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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preference for activity in the morning or evening (chronotype) may impact type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors. Our objective was to use Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate whether there are causal links between chronotype and one potential T2D risk factor, total fatty acids (TOTFA), and between TOTFA and T2D. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the causal effect of: 1) morning chronotype on TOTFA; and 2) higher TOTFA on T2D. We found that: a) morning compared to evening chronotype was associated with lower TOTFA levels (inverse-weighted variance (IVW) estimate -0.21; 95% CI -0.38, -0.03; raw P = 0.02; FDR-corrected P 0.04) and b) elevated TOTFA levels were protective against T2D (IVW estimate -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05; raw P = 0.01; FDR-corrected P = 0.03). Based on this finding, we further hypothesized that healthy fats would show a similar pattern and performed MR of a) morning chronotype on omega-3 (Omega-3), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids; and b) MR of each of these fat types on T2D. We observed the same mediating-type pattern for chronotype, MUFA, and T2D as we had for chronotype, TOTFA, and T2D, and morning chronotype was associated with lower Omega-3. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide suggestive, new information about relationships among chronotype, TOTFA, and T2D and about chronotype as a factor influencing Omega-3, MUFA, and TOTFA levels. In addition, we validated previous knowledge about MUFA and T2D. Morning chronotypes may predispose towards lower levels of TOTFA and some healthy fats, whereas higher levels of TOTFA and MUFA may protect against T2D.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 96, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long time from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals until breast cancer occurrence poses challenges for designing etiologic studies and for implementing successful prevention programs. Growing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that distinct time periods of heightened susceptibility to endocrine disruptors exist throughout the life course. The influence of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk may be greater during several windows of susceptibility (WOS) in a woman's life, including prenatal development, puberty, pregnancy, and the menopausal transition. These time windows are considered as specific periods of susceptibility for breast cancer because significant structural and functional changes occur in the mammary gland, as well as alterations in the mammary micro-environment and hormone signaling that may influence risk. Breast cancer research focused on these breast cancer WOS will accelerate understanding of disease etiology and prevention. MAIN TEXT: Despite the plausible heightened mechanistic influences of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk during time periods of change in the mammary gland's structure and function, most human studies of environmental chemicals are not focused on specific WOS. This article reviews studies conducted over the past few decades that have specifically addressed the effect of environmental chemicals and metals on breast cancer risk during at least one of these WOS. In addition to summarizing the broader evidence-base specific to WOS, we include discussion of the NIH-funded Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP) which included population-based and basic science research focused on specific WOS to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and particular classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals-including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phenols-and metals. We outline ways in which ongoing transdisciplinary BCERP projects incorporate animal research and human epidemiologic studies in close partnership with community organizations and communication scientists to identify research priorities and effectively translate evidence-based findings to the public and policy makers. CONCLUSIONS: An integrative model of breast cancer research is needed to determine the impact and mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors at different WOS. By focusing on environmental chemical exposure during specific WOS, scientists and their community partners may identify when prevention efforts are likely to be most effective.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1612-1622, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241222

RESUMO

The availability of disease-specific genomic data is critical for developing new computational methods that predict the pathogenicity of human variants and advance the field of precision medicine. However, the lack of gold standards to properly train and benchmark such methods is one of the greatest challenges in the field. In response to this challenge, the scientific community is invited to participate in the Critical Assessment for Genome Interpretation (CAGI), where unpublished disease variants are available for classification by in silico methods. As part of the CAGI-5 challenge, we evaluated the performance of 18 submissions and three additional methods in predicting the pathogenicity of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) for cases of breast cancer in Hispanic females. As part of the assessment, the efficacy of the analysis method and the setup of the challenge were also considered. The results indicated that though the challenge could benefit from additional participant data, the combined generalized linear model analysis and odds of pathogenicity analysis provided a framework to evaluate the methods submitted for SNV pathogenicity identification and for comparison to other available methods. The outcome of this challenge and the approaches used can help guide further advancements in identifying SNV-disease relationships.

5.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2829-2836, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and related cause of mortality among Hispanics, yet susceptibility has been understudied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations explain less than one-half of hereditary BC, and the proportion associated with other BC susceptibility genes is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1054 BRCA-mutation-negative Hispanic women with hereditary BC (BC diagnosed at age <51 years, bilateral BC, breast and ovarian cancer, or BC diagnosed at ages 51-70 years with ≥2 first-degree or second-degree relatives who had BC diagnosed at age <70 years), 312 local controls, and 887 multiethnic cohort controls was sequenced and analyzed for 12 known and suspected, high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM], breast cancer 1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 [BRIP1], cadherin 1 [CDH1], checkpoint kinase 2 [CHEK2], nibrin [NBN], neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1], partner and localizer of BRCA2 [PALB2], phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN], RAD51 paralog 3 [RAD51C], RAD51D, serine/threonine kinase 11 [STK11], and TP53). RESULTS: Forty-nine (4.6%) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) in 47 of 1054 participants (4.5%), including 21 truncating frameshift, 20 missense, 5 nonsense, and 4 splice variants, were identified in CHEK2 (n = 20), PALB2 (n = 18), ATM (n = 5), TP53 (n = 3), BRIP1 (n = 2), and CDH1 and NF1 (both n = 1) and none were identified in NBN, PTEN, STK11, RAD51C, or RAD51D. Nine participants carried the PALB2 c.2167_2168del PV (0.85%), and 14 carried the CHEK2 c.707T>C PV (1.32%). CONCLUSIONS: Of 1054 BRCA-negative, high-risk Hispanic women, 4.5% carried a PV in a cancer susceptibility gene, increasing understanding of hereditary BC in this population. Recurrent PVs in PALB2 and CHEK2 represented 47% (23 of 49) of the total, suggesting a founder effect. Accurate classification of variants was enabled by carefully controlling for ancestry and the increased identification of at-risk Hispanics for screening and prevention.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.

7.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 31-38, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056428

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) hereditary pan-cancer panel testing can identify somatic variants, which exhibit lower allele frequencies than do germline variants and may confound hereditary cancer predisposition testing. This analysis examined the prevalence and characteristics of likely-somatic variants among 348,543 individuals tested using a clinical NGS hereditary pan-cancer panel. Variants showing allele frequencies between 10% and 30% were interpreted as likely somatic and identified in 753 (0.22%) individuals. They were most frequent in TP53, CHEK2 and ATM, commonly as C-to-T transitions. Among individuals who carried a likely-somatic variant and reported no personal cancer history, 54.2% (78/144) carried a variant in TP53, CHEK2 or ATM. With a reported cancer history, this percentage increased to 81.1% (494/609), predominantly in CHEK2 and TP53. Their presence was associated with age (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.5, 3.7; p<0.001) and personal history of cancer (OR=3.3, 95% CI 2.7, 4.0; p<0.001), particularly ovarian cancer. Germline ATM pathogenic variant carriers showed significant enrichment of likely-somatic variants (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6, 4.9; p = 0.005), regardless of cancer status. The appearance of likely-somatic variants is consistent with clonal hematopoiesis, possibly influenced by cancer treatment. These findings highlight the precision required of diagnostic laboratories to deliver accurate germline testing results.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Utilizing a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (N=883). We applied these models to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpGs are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62,938 CpG sites (CpGs) investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P<7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions which have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

9.
Environ Int ; 127: 412-419, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the most persistent and pervasive global environmental contaminants. Their toxic and endocrine-disrupting properties have made them a focus of concern for breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PBDE levels in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 936 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed between 2011 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from cases an average of 35 months after diagnosis. PBDEs were measured in serum using automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were restricted to the three congeners with detection frequencies ≥75%: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each BDE congener, adjusting for serum lipids and other potential confounders. RESULTS: The OR for each of the three BDE congeners was close to unity with a CI that included one. Analyses stratified by menopausal status, tumor hormone responsiveness, BMI, and changes in body weight yielded similarly null results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide no evidence that serum levels of BDE-47, BDE-100 or BDE-153 are associated with breast cancer risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of study limitations which include the reliance on PBDE measurements that may not represent pre-diagnostic, early-life or chronic exposures and a lack of information on genetic polymorphisms and other factors which may affect endogenous estrogen levels.

10.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(2): 380-398, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796839

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in household materials. Their environmental persistence has led to continuous human exposure and significant tissue levels. Three PBDE congeners (BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153) have been frequently detected in human serum. Although these compounds appear to possess endocrine disrupting activity, studies are largely missing to determine the biological mechanisms of PBDEs in breast cancer cells. Here, we assessed PBDE bioactivities with three complementary strategies: receptor binding/activity assays; nonbiased RNA-sequencing analysis using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7aroERE; and in vivo assessments using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of human breast cancer. According to the results from in vitro experiments, the PBDE congeners regulate distinct nuclear receptor signaling pathways. BDE-47 acts as a weak agonist of both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα); it could stimulate proliferation of MCF-7aroERE and induced expression of ER-regulated genes (including cell cycle genes). BDE-153 was found to act as a weak antagonist of ERα. BDE-100 could act as (1) an agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), inducing expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and (2) as a very weak agonist/antagonist of ERα. In vivo, a mixture of the three congeners with ratios detected in human serum was tested in an ER+ PDX model. The mixture exhibited estrogenic activity through apoptosis/cell cycle regulation and increased the expression of a proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of PBDE exposure in breast cancer cells.

11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 175(2): 443-449, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30756284

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following a diagnosis of breast cancer, BRCA mutation carriers face an increased risk of developing a second (contralateral) cancer in the unaffected breast. It is important to identify predictors of contralateral cancer in order to make informed decisions about bilateral mastectomy. The impact of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (i.e., oophorectomy) on the risk of developing contralateral breast cancer is unclear. Thus, we conducted a prospective study of the relationship between oophorectomy and the risk of contralateral breast cancer in 1781 BRCA1 and 503 BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer. METHODS: Women were followed from the date of diagnosis of their first breast cancer until the date of diagnosis of a contralateral breast cancer, bilateral mastectomy, date of death, or date of last follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of contralateral breast cancer associated with oophorectomy. Oophorectomy was included as a time-dependent covariate. We performed a left-censored analysis for those women who reported a primary breast cancer prior to study entry (i.e., from completion of baseline questionnaire). RESULTS: After an average of 9.8 years of follow-up, there were 179 (7.8%) contralateral breast cancers diagnosed. Oophorectomy was not associated with the risk of developing a second breast cancer (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.68-1.25). The relationship did not vary by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis of the first breast cancer. There was some evidence for a decreased risk of contralateral breast cancer among women with an ER-positive primary breast cancer, but this was based on a small number of events (n = 240). CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings suggest that oophorectomy has little impact on the risk of contralateral breast cancer.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 3, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a partially heritable trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 180 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer. We have previously performed breast cancer GWAS in Latinas and identified a strongly protective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 6q25, with the protective minor allele originating from indigenous American ancestry. Here we report on fine mapping of the 6q25 locus in an expanded sample of Latinas. METHODS: We performed GWAS in 2385 cases and 6416 controls who were either US Latinas or Mexican women. We replicated the top SNPs in 2412 cases and 1620 controls of US Latina, Mexican, and Colombian women. In addition, we validated the top novel variants in studies of African, Asian and European ancestry. In each dataset we used logistic regression models to test the association between SNPs and breast cancer risk and corrected for genetic ancestry using either principal components or genetic ancestry inferred from ancestry informative markers using a model-based approach. RESULTS: We identified a novel set of SNPs at the 6q25 locus associated with genome-wide levels of significance (p = 3.3 × 10- 8 - 6.0 × 10- 9) not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with variants previously reported at this locus. These SNPs were in high LD (r2 > 0.9) with each other, with the top SNP, rs3778609, associated with breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.70-0.84). In a replication in women of Latin American origin, we also observed a consistent effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99; p = 0.037). We also performed a meta-analysis of these SNPs in East Asians, African ancestry and European ancestry populations and also observed a consistent effect (rs3778609, OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.97; p = 0.0017). CONCLUSION: Our study adds to evidence about the importance of the 6q25 locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Our finding also highlights the utility of performing additional searches for genetic variants for breast cancer in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Mama , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1800328, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339520

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential for detection of incidental germline cancer predisposition mutations through cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analyses in patients who underwent solid tumor somatic mutation evaluation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were evaluated from 10,888 unselected patients with advanced (stage III/IV) cancer who underwent Guardant360 testing between November 2015 and December 2016. The main outcome was prevalence of putative germline mutations identified among 16 actionable hereditary cancer predisposition genes. RESULTS: More than 50 cancer types were studied, including lung (41%), breast (19%), colorectal (8%), prostate (6%), pancreatic (3%), and ovarian (2%). Average patient age was 63.5 years (range, 18 to 95 years); 43% were male. One hundred and fifty-six individuals (1.4%) had suspected hereditary cancer mutations in 11 genes. Putative germline mutations were more frequent in individuals younger than 50 years versus those 50 years and older (3.0% v 1.2%, respectively; P < .001). Highest yields of putative germline findings were in patients with ovarian (8.13%), prostate (3.46%), pancreatic (3.34%), and breast (2.2%) cancer. Putative germline mutation identification was consistent among 12 individuals with multiple samples. Patients with circulating tumor DNA copy number variation and/or reversion mutations suggestive of functional loss of the wild-type allele in the tumor DNA also are described. CONCLUSION: Detection of putative germline mutations from cfDNA is feasible across multiple genes and cancer types without prior mutation knowledge. Many mutations were found in cancers without clear guidelines for hereditary cancer genetic counseling/testing. Given the clinical significance of identifying hereditary cancer predisposition for patients and their families as well as targetable germline alterations such as in BRCA1 or BRCA2, research on the best way to validate and return potential germline results from cfDNA analysis to clinicians and patients is needed.

14.
J Nutr ; 148(11): 1830-1837, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247577

RESUMO

Background: Evidence for the association between diet and breast cancer risk is inconsistent Thus, research that compares indexes of overall diet quality may provide new insight. Objective: We examined the association between diet quality indexes and pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a large prospective cohort. Methods: This was a prospective analysis of 96,959 women, aged 22-104 y, in the California Teachers Study cohort (1995-2011). Diet quality was characterized by 4 different indexes. Specifically, we examined Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Paleolithic index (PALEO) scores with the risk of developing breast cancer. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to derive HRs and 95% CIs for breast cancer risk. Results: In the analysis of 42,517 women at risk of premenopausal breast cancer, there was no association between any of the indexes and incident breast cancer (346 cases). In the analysis of 54,442 women at risk of postmenopausal breast cancer at baseline, higher AHEI-2010, aMED, and DASH scores were inversely associated with incident breast cancer (3523 incident cases). Respectively, HRs (95% CIs) comparing quintile 5 to quintile 1 (reference) for AHEI-2010, aMED, and DASH indexes were 0.87 (0.78, 0.97; P-trend = 0.004), 0.91 (0.82, 1.02; P-trend = 0.03), and 0.89 (0.80, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). The PALEO score was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer (HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.17). Conclusions: Diet quality indexes that emphasize intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and nuts and seeds and de-emphasize red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages were modestly associated with a lower risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer risk. However, they were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer, and the PALEO score was not associated with cancer risk regardless of menopausal status.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with a high incidence in females that may involve activation of the immune system. We performed exome sequencing on chemokine genes in a region of chromosome 17 identified in a genome-wide family association study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Exome sequence analysis of 100 FM probands was performed at 17p13.3-q25 followed by functional analysis of SNPs found in the chemokine gene locus. Missense SNPs (413) in 17p13.3-q25 were observed in at least 10 probands. SNPs rs1129844 in CCL11 and rs1719152 in CCL4 were associated with elevated plasma chemokine levels in FM. In a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), rs1129844 was unequally transmitted from parents to their affected children (p< 0.0074), while the CCL4 SNP was not. The amino acid change (Ala23Thr), resulting from rs1129844 in CCL11, predicted to alter processing of the signal peptide, led to reduced expression of CCL11. The variant protein from CCL4 rs1719152 exhibited protein aggregation and a potent down-regulation of its cognate receptor CCR5, a receptor associated with hypotensive effects. Treatment of skeletal muscle cells with CCL11 produced high levels of CCL4 suggesting CCL11 regulates CCL4 in muscle. The immune association of FM with SNPs in MEFV, a chromosome 16 gene associated with recurrent fevers, had a p< 0.008 TDT for a combined 220 trios. CONCLUSIONS: SNPs with significant TDTs were found in 36% of the cohort for CCL11 and 12% for MEFV, along with a protein variant in CCL4 (41%) that affects CCR5 down-regulation, supporting an immune involvement for FM.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 150(1): 85-91, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793803

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For women at high risk of developing ovarian cancer, it is important to provide an accurate recommendation for the optimal age for preventive surgery in order to maximize the preventative effect while delaying symptoms associated with early surgical menopause. The goal of the current study was to estimate age-specific incidence rates of ovarian cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: From our international registry, we identified 5689 women with no previous diagnosis of ovarian or fallopian tube cancer or preventive oophorectomy. Women were followed from the date of completion of the baseline questionnaire until either a diagnosis of ovarian or fallopian tube cancer, prophylactic oophorectomy, death or last follow-up. The annual and cumulative incidence rates of ovarian cancer were estimated. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 4.7 years (ranges 0-22.6), 195 incident ovarian or fallopian tube cancers were diagnosed (169 [86%] ovarian cancers, 22 [11%] fallopian tube cancers and four [2%] cancers that involved both the ovaries and fallopian tubes). Of these, 45 (23%) cancers were diagnosed at preventive surgery (occult cancers). The cumulative risk of ovarian cancer to age 80 was 49% for BRCA1 and 21% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. The mean age at diagnosis was 51.3 years (ranges 33-84) among women with a BRCA1 mutation and 61.4 years (ranges 44-80) among women with a BRCA2 mutation. CONCLUSION: Based on a cumulative risk of 0.55% to age 35 for BRCA1 mutation carriers and of 0.56% to age 45 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we recommend bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy before age 40, but ideally by age 35, for women with a BRCA1 mutation and by age 45 for those with a BRCA2 mutation to maximize prevention and to minimize adverse effects.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 171(2): 421-426, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the general population, an early age at first full-term birth confers protection against the risk of developing breast cancer. The relationship between age at first birth and breast cancer risk is not clear for women with a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Thus, we undertook a case-control study of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to study the effects of age at first full-term birth matched for other reproductive factors. METHODS: Information about reproductive factors, including age at first birth as well as medical history, was collected from a routinely administered research questionnaire. There were 2,295 matched pairs of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation included in the final analysis. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean age at first full-term birth among the BRCA1 (24.9 vs. 25.2; P = 0.10) or BRCA2 mutation carriers (26.5 vs. 26.6 years; P = 0.80). Findings were similar in the analysis limited to cases who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45. CONCLUSION: This matched analysis of a large number of BRCA mutation carriers suggests that age at first birth has little influence on BRCA1 or BRCA2 breast cancer risk.

18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547931

RESUMO

Background: Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Current height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires. Current BMI and weight change since age 18 were calculated from updated biennial follow-up questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Among 3734 BRCA mutation carriers, there were 338 incident breast cancers over a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. There was no association between height, current BMI or weight change and breast cancer risk. Women with BMI at age 18 ≥22.1 kg/m2 had a decreased risk of developing post-menopausal breast cancer compared with women with a BMI at age 18 between 18.8 and 20.3 kg/m2 (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.30-0.82; P = 0.006). BMI at age 18 was not associated with risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. Conclusions: There was no observed association between height, current BMI and weight change and risk of breast cancer. The inverse relationship between greater BMI at age 18 and post-menopausal breast cancer further supports a role of early rather than current or adulthood exposures for BRCA-associated breast cancer development. Future studies with longer follow-up and additional measures of adiposity are necessary to confirm these findings.

19.
NPJ Genom Med ; 3: 7, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479477

RESUMO

Clinical testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 began over 20 years ago. With the expiration and overturning of the BRCA patents, limitations on which laboratories could offer commercial testing were lifted. These legal changes occurred approximately the same time as the widespread adoption of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies. Little is known about how these changes impacted laboratory practices for detecting genetic alterations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes. Therefore, we sought to examine current laboratory genetic testing practices for BRCA1/BRCA2. We employed an online survey of 65 questions covering four areas: laboratory characteristics, details on technological methods, variant classification, and client-support information. Eight United States (US) laboratories and 78 non-US laboratories completed the survey. Most laboratories (93%; 80/86) used MPS platforms to identify variants. Laboratories differed widely on: (1) technologies used for large rearrangement detection; (2) criteria for minimum read depths; (3) non-coding regions sequenced; (4) variant classification criteria and approaches; (5) testing volume ranging from 2 to 2.5 × 105 tests annually; and (6) deposition of variants into public databases. These data may be useful for national and international agencies to set recommendations for quality standards for BRCA1/BRCA2 clinical testing. These standards could also be applied to testing of other disease genes.

20.
Int J Cancer ; 142(11): 2263-2272, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330845

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke is an established carcinogen, but the association between tobacco smoking and cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the association between tobacco smoking and cancer incidence in a cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study population consisted of unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. Information on lifestyle including smoking histories, reproductive factors, and past medical histories was obtained through questionnaires. Incident cancers were updated biennially via follow-up questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using time-dependent Cox regression models. There were 700 incident cancers diagnosed over 26,711 person-years of follow-up. The most frequent cancers seen in BRCA mutation carriers were breast (n = 428; 61%) and ovarian (n = 109; 15%) cancer. Compared to nonsmokers, (ever) smoking was associated with a modest increased risk of all cancers combined (HR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.01-1.37). Women in the highest group of total pack-years (4.3-9.8) had an increased risk of developing any cancer (HR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04-1.56), breast cancer (HR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.02-1.75), and ovarian cancer (HR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.06-2.67) compared to never smokers. The associations between tobacco smoking and cancer did not differ by BRCA mutation type or by age at diagnosis. This prospective study suggests that tobacco smoking is associated with a modest increase in the risks of breast and ovarian cancer among women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

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