 715 women, the 173 (24.2%) WLWH were less likely to achieve pCR than women without HIV (8.7% vs 16.4%, [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.27-0.86]). WLWH continued to have lower likelihood of achieving pCR on multivariable analysis (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.98). A similar pattern was seen within subgroups, although HIV infection appeared to affect pCR more in ER/PR-positive BC (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08-0.71) than in ER/PR-negative BC (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.39-2.29). CONCLUSION: WLWH were less like to achieve pCR following NACT for BC than women without HIV. This reduced response to systemic therapy may contribute to the poorer BC outcomes seen in WLWH.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer are often treated with extensive, multimodal therapies that may include a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Little is known about the cost of treatment or how these costs are passed on to the patients. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine the cost of care during the first year after a diagnosis of cervical cancer, to estimate the sources of the costs, and to explore the out-of-pocket costs. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a study of women with commercial insurance who received a new diagnosis of cervical cancer, and whose cases were recorded in the MarketScan database from 2008 to 2016. Patients were categorized based on the primary treatment received being either surgery (hysterectomy with or without adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy) or radiation. The inflation-adjusted medical expenditures for a 12-month period beginning on the date of the first treatment were estimated. The payments were divided into the expenditures of inpatient care, outpatient care (including chemotherapy), and outpatient pharmacy costs. The out-of-pocket costs incurred by the patients in the form of copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 4495 patients, including 3014 (67%) who underwent surgery and 1481 (33%) who primarily underwent radiotherapy, were identified. The median total expenditure per patient during the first year after the diagnosis was $56,250 (interquartile range, $25,767-$107,532). The median total expenditure for patients with surgery as the primary treatment was $37,222 (interquartile range, $20,957-$75,555). The median total expenditure for patients treated primarily with radiotherapy was $101,266 (interquartile range, $63,155-$160,760). For patients treated primarily with surgery, inpatient services accounted for $15,145 (interquartile range, $0-$26,898), outpatient services accounted for $18,430 (interquartile range, $5354-$48,047), and outpatient pharmacy costs accounted for $628 (interquartile range, $141-$1847). The median cost for those women who did not require adjuvant therapy was $26,164 compared with $89,760 for women treated with adjuvant radiation. The median out-of-pocket costs for the cohort was $2253 (interquartile range, $1137-$3990) or 3.9% of the total costs. CONCLUSION: The cost of care for women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer is substantial. Overall, patients are responsible for approximately 3.9% of the costs in the form of out-of-pocket expenditures.

3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(3): 565-575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative use and persistent postoperative opioid use among Medicaid-insured women and commercially insured women who underwent gynecologic surgery for benign indications. METHODS: The Truven Health MarketScan database, a nationwide data source collecting commercial insurance claims across all states and Medicaid insurance claims from 12 states, was used to identify opioid-naïve women without cancer aged 18-64 years who underwent common gynecologic surgeries from 2012 to 2016 and filled a prescription for an opioid perioperatively. Persistent opioid use was defined as filling an opioid prescription 90-180 days after the surgery. Opioid use disorder (OUD) was defined as hospitalizations or emergency department visits for opioid dependence, misuse, or overdose. Multivariable models were developed to examine the insurance-associated disparity in persistent opioid use and OUD. RESULTS: A total of 31,155 Medicaid-insured women and 270,716 commercially insured women were identified. Medicaid-insured women received greater quantities of opioids and for longer durations than did commercially insured women. Persistent postoperative opioid use was identified in 14.1% of Medicaid-insured women and 5.8% of commercially insured women (P<.001). More opioid prescriptions filled, longer days supplied, and higher total doses perioperatively contributed most to the prediction of persistent opioid use. Medicaid-insured patients who persistently used opioids were two times more likely to develop OUD than commercially insured patients (16.8% vs 5.1% adjusted relative risk 1.99; 99% CI 1.26-3.15). CONCLUSION: Medicaid-insured women received larger quantities of opioids perioperatively, were more likely to use them persistently, and were more likely to develop OUD than commercially insured women.

4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 226, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In sub-Saharan Africa, the overlap between high HIV and HBV prevalence may increase the incidence of HCC. This study investigated the impact of HBV/HIV co-infection on age at presentation and survival of HCC. METHODS: Ethical approval was obtained to recruit, following informed written consent, patients diagnosed with HCC at oncology units at four South African hospitals. Between December 2012 and August 2015, patients newly diagnosed with HCC were recruited and provided demographic and clinical data and blood specimens. Patients were tested for HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. Survival data was available for a subset of patients. RESULTS: Of 107 HCC cases, 83 (78%) were male. Median age was 46 years (range 18 to 90 years), 68/106 (64%) were HBsAg-positive, and 22/100 (22%) were HIV infected. Among HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive HCC cases, 18/66 (27%) were HIV-infected compared to 3/34 (9%) among those that were HBsAg-negative (p = 0.04). A greater proportion of HBV/HIV co-infected cases were female than HBV mono-infected (6/18, 33% vs 6/47, 13%; p = 0.005). In addition, HBV/HIV co-infected females presented at a younger mean age (36.8 years) than HBV mono-infected women (50.5 years) (p = 0.09). Median survival was 82 days among the HIV-infected HCC patients compared to 181 days among those without HIV (p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: HCC is an important complication in the HIV/HBV infected patient. HIV-positive patients presented with HCC at a younger age than HIV-negative patients, this effect appears to be greater in women. These data provide more evidence supporting the call to address. HCC as a cause of morbidity and mortality in the HBV/HIV co-infected patient population. (281 words).

5.
Cancer Med ; 9(15): 5678-5686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic differences in mortality have not been well studied for either non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC) or cardia gastric cancer (CGC). The aim of this study was to examine the US mortality rates for these cancer subtypes, as well as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) as a comparator. METHODS: We identified 14 164 individuals who died from NCGC, 5235 from CGC, and 13 982 from EAC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 2004 and 2016. Age-adjusted incidence-based mortality rates and corresponding annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity, age, and stage of disease at diagnosis. RESULTS: The mortality rate in NCGC was two- to threefold higher in blacks, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders (PI) than non-Hispanic whites, and was significant across all age groups and stages of disease (P < .01). Mortality in CGC was higher in non-Hispanic whites than blacks and Asians/PI, particularly in individuals in the 50-64 year age group and those with stage IV disease. Mortality in EAC was two- to sixfold higher in non-Hispanic whites than all other groups across all age groups and stages of disease. From 2004 to 2016, mortality rates were stable across all racial/ethnic groups in NCGC and CGC, and in minority groups with EAC, but have been rising in non-Hispanic whites with EAC (APC 3.03, 95% CI 0.17-5.96). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study of incidence-based mortality in CGC and NCGC and demonstrates racial/ethnic differences in mortality between these subtypes. Mortality rates for NCGC are highest in minority groups, and have been stable in recent years despite declining incidence. Mortality rates for CGC are marginally higher in middle-aged non-Hispanic whites with advanced disease, though have remained stable. In contrast, mortality in EAC has been rising for non-Hispanic whites, in parallel to incidence. Further studies are needed to refine prevention strategies for high-risk individuals dying from these specific cancer subtypes.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588422

RESUMO

Previous studies have observed a reduced mortality risk associated with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use among breast cancer survivors. We sought to clarify whether such association could be explained by tumor heterogeneity, specific causes of death, confounding from comorbidities or health behaviors, and a comparison group of women without breast cancer. We interviewed 1508 women newly diagnosed with first primary breast cancer in 1996 to 1997 (~3 months after diagnosis), and 1556 age-matched women without breast cancer, about MHT use history. The National Death Index was used to ascertain vital status after a median of 17.6 years of follow-up (N = 597 deaths for breast cancer subjects). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for all-cause mortality, and cause-specific HR (cHR) for breast cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Fine-Gray model was used to account for competing causes of death. Among women with breast cancer, ever vs never MHT use was inversely associated with all-cause (HR = 0.77, 95%CI = 0.62-0.95), breast cancer-specific (cHR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.48-0.98), and CVD-specific mortality (cHR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.38-0.85). Difference of the association was observed in breast cancer-specific mortality according to hormone receptor status (negative tumors: cHR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.19-1.01; positive tumors: cHR = 0.96, 95%CI = 0.60-1.53). Among the comparison group, we observed similar, but more modest inverse associations for all-cause and CVD-specific mortality. MHT use was inversely associated with mortality after breast cancer, even after accounting for competing causes of death and multiple confounders, and was evident among women without breast cancer. Potential heterogeneity by hormone receptor status requires more study.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(1): 201-211, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The incidence and predictors of diabetes (DM) in patients with breast cancer (BC) were evaluated. We compared DM incidence and physician access in BC patients to matched controls. METHODS: We identified women with stage I-III BC diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 in the SEER-Medicare database, with ≥ 2 years of follow-up after diagnosis, without previous DM claims. Incident DM was determined by ≥ 1 DM claims after BC diagnosis. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors associated with incident DM. Age- and race-matched non-cancer controls were obtained from a 5% random sample and assigned an index date. Physician and PCP visits per-patient-per-year were compared between cases and controls in the two-year period prior to and after the index date. RESULTS: Among 14,506 eligible BC patients, 3234 (22.3%) developed DM versus 16.5% of controls. Among BC patients, factors associated with incident DM included race (Black OR 1.63 95% CI 1.39-1.93, Hispanic OR 3.03 95% CI 1.92-4.81; vs. Caucasians), SES (Quintile 0 vs. Quintile 4 OR 1.55 95% CI 1.33-1.78), and receipt of chemotherapy (vs. none OR 1.19 95% CI 1.08-1.31). Among cases and controls, respectively, median physician visits per-patient-per-year were 19 and 17 prior to the index date, and 46 and 19 after the index date; median PCP visits were 2 for both groups in both periods. CONCLUSION: About 22% of BC patients developed DM, more than controls in the same period. While there were differences in healthcare access, there weren't differences in PCP access between groups. This represents an opportunity for better comorbidity management in BC patients.

8.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-14, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406331

RESUMO

Among men in South Africa, the prevalence of tobacco smoking is as high as 33%. Although smoking is responsible for most lung cancer in South Africa, occupational and environmental exposures contribute greatly to risk. We conducted a tobacco and lung cancer screening needs assessment and administered surveys to adults who smoked >100 cigarettes in their lifetime in Johannesburg (urban) and Kimberley (rural). We compared tobacco use, risk exposure, attitudes toward and knowledge of, and receptivity to cessation and screening, by site. Of 324 smokers, nearly 85% of current smokers had a <30 pack-year history of smoking; 58.7% had tried to stop smoking ≥1 time, and 78.9% wanted to quit. Kimberley smokers more often reported being advised by a healthcare provider to stop smoking (56.5% vs. 37.3%, p=0.001) than smokers in Johannesburg but smokers in Johannesburg were more willing to stop smoking if advised by their doctor (72.9% vs. 41.7%, p<0.001). Findings indicate that tobacco smokers in two geographic areas of South Africa are motivated to stop smoking but receive no healthcare support to do so. Developing high risk criteria for lung cancer screening and creating tobacco cessation infrastructure may reduce tobacco use and decrease lung cancer mortality in South Africa.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(19): 2122-2129, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nonadherence to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for breast cancer is common and increases the risk of recurrence. Text messaging increases adherence to medications for chronic conditions. METHODS: We conducted a randomized clinical trial of text messaging (TM) versus no text messaging (No-TM) at 40 sites in the United States. Eligible patients were postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer taking an AI for > 30 days with a planned duration of ≥ 36 months. Test messages were sent twice a week over 36 months. Content themes focused on overcoming barriers to medication adherence and included cues to action, statements related to medication efficacy, and reinforcements of the recommendation to take AIs. Both groups were assessed every 3 months. The primary outcome was time to adherence failure (AF), where AF was defined as urine AI metabolite assay results satisfying one of the following: < 10 ng/mL, undetectable, or no submitted specimen. A stratified log-rank test was conducted. Multiple sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In total, 724 patients were registered between May 2012 and September 2013, among whom,702 patients (348 in the text-messaging arm and 354 in the no-text-messaging arm) were eligible at baseline. Observed adherence at 36 months was 55.5% for TM and 55.4% for No-TM. The primary analysis showed no difference in time to AF by arm (3-year AF: 81.9% TM v 85.6% No-TM; HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.05]; P = .18). Multiple time to AF sensitivity analyses showed similar nonsignificant results. Three-year self-reported time to AF (10.4% v 10.3%; HR, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.98]; P = .57) and site-reported time to AF (21.9% v 18.9%; HR, 1.31 [95% CI, 0.86 to 2.01]; P = .21) also did not differ by arm. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the first large, long-term, randomized trial of an intervention directed at improving AI adherence. We found high rates of AI AF. Twice-weekly text reminders did not improve adherence to AIs. Improving long-term adherence will likely require personalized and sustained behavioral interventions.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(2): 415-423, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of patient travel among women with ovarian cancer and to explore the association between travel distance and short and long-term outcomes. METHODS: Women with stage II-IV epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 2004 to 2016 who underwent primary surgery were identified in the National Cancer Database. Mixed-effect log-linear models and proportional hazards models were developed to evaluate the association between travel distance and short and long-term outcomes after propensity score weighting. A further analysis was performed to compare patients who traveled a short distance to a low volume center (Local) to patients who traveled farther to a high volume hospital (Travel). RESULTS: We identified 56,834 patients treated in 1201 hospitals. Hispanic women were 58% and black women 64% less likely than white women to travel to a center in the greatest distance quartile for care. Similarly, Medicaid recipients (vs. commercially insured) were less likely to travel to a quartile four hospital (compared to Q1 of distance traveled). Of all patients, 90-day mortality was significantly lower in patients who traveled farther (Q4 vs. Q1; P < 0.0001). Compared to women in the Local group, patients in the Travel group had a decreased 30-day readmission rate. There was no difference in 30-day, 90-day, or 5-year mortality when comparing the Local to the Travel group. CONCLUSIONS: Travel distance for ovarian cancer surgery has increased over time. While there may be some short-term benefits in traveling to a regional center for care, there was little difference in long term outcomes based on travel distance.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2956-2966, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393663

RESUMO

Although prostate cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for African men, the vast majority of known disease associations have been detected in European study cohorts. Furthermore, most genome-wide association studies have used genotyping arrays that are hindered by SNP ascertainment bias. To overcome these disparities in genomic medicine, the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) Network has developed a genotyping array that is optimized for African populations. The MADCaP Array contains more than 1.5 million markers and an imputation backbone that successfully tags over 94% of common genetic variants in African populations. This array also has a high density of markers in genomic regions associated with cancer susceptibility, including 8q24. We assessed the effectiveness of the MADCaP Array by genotyping 399 prostate cancer cases and 403 controls from seven urban study sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Samples from Ghana and Nigeria clustered together, whereas samples from Senegal and South Africa yielded distinct ancestry clusters. Using the MADCaP array, we identified cancer-associated loci that have large allele frequency differences across African populations. Polygenic risk scores for prostate cancer were higher in Nigeria than in Senegal. In summary, individual and population-level differences in prostate cancer risk were revealed using a novel genotyping array. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents an Africa-specific genotyping array, which enables investigators to identify novel disease associations and to fine-map genetic loci that are associated with prostate and other cancers.

12.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(5): 715-723, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Affordable Care Act mandated that health plans cover preventive health services without patient cost sharing. A process, based on the analyses of medical claims data, is presented that allows companies to assess whether their healthcare plans are providing employees and dependents with age- and sex-appropriate high-priority preventive healthcare services. METHODS: High-priority preventive healthcare services are defined as, a physical examination; type 2 diabetes screening; blood lipid screening; cervical, breast, and colon cancer screening; and osteoporosis screening. Current Procedural Terminology codes reflecting billing for these screening services were identified. Receipt of these age- and sex-appropriate services in rolling 3-year windows from 2010 to 2016 was assessed in 86,895,424 person-years of medical claims data from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and the Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefit Database. Data were analyzed in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: In the 2014-2016 period, 29% of men and 36% of women received the complete set of age- and sex-appropriate preventive health services, whereas 33% of men and 13% of women received none of these services. CONCLUSIONS: Only a minority of individuals received a complete set of the defined high-priority preventive healthcare services. The process presented here allows employers to routinely analyze their medical claims data to assess the performance of their health and wellness plans in delivering these preventive services. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach are also described.

13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 517-524, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146553

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether the relationship between diabetes and all-cause and CVD-related mortality differed between women with and without breast cancer among a cohort drawn from the same source population. METHODS: We interviewed 1,363 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1996-1997, and 1,358 age-matched women without breast cancer, to assess history of physician-diagnosed diabetes. All-cause (n = 631) and CVD-specific mortality (n = 234) was determined by the National Death Index through 2009. We estimated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the rates of all-cause and CVD-specific mortality and, to account for competing causes of death, and subdistribution HRs (sHRs) for risk of CVD-related death. RESULTS: Among women with and without breast cancer, respectively, diabetes was associated with: all-cause mortality [HR (95% CI) 1.52 (1.13, 2.05) and 2.17 (1.46, 3.22)]; CVD-specific deaths [1.74 (1.06, 2.84) and 2.06 (1.11, 3.84)]; and risk of CVD-related death [sHR 1.36 (0.81, 2.27) and 1.79 (0.94, 3.40)]. Differences in effect estimates between women with and without breast cancer did not reach statistical significance (p-interaction > 0.10). CONCLUSION: We found that the positive association between a history of physician-diagnosed diabetes and risk of all-cause and CVD-related mortality is of similar magnitude among a population-based cohort of women with or without breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(3): 396.e1-396.e13, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black women experience poorer survival compared with white women across all endometrial cancer stages and histologies. The incidence of endometrial cancer is 30% lower in black women compared with white women, yet mortality is 80% higher in black women. Differences in adherence to evidence-based guidelines have been proposed to be major contributors to this disparity. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether adherence to evidence-based treatment recommendations for endometrial cancer could mitigate survival disparities between black and white women. STUDY DESIGN: The National Cancer Database was used to identify women with endometrial cancer treated from 2004 through 2016. We established 5 evidence-based quality metrics based on review of primary literature and accepted guidelines: surgical treatment within 6 weeks of diagnosis (Q1), use of minimally invasive surgery (stage I-IIIC; Q2), pelvic nodal assessment (high-risk tumors; Q3), adjuvant radiation (high intermediate risk; Q4), and systemic chemotherapy (stage III-IV; Q5). The rates of 30 and 90 day mortality and 5 year survival were compared between black and white women. To determine the influence of quality on outcomes, we compared outcomes among perfectly adherent black and white women with stage I and III endometrial cancer. RESULTS: We identified 310,208 women including 35,035 (11.3%) black women and 275,173 (88.3%) white women. Black women were less likely than white women to receive Q1 (65.8 vs 75.6%), Q2 (58.5 vs 72.9%), Q3 (71.3 vs 74.2%), and Q5 (72.7 vs 73.2%) (P < .05 for all). Adherence to each quality metrics was associated with improved survival. Among women with stage I disease, perfect adherence to the relative quality metrics was seen in 53.1% of white and 41.5% of black women. Among perfectly adherent stage I patients, outcomes in black women improved relative to unselected black women; however, they still experienced higher risk of 30 day (adjusted relative risk, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-3.90), 90 day (adjusted relative risk, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.76), and 5 year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.59) compared with similar white women. Among women with stage III tumors, perfect adherence to the relative quality metrics was seen in 56.6% of white and 44.1% of black women. Perfectly adherent black women with stage III disease had improved outcomes but remained at increased risk of 30 day (adjusted relative risk, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.44) and 5 year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-1.50) compared with white women. CONCLUSION: Black women are less likely than white women with endometrial cancer to receive evidence-based care. However, receipt of evidence-based care mitigates but does not eliminate racial disparities in outcomes and black women remain at greater risk of death from endometrial cancer.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 329-334, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of nodal metastases in a contemporary cohort of women based on pathologic risk factors including histology, depth of invasion, tumor grade, and lymphovascular space invasion. METHODS: Women with endometrial cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2004 to 2016 who were registered in the National Cancer Database were analyzed. Patients were stratified by T stage: T1A (<50% myometrial invasion), T1B (>50% myometrial invasion) and T2 (cervical involvement). Lymph node metastases were assessed in relation to tumor T stage and grade, and further stratified by lymphovascular space invasion. RESULTS: We identified 161,960 patients. The rate of nodal metastases within the endometrioid histology cohort was 2.2% for T1A cancers, 12.8% for T1B cancers and 19.9% for T2 cancers. For stage TIA cancers, the percent of patients with positive nodes increased from 1.1% for grade 1 cancers, to 2.9% for grade 2 cancers to 4.8% for grade 3 cancers. The corresponding rates of nodal metastases for stage T1B cancers were 8.6%, 13.7%, and 16.9%, respectively. For T1A cancers without lymphovascular space invasion, nodal metastases ranged from 0.6% in those with grade 1 cancers to 3.0% for grade 3 cancers. The corresponding risk of nodal disease ranged from 11.8% to 13.9% for T1A cancers with lymphovascular space invasion. CONCLUSIONS: There was a sequential increase in the risk of lymph node metastases based on depth of uterine invasion, tumor grade, and the presence of lymphovascular space invasion. The overall rate of nodal metastasis is lower than reported in the original GOG 33.

16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(1): 37-47, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045675

RESUMO

CONTEXT: When religious and spiritual (R/S) care needs of patients with advanced disease are met, their quality of life (QoL) improves. We studied the association between R/S support and QoL of patients with cancer at the end of life in Soweto, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To identify R/S needs among patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care services and to assess associations of receipt of R/S care with patient QoL and place of death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted from May 1, 2016 to April 30, 2018 at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Nurses enrolled patients with advanced cancer and referred them to the palliative care multidisciplinary team. Spiritual counselors assessed and provided spiritual care to patients. We compared sociodemographic, clinical, and R/S factors and QoL of R/S care recipients and others. RESULTS: Of 233 deceased participants, 92 (39.5%) had received R/S care. Patients who received R/S care reported less pain (2.82 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 1.69), used less morphine, and were more likely to die at home than patients who did not (57.5% compared with 33.7%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusting for significant confounding influences and baseline African Palliative Care Association Palliative care Outcome Scale scores, receipt of spiritual care was associated with reduced pain and family worry (odds ratio 0.33; 95% CI 0.11-0.95 and odds ratio 3.43; 95% CI 1.10-10.70, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with cancer have R/S needs. R/S care among our patients appeared to improve their end-of-life experience. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms by which R/S care may have improved the observed patient outcomes.

17.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931632

RESUMO

Objective: Recent studies of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) have found a positive association between cytoreductive surgery and survival, challenging the traditional notion that surgery is not beneficial and potentially harmful. However, no studies have examined the potential added benefits of adjuvant treatment in the post-operative setting. Here, we investigate survival in PCNSL patients treated with surgery plus radiation therapy (RT).Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program was used to identify patients with PCNSL from 1995-2013. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between treatment, prognostic factors, and survival using case-control design. Treatment categories were compared to biopsy alone.Results: We identified 5417 cases. Median survival times for biopsy alone (n = 1824, 34%), biopsy + RT (n = 1460, 27%), surgery alone (n = 1222, 27%), and surgery + RT (n = 911, 17%) were 7, 8, 20, and 27 months, respectively. On multivariable analysis, surgery + RT was associated with improved survival over surgery alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.58 [95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.64] vs. HR = 0.71 [0.65-0.77]). Adjuvant RT was associated with improved survival, regardless of the extent of resection. HR's for subtotal resection, gross-total resection, subtotal resection + RT, and gross-total resection + RT were 0.77 (0.66-0.89), 0.66 (0.57-0.76), 0.62 (0.52-0.72), and 0.54 (0.46-0.63), respectively. Survival improved after adjuvant RT in patients under and over 60 years old. All findings were confirmed by multivariable analysis of cause-specific survival.Conclusion: Adjuvant RT was associated with improved survival in PCNSL patients who underwent surgery. Although these data are hypothesis-generating, additional information on neurotoxicity, dosing, and concurrent chemotherapy will be necessary to validate these findings. Cytoreductive surgery for PCNSL is common in the general population, and more studies are needed to assess optimal treatment in the post-operative setting.

18.
J Neurooncol ; 146(1): 171-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting routine postoperative antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis following oncologic neurosurgery is limited, and actual practice patterns are largely unknown beyond survey data. OBJECTIVE: To describe patterns and predictors of postoperative AED prophylaxis following intracranial tumor surgery. METHODS: The MarketScan Database was used to analyze pharmacy claims data and clinical characteristics in a national sample over a 5-year period. RESULTS: Among 5895 patients in the cohort, levetiracetam was the most widely used AED for prophylaxis (78.5%) followed by phenytoin (20.5%). Prophylaxis was common but highly variable for patients who underwent open resection of supratentorial intraparenchymal tumors (62.5%, reference) or meningiomas (61.9%). In multivariate analysis, biopsies were less likely to receive prophylaxis (44.8%, OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.33-0.67), and there was near consensus against prophylaxis for infratentorial (9.7%, OR 0.07, CI 0.05-0.09) and transsphenoidal procedures (0.4%, OR 0.003, CI 0.001-0.010). Primary malignancies (52.1%, reference) and secondary metastases (42.2%) were more likely to receive prophylaxis than benign tumors (23.0%, OR 0.63, CI 0.48-0.83), as were patients discharged with home services and patients in the Northeast. There was a large spike in duration of AED use at approximately 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Use of seizure prophylaxis following intracranial biopsies and supratentorial resections is highly variable, consistent with a lack of guidelines or consensus. Current practice patterns do not support a clear standard of care and may be driven in part by geographic variation, availability of post-discharge services, and electronic prescribing defaults rather than evidence. Given uncertainty regarding effectiveness, indications, and appropriate duration of AED prophylaxis, well-powered trials are needed.

19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 509-510, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928453

RESUMO

Although genetic factors such as family history have been associated with increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), multiple lifestyle and environmental risk factors for CRC have been identified, including smoking, diet, obesity, and physical activity.1,2 Although couples typically have different genetic backgrounds, spouses are likely to share lifestyle and environmental exposures over the course of years, including similar home environments, geographical locations of residence, dietary exposures, and smoking exposures.3 As such, one might expect that an increased CRC incidence would be seen among spouses of patients with CRC; however, studies on this topic have inconsistent results.3-6 By using a large cohort of spouses who have undergone colonoscopy, we aimed to determine whether the risk of colorectal adenomas is increased among spouses of those with colorectal neoplasia (CRN) on colonoscopy.

20.
Chest ; 157(5): 1313-1321, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) is a novel surgical approach increasingly used for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, data comparing the effectiveness and costs of RAS vs open thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for NSCLC are limited. METHODS: Patients > 65 years old with stage I to IIIA NSCLC treated with RAS, VATS, or open thoracotomy were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database and matched according to age, sex, stage, and extent of resection. Propensity score methods were used to compare adjusted rates of postoperative complications, adequate lymph node staging, survival, and treatment-related costs. RESULTS: In this matched study cohort of 2,766 patients with resected NSCLC, RAS was associated with lower complication rates (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79) compared with open thoracotomy, and similar complication rates (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.76-1.37) compared with VATS. Patients undergoing RAS were as likely to have adequate lymph node sampling as those undergoing open thoracotomy (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.94-1.74) or VATS (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.66-1.18). There was no significant difference in overall survival after RAS vs open thoracotomy (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.63-1.04) or VATS (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.70-1.18). Costs were similar for RAS ($54,702) vs open thoracotomy ($57,104; P = .08), and higher compared with VATS ($48,729; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: RAS led to improved operative outcomes compared with open thoracotomy but may not offer an advantage over VATS. The comparative effectiveness of RAS should be further evaluated prior to widespread adoption.

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