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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight gain and other anthropometric measures on the risk of ovarian cancer for women with BRCA mutations are not known. We conducted a prospective analysis of weight change since age 18, height, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, and current BMI and the risk of developing ovarian cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, height, weight, and weight at age 18 were collected at study enrollment. Weight was updated biennially. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ovarian cancer. RESULTS: This study followed 4,340 women prospectively. There were 121 incident cases of ovarian cancer. Weight gain of more than 20 kg since age 18 was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of ovarian cancer, compared with women who maintained a stable weight (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.54; P = 0.02). Current BMI of 26.5 kg/m2 or greater was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers, compared with those with a BMI less than 20.8 kg/m2 (Q4 vs. Q1 HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.04-4.36; P = 0.04). There were no significant associations between height or BMI at age 18 and risk of ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Adult weight gain is a risk factor for ovarian cancer in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. IMPACT: These findings emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adulthood in women at high risk for ovarian cancer.

2.
Environ Int ; 156: 106772, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may influence risk of developing post-menopausal breast cancer. Although mechanisms are poorly understood, epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a role. OBJECTIVES: To identify DNA methylation (DNAm) changes associated with PBDE serum levels and test the association of these biomarkers with breast cancer risk. METHODS: We studied 397 healthy women (controls) and 133 women diagnosed with breast cancer (cases) between ages 40 and 58 years who participated in the California Teachers Study. PBDE levels were measured in blood. Infinium Human Methylation EPIC Bead Chips were used to measure DNAm. Using multivariable linear regression models, differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs) and regions (DMRs) associated with serum PBDE levels were identified using controls. For top-ranked DMSs and DMRs, targeted next-generation bisulfite sequencing was used to measure DNAm for 133 invasive breast cancer cases and 301 age-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between DMSs and DMRs and breast cancer risk. RESULTS: We identified 15 DMSs and 10 DMRs statistically significantly associated with PBDE levels (FDR < 0.05). Methylation changes in a DMS at BMP8B and DMRs at TP53 and A2M-AS1 were statistically significantly (FDR < 0.05) associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that serum PBDE levels are associated with differential methylation and that PBDE-associated DNAm changes in blood are associated with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 660, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079055

RESUMO

The female mammary epithelium undergoes reorganization during development, pregnancy, and menopause, linking higher risk with breast cancer development. To characterize these periods of complex remodeling, here we report integrated 50 K mouse and 24 K human mammary epithelial cell atlases obtained by single-cell RNA sequencing, which covers most lifetime stages. Our results indicate a putative trajectory that originates from embryonic mammary stem cells which differentiates into three epithelial lineages (basal, luminal hormone-sensing, and luminal alveolar), presumably arising from unipotent progenitors in postnatal glands. The lineage-specific genes infer cells of origin of breast cancer using The Cancer Genome Atlas data and single-cell RNA sequencing of human breast cancer, as well as the association of gland reorganization to different breast cancer subtypes. This comprehensive mammary cell gene expression atlas ( https://mouse-mammary-epithelium-integrated.cells.ucsc.edu ) presents insights into the impact of the internal and external stimuli on the mammary epithelium at an advanced resolution.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Mama/citologia , Mama/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/etiologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Gravidez , RNA-Seq/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(8): 1498-1505, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor patients often reside in neighborhoods of lower socioeconomic status (SES) with high levels of airborne pollutants. They also have higher mortality from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than those living in wealthier communities. We investigated whether living in polluted neighborhoods is associated with somatic mutations linked with lower survival rates, i.e., TP53 mutations. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 478 patients with NSCLC treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 2015 and 2018, we used logistic regression to assess associations between individual demographic and clinical characteristics, including somatic TP53 mutation status and environmental risk factors of annual average particulate matter (PM2.5) levels, and neighborhood SES. RESULTS: 277 patients (58%) had somatic TP53 mutations. Of those, 45% lived in neighborhoods with "moderate" Environmental Protection Agency-defined PM2.5 exposure, compared with 39% of patients without TP53 mutations. We found significant associations between living in neighborhoods with "moderate" versus "good" PM2.5 concentrations and minority population percentage [OR, 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.08]. There was a significant association between presence of TP53 mutations and PM2.5 exposure (moderate versus good: OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.02-2.72) after adjusting for patient characteristics, other environmental factors, and neighborhood-level SES. CONCLUSIONS: When controlling for individual- and neighborhood-level confounders, we find that the odds of having a TP53-mutated NSCLC are increased in areas with higher PM2.5 exposure. IMPACT: The link between pollution and aggressive biology may contribute to the increased burden of adverse NSCLC outcomes in individuals living in lower SES neighborhoods.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(23): 2564-2573, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population. METHODS: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, and NF1. PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC. RESULTS: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of ATM and CHEK2 carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk. CONCLUSION: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of CHEK2 and nearly half of ATM carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2075, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824302

RESUMO

Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) account for significant genetic variation in many organisms. In humans, VNTRs have been implicated in both Mendelian and complex disorders, but are largely ignored by genomic pipelines due to the complexity of genotyping and the computational expense. We describe adVNTR-NN, a method that uses shallow neural networks to genotype a VNTR in 18 seconds on 55X whole genome data, while maintaining high accuracy. We use adVNTR-NN to genotype 10,264 VNTRs in 652 GTEx individuals. Associating VNTR length with gene expression in 46 tissues, we identify 163 "eVNTRs". Of the 22 eVNTRs in blood where independent data is available, 21 (95%) are replicated in terms of significance and direction of association. 49% of the eVNTR loci show a strong and likely causal impact on the expression of genes and 80% have maximum effect size at least 0.3. The impacted genes are involved in diseases including Alzheimer's, obesity and familial cancers, highlighting the importance of VNTRs for understanding the genetic basis of complex diseases.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Alelos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 187(2): 515-523, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is not known whether the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers after age 60 is high enough to justify intensive screening or prophylactic surgery. Thus, we conducted a prospective analysis of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from age 60 until age 80. METHODS: Subjects had no history of cancer and both breasts intact at age 60 (n = 699). Women were followed until a breast cancer diagnosis, prophylactic bilateral mastectomy or death. We calculated the annual cancer rate and cumulative incidence of breast cancer (invasive and in situ) from age 60 to age 80. We assessed the associations between hormone replacement therapy, family history of breast cancer and bilateral oophorectomy and breast cancer risk. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 7.9 years, 61 invasive and 20 in situ breast cancers were diagnosed in the cohort. The mean annual rate of invasive breast cancer was 1.8% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1.7% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The cumulative risk of invasive breast cancer from age 60 to 80 was 20.1% for women with a BRCA1 mutation and was 17.3% for women with a BRCA2 mutation. Hormone replacement therapy, family history and oophorectomy were not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this large prospective study indicate that the risk of developing breast cancer remains high after age 60 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. These findings warrant further evaluation of the role of breast cancer screening in older mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Ovariectomia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Br J Cancer ; 124(2): 315-332, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(4): 453-461, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study of MBC identified 2 predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls in 3 stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1380 cases and 3620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1026 controls was used to validate variants with P values less than 1 × 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using linkage disequilibrium score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score and MBC. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: The genome-wide association study identified 3 novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide statistical significance (P < 5 × 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen receptor-positive FBC. Men in the top quintile of genetic risk had a fourfold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 × 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic etiology with FBC and identifying a fourfold high-risk group of susceptible men.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158149

RESUMO

The identification of recurrent founder variants in cancer predisposing genes may have important implications for implementing cost-effective targeted genetic screening strategies. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and relative risk of the CHEK2 recurrent variant c.349A>G in a series of 462 Portuguese patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary prostate cancer (PrCa), as well as in the large multicentre PRACTICAL case-control study comprising 55,162 prostate cancer cases and 36,147 controls. Additionally, we investigated the potential shared ancestry of the carriers by performing identity-by-descent, haplotype and age estimation analyses using high-density SNP data from 70 variant carriers belonging to 11 different populations included in the PRACTICAL consortium. The CHEK2 missense variant c.349A>G was found significantly associated with an increased risk for PrCa (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2). A shared haplotype flanking the variant in all carriers was identified, strongly suggesting a common founder of European origin. Additionally, using two independent statistical algorithms, implemented by DMLE+2.3 and ESTIAGE, we were able to estimate the age of the variant between 2300 and 3125 years. By extending the haplotype analysis to 14 additional carrier families, a shared core haplotype was revealed among all carriers matching the conserved region previously identified in the high-density SNP analysis. These findings are consistent with CHEK2 c.349A>G being a founder variant associated with increased PrCa risk, suggesting its potential usefulness for cost-effective targeted genetic screening in PrCa families.

11.
Microb Cell ; 7(10): 270-285, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015141

RESUMO

RAD52 is a structurally and functionally conserved component of the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair apparatus from budding yeast to humans. We recently showed that expressing the human gene, HsRAD52 in rad52 mutant budding yeast cells can suppress both their ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity and homologous recombination repair (HRR) defects. Intriguingly, we observed that HsRAD52 supports DSB repair by a mechanism of HRR that conserves genome structure and is independent of the canonical HR machinery. In this study we report that naturally occurring variants of HsRAD52, one of which suppresses the pathogenicity of BRCA2 mutations, were unable to suppress the IR sensitivity and HRR defects of rad52 mutant yeast cells, but fully suppressed a defect in DSB repair by single-strand annealing (SSA). This failure to suppress both IR sensitivity and the HRR defect correlated with an inability of HsRAD52 protein to associate with and drive an interaction between genomic sequences during DSB repair by HRR. These results suggest that HsRAD52 supports multiple, distinct DSB repair apparatuses in budding yeast cells and help further define its mechanism of action in HRR. They also imply that disruption of HsRAD52-dependent HRR in BRCA2-defective human cells may contribute to protection against tumorigenesis and provide a target for killing BRCA2-defective cancers.

12.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 820-826, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Proteção
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

14.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(6): 825-830, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the most effective means of reducing the risk of ovarian cancer among women with an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Some women are diagnosed with an invasive cancer (ovarian or fallopian tube) at the time of preventive surgery, referred to as an 'occult' cancer. The survival experience of these women is not known. METHODS: We estimated the 10-year survival for 52 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult ovarian or fallopian tube cancer at the time of preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 51.6 (range 33-69) years. All were serous cancers (although 14 were missing information on histologic subtype). Of the 20 cases with information available on stage at diagnosis, 10 were stage I, 1 was stage II, and 9 were stage III (n=32 missing). After a mean of 6.8 years, 12 women died (23%). The 10-year all-cause survival was 74%. CONCLUSION: Although based on only 52 cases, these findings suggest a more favorable prognosis for BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult rather than incident disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/mortalidade , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Ovariectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/genética , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Tubas Uterinas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia
15.
Mol Oncol ; 14(6): 1124-1133, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175645

RESUMO

Women who carry pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of up to 80%. However, risk estimates vary in part due to genetic modifiers. We investigated the association of the RAD52 S346X variant as a modifier of the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. The RAD52 S346X allele was associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer in BRCA2 carriers [per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.86; P = 0.0008] and to a lesser extent in BRCA1 carriers (per-allele HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.97, P = 0.02). We examined how this variant affected DNA repair. Using a reporter system that measures repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by single-strand annealing (SSA), expression of hRAD52 suppressed the loss of this repair in Rad52-/- mouse embryonic stem cells. When hRAD52 S346X was expressed in these cells, there was a significantly reduced frequency of SSA. Interestingly, expression of hRAD52 S346X also reduced the stimulation of SSA observed upon depletion of BRCA2, demonstrating the reciprocal roles for RAD52 and BRCA2 in the control of DSB repair by SSA. From an immunofluorescence analysis, we observed little nuclear localization of the mutant protein as compared to the wild-type; it is likely that the reduced nuclear levels of RAD52 S346X explain the diminished DSB repair by SSA. Altogether, we identified a genetic modifier that protects against breast cancer in women who carry pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 (P = 0.0008) and to a lesser extent BRCA1 (P = 0.02). This RAD52 mutation causes a reduction in DSB repair by SSA, suggesting that defects in RAD52-dependent DSB repair are linked to reduced tumor risk in BRCA2-mutation carriers.

16.
Environ Res ; 183: 109224, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that is released into the environment during industrial processes. Previous animal studies suggest that Cd may impact the onset of puberty. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Cd exposure, measured as urinary Cd concentration, was associated with ages at menarche and pubertal development. METHODS: A cohort of 211 girls, ages 10-13 years at baseline, was followed for up to two years. Girls completed an interview and self-assessment of Tanner stages of breast development and pubic hair growth. They were followed monthly until menarche. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured in overnight urine specimens. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between urinary Cd and age at menarche and cumulative logit regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary Cd and breast development and pubic hair growth. RESULTS: The baseline geometric mean creatinine-adjusted Cd concentration was 0.22 µg/g creatinine (geometric standard deviation = 1.6) and decreased with increasing age (p-trend = 0.04). Cd levels were higher among Asian than White girls or girls of other/mixed race/ethnicity (p = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, girls with urinary Cd ≥ 0.4 µg/L were less likely to have attained menarche than girls with urinary Cd < 0.2 µg/L (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.78). Urinary Cd was negatively associated with pubic hair growth (p-trend = 0.01) but not with breast development (p-trend = 0.72) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a higher Cd body burden may delay some aspects of pubertal development among girls.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio , Menarca , Puberdade , Adolescente , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101688, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although clinical prognostic indicators exist for follicular lymphoma(FL), patient outcomes remain heterogeneous. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the association between survival and a polygenic risk score(PRS) composed of five previously identified FL susceptibility loci(rs12195582, rs13254990, rs17749561, rs4245081, rs4938573) among women who participated in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Los Angeles County between 2004-2008. Risk associations were estimated through logistic regression, calculating the odds ratios(OR) and 95 % confidence intervals(95 % CI). Survival was estimated under a Cox proportional hazards model and hazard ratios(HR) and 95 % CI were calculated. RESULTS: Among 437 non-Hispanic White controls and 100 non-Hispanic White FL patients, we confirmed a 2.6-fold increased risk of FL associated with the highest PRS tertile (95 % CI:1.35-4.86). After accounting for clinical indicators, the PRS was associated with improved overall survival in non-Hispanic women (HR:0.31; 95 % CI:0.10-0.96). CONCLUSION: PRS was associated with increased risk of FL, but improved overall survival.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(6): 590-598, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Because most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of US Latinas and Latin American women (4658 cases and 7622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (P < 5 × 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression, and assessed discrimination using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (P < .05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio per SD increment of 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI = 1.52 to 1.64) and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.63 (95% CI = 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
20.
Menopause ; 27(2): 156-161, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers are advised to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent ovarian cancer. The abrupt hormonal withdrawal associated with early surgical menopause has been shown to increase the risk of depression and anxiety among women in the general population. The impact in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not known. METHODS: We undertook a matched prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on self-reported initiation of antidepressant use. We identified women with no personal history of cancer or depression and prospectively evaluated the frequency of self-reported medication use after surgery. Each exposed participant (oophorectomy) was randomly matched to a control participant (no oophorectomy) according to year of birth (within 3 years), BRCA mutation type (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and country of residence (Canada, United States, Poland). A total of 506 matched sets were included. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of antidepressant use (ever/never) following preventive oophorectomy in the entire study population and stratified by age at oophorectomy and by use of hormone therapy. RESULTS: Oophorectomy was not associated with more frequent antidepressant use among BRCA mutation carriers (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). We observed reductions in the odds of antidepressant medication use among women who underwent oophorectomy before the age of 50 years (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78) and among those who initiated hormone therapy use after oophorectomy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.90). Findings were similar when the analysis was based on self-reported depression (rather than antidepressant use). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small number of women, these findings suggest that oophorectomy does not increase psychological distress among women at an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/psicologia , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/psicologia , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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