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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers face a high lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. The strong inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of ovarian cancer is established in the general population but is less well studied among women with a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. METHOD: Thus, we conducted a matched case-control analysis to evaluate the association between breastfeeding history and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. After matching for year of birth, country of residence, BRCA gene and personal history of breast cancer, a total of 1650 cases and 2702 controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various breastfeeding exposures. RESULTS: A history of ever-breastfeeding was associated with a 23% reduction in risk (OR = 0.77; 95%CI 0.66-0.90; P = 0.001). The protective effect increased with breastfeeding from one month to seven months after which the association was relatively stable. Compared to women who never breastfed, breastfeeding for seven or more months was associated with a 32% reduction in risk (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.57-0.81; P < 0.0001) and did not vary by BRCA gene or age at diagnosis. The combination of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use was strongly protective (0.47; 95%CI 0.37-0.58; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support a protective effect of breastfeeding for at least seven months among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, that is independent of oral contraceptive use.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901135

RESUMO

There are well-established disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes by race/ethnicity that result from the interplay between structural, socioeconomic, socio-environmental, behavioural and biological factors. However, large research studies designed to investigate factors contributing to cancer aetiology and progression have mainly focused on populations of European origin. The limitations in clinicopathological and genetic data, as well as the reduced availability of biospecimens from diverse populations, contribute to the knowledge gap and have the potential to widen cancer health disparities. In this review, we summarise reported disparities and associated factors in the United States of America (USA) for the most common cancers (breast, prostate, lung and colon), and for a subset of other cancers that highlight the complexity of disparities (gastric, liver, pancreas and leukaemia). We focus on populations commonly identified and referred to as racial/ethnic minorities in the USA-African Americans/Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and Hispanics/Latinos. We conclude that even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the factors underlying cancer health disparities, marked inequities persist. Additional efforts are needed to include participants from diverse populations in the research of cancer aetiology, biology and treatment. Furthermore, to eliminate cancer health disparities, it will be necessary to facilitate access to, and utilisation of, health services to all individuals, and to address structural inequities, including racism, that disproportionally affect racial/ethnic minorities in the USA.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

4.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(6): 825-830, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the most effective means of reducing the risk of ovarian cancer among women with an inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Some women are diagnosed with an invasive cancer (ovarian or fallopian tube) at the time of preventive surgery, referred to as an 'occult' cancer. The survival experience of these women is not known. METHODS: We estimated the 10-year survival for 52 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult ovarian or fallopian tube cancer at the time of preventive bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 51.6 (range 33-69) years. All were serous cancers (although 14 were missing information on histologic subtype). Of the 20 cases with information available on stage at diagnosis, 10 were stage I, 1 was stage II, and 9 were stage III (n=32 missing). After a mean of 6.8 years, 12 women died (23%). The 10-year all-cause survival was 74%. CONCLUSION: Although based on only 52 cases, these findings suggest a more favorable prognosis for BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed with an occult rather than incident disease.

5.
Mol Oncol ; 14(6): 1124-1133, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175645

RESUMO

Women who carry pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a lifetime risk of developing breast cancer of up to 80%. However, risk estimates vary in part due to genetic modifiers. We investigated the association of the RAD52 S346X variant as a modifier of the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. The RAD52 S346X allele was associated with a reduced risk of developing breast cancer in BRCA2 carriers [per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.86; P = 0.0008] and to a lesser extent in BRCA1 carriers (per-allele HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.97, P = 0.02). We examined how this variant affected DNA repair. Using a reporter system that measures repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by single-strand annealing (SSA), expression of hRAD52 suppressed the loss of this repair in Rad52-/- mouse embryonic stem cells. When hRAD52 S346X was expressed in these cells, there was a significantly reduced frequency of SSA. Interestingly, expression of hRAD52 S346X also reduced the stimulation of SSA observed upon depletion of BRCA2, demonstrating the reciprocal roles for RAD52 and BRCA2 in the control of DSB repair by SSA. From an immunofluorescence analysis, we observed little nuclear localization of the mutant protein as compared to the wild-type; it is likely that the reduced nuclear levels of RAD52 S346X explain the diminished DSB repair by SSA. Altogether, we identified a genetic modifier that protects against breast cancer in women who carry pathogenic mutations in BRCA2 (P = 0.0008) and to a lesser extent BRCA1 (P = 0.02). This RAD52 mutation causes a reduction in DSB repair by SSA, suggesting that defects in RAD52-dependent DSB repair are linked to reduced tumor risk in BRCA2-mutation carriers.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 65: 101688, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although clinical prognostic indicators exist for follicular lymphoma(FL), patient outcomes remain heterogeneous. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the association between survival and a polygenic risk score(PRS) composed of five previously identified FL susceptibility loci(rs12195582, rs13254990, rs17749561, rs4245081, rs4938573) among women who participated in a case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Los Angeles County between 2004-2008. Risk associations were estimated through logistic regression, calculating the odds ratios(OR) and 95 % confidence intervals(95 % CI). Survival was estimated under a Cox proportional hazards model and hazard ratios(HR) and 95 % CI were calculated. RESULTS: Among 437 non-Hispanic White controls and 100 non-Hispanic White FL patients, we confirmed a 2.6-fold increased risk of FL associated with the highest PRS tertile (95 % CI:1.35-4.86). After accounting for clinical indicators, the PRS was associated with improved overall survival in non-Hispanic women (HR:0.31; 95 % CI:0.10-0.96). CONCLUSION: PRS was associated with increased risk of FL, but improved overall survival.


Assuntos
Linfoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Environ Res ; 183: 109224, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) is a developmental toxicant that is released into the environment during industrial processes. Previous animal studies suggest that Cd may impact the onset of puberty. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether Cd exposure, measured as urinary Cd concentration, was associated with ages at menarche and pubertal development. METHODS: A cohort of 211 girls, ages 10-13 years at baseline, was followed for up to two years. Girls completed an interview and self-assessment of Tanner stages of breast development and pubic hair growth. They were followed monthly until menarche. Urinary Cd concentrations were measured in overnight urine specimens. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between urinary Cd and age at menarche and cumulative logit regression was used to evaluate the associations between urinary Cd and breast development and pubic hair growth. RESULTS: The baseline geometric mean creatinine-adjusted Cd concentration was 0.22 µg/g creatinine (geometric standard deviation = 1.6) and decreased with increasing age (p-trend = 0.04). Cd levels were higher among Asian than White girls or girls of other/mixed race/ethnicity (p = 0.04). In multivariable analyses, girls with urinary Cd ≥ 0.4 µg/L were less likely to have attained menarche than girls with urinary Cd < 0.2 µg/L (hazard ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.78). Urinary Cd was negatively associated with pubic hair growth (p-trend = 0.01) but not with breast development (p-trend = 0.72) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a higher Cd body burden may delay some aspects of pubertal development among girls.


Assuntos
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Cádmio , Menarca , Puberdade , Adolescente , Cádmio/urina , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Maturidade Sexual
8.
Menopause ; 27(2): 156-161, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: BRCA mutation carriers are advised to undergo bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy to prevent ovarian cancer. The abrupt hormonal withdrawal associated with early surgical menopause has been shown to increase the risk of depression and anxiety among women in the general population. The impact in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is not known. METHODS: We undertook a matched prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to evaluate the impact of oophorectomy on self-reported initiation of antidepressant use. We identified women with no personal history of cancer or depression and prospectively evaluated the frequency of self-reported medication use after surgery. Each exposed participant (oophorectomy) was randomly matched to a control participant (no oophorectomy) according to year of birth (within 3 years), BRCA mutation type (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and country of residence (Canada, United States, Poland). A total of 506 matched sets were included. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of antidepressant use (ever/never) following preventive oophorectomy in the entire study population and stratified by age at oophorectomy and by use of hormone therapy. RESULTS: Oophorectomy was not associated with more frequent antidepressant use among BRCA mutation carriers (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.22-0.96). We observed reductions in the odds of antidepressant medication use among women who underwent oophorectomy before the age of 50 years (OR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.78) and among those who initiated hormone therapy use after oophorectomy (OR = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.90). Findings were similar when the analysis was based on self-reported depression (rather than antidepressant use). CONCLUSIONS: Although based on a small number of women, these findings suggest that oophorectomy does not increase psychological distress among women at an elevated risk of ovarian cancer.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

10.
Commun Biol ; 2: 406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701034

RESUMO

Menopause is a critical window of susceptibility for its sensitivity to endocrine disrupting chemicals due to the decline of endogenous estrogen. Using a surgical menopausal (ovariectomized) mouse model, we assessed how mammary tissue was affected by both 17ß-estradiol (E2) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). As flame retardants in household products, PBDEs are widely detected in human serum. During physiologically-relevant exposure to E2, PBDEs enhanced E2-mediated regrowth of mammary glands with terminal end bud-like structures. Analysis of mammary gland RNA revealed that PBDEs both augmented E2-facilitated gene expression and modulated immune regulation. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis, E2 was found to induce Pgr expression in both Esr1 + and Esr1 - luminal epithelial cells and Ccl2 expression in Esr1 + fibroblasts. PBDEs promote the E2-AREG-EGFR-M2 macrophage pathway. Our findings support that E2 + PBDE increases the risk of developing breast cancer through the expansion of estrogen-responsive luminal epithelial cells and immune modulation.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovariectomia , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer susceptibility have been identified; these SNPs can be combined into polygenic risk scores (PRS) to predict breast cancer risk. Since most SNPs were identified in predominantly European populations, little is known about the performance of PRS in non-Europeans. We tested the performance of a 180-SNP PRS in Latinas, a large ethnic group with variable levels of Indigenous American, European, and African ancestry. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control analysis of U.S. Latinas and Latin-American women (4,658 cases, 7,622 controls). We constructed a 180-SNP PRS consisting of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk (p < 5 x 10-8). We evaluated the association between the PRS and breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression and assessed discrimination using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We also assessed PRS performance across quartiles of Indigenous American genetic ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of 180 SNPs tested, 142 showed directionally consistent associations compared with European populations, and 39 were nominally statistically significant (p < 0.05). The PRS was associated with breast cancer risk, with an odds ratio (OR) per standard deviation increment of 1.58 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.64) and AUCROC of 0.63 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.64). The discrimination of the PRS was similar between the top and bottom quartiles of Indigenous American ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-SNP PRS predicts breast cancer risk in Latinas, with similar performance as reported for Europeans. The performance of the PRS did not vary substantially according to Indigenous American ancestry.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 96, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long time from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals until breast cancer occurrence poses challenges for designing etiologic studies and for implementing successful prevention programs. Growing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that distinct time periods of heightened susceptibility to endocrine disruptors exist throughout the life course. The influence of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk may be greater during several windows of susceptibility (WOS) in a woman's life, including prenatal development, puberty, pregnancy, and the menopausal transition. These time windows are considered as specific periods of susceptibility for breast cancer because significant structural and functional changes occur in the mammary gland, as well as alterations in the mammary micro-environment and hormone signaling that may influence risk. Breast cancer research focused on these breast cancer WOS will accelerate understanding of disease etiology and prevention. MAIN TEXT: Despite the plausible heightened mechanistic influences of environmental chemicals on breast cancer risk during time periods of change in the mammary gland's structure and function, most human studies of environmental chemicals are not focused on specific WOS. This article reviews studies conducted over the past few decades that have specifically addressed the effect of environmental chemicals and metals on breast cancer risk during at least one of these WOS. In addition to summarizing the broader evidence-base specific to WOS, we include discussion of the NIH-funded Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program (BCERP) which included population-based and basic science research focused on specific WOS to evaluate associations between breast cancer risk and particular classes of endocrine-disrupting chemicals-including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phenols-and metals. We outline ways in which ongoing transdisciplinary BCERP projects incorporate animal research and human epidemiologic studies in close partnership with community organizations and communication scientists to identify research priorities and effectively translate evidence-based findings to the public and policy makers. CONCLUSIONS: An integrative model of breast cancer research is needed to determine the impact and mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors at different WOS. By focusing on environmental chemical exposure during specific WOS, scientists and their community partners may identify when prevention efforts are likely to be most effective.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Menopausa , Gravidez , Puberdade , Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463414

RESUMO

An appreciable number of patients with gastric cancer have an underlying hereditary cancer susceptibility syndrome as the cause of their gastric cancer, particularly those with early onset gastric cancer or a family history of gastric or other cancers. Pathogenic germline variants in specific genes account for the known gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Germline genetic testing can identify individuals and their family members who carry inherited pathogenic gene variants, and thus have increased risk of developing gastric or other cancers. Ideally, germline pathogenic variants can be identified in family members before the onset of disease, when early detection or prevention strategies can be implemented most effectively to decrease gastric cancer- related morbidity and mortality. This article reviews some of the currently known gastric cancer predisposition syndromes and their associated cancer risks. We also discuss current research and advances in the field of genetic gastric cancer susceptibility.

14.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(11): 1176-1184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preference for activity in the morning or evening (chronotype) may impact type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors. Our objective was to use Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate whether there are causal links between chronotype and one potential T2D risk factor, total fatty acids (TOTFA), and between TOTFA and T2D. METHODS AND RESULTS: We estimated the causal effect of: 1) morning chronotype on TOTFA; and 2) higher TOTFA on T2D. We found that: a) morning compared to evening chronotype was associated with lower TOTFA levels (inverse-weighted variance (IVW) estimate -0.21; 95% CI -0.38, -0.03; raw P = 0.02; FDR-corrected P 0.04) and b) elevated TOTFA levels were protective against T2D (IVW estimate -0.23; 95% CI -0.41, -0.05; raw P = 0.01; FDR-corrected P = 0.03). Based on this finding, we further hypothesized that healthy fats would show a similar pattern and performed MR of a) morning chronotype on omega-3 (Omega-3), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids; and b) MR of each of these fat types on T2D. We observed the same mediating-type pattern for chronotype, MUFA, and T2D as we had for chronotype, TOTFA, and T2D, and morning chronotype was associated with lower Omega-3. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide suggestive, new information about relationships among chronotype, TOTFA, and T2D and about chronotype as a factor influencing Omega-3, MUFA, and TOTFA levels. In addition, we validated previous knowledge about MUFA and T2D. Morning chronotypes may predispose towards lower levels of TOTFA and some healthy fats, whereas higher levels of TOTFA and MUFA may protect against T2D.


Assuntos
Ciclos de Atividade/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1612-1622, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241222

RESUMO

The availability of disease-specific genomic data is critical for developing new computational methods that predict the pathogenicity of human variants and advance the field of precision medicine. However, the lack of gold standards to properly train and benchmark such methods is one of the greatest challenges in the field. In response to this challenge, the scientific community is invited to participate in the Critical Assessment for Genome Interpretation (CAGI), where unpublished disease variants are available for classification by in silico methods. As part of the CAGI-5 challenge, we evaluated the performance of 18 submissions and three additional methods in predicting the pathogenicity of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) for cases of breast cancer in Hispanic females. As part of the assessment, the efficacy of the analysis method and the setup of the challenge were also considered. The results indicated that though the challenge could benefit from additional participant data, the combined generalized linear model analysis and odds of pathogenicity analysis provided a framework to evaluate the methods submitted for SNV pathogenicity identification and for comparison to other available methods. The outcome of this challenge and the approaches used can help guide further advancements in identifying SNV-disease relationships.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Cancer ; 125(16): 2829-2836, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and related cause of mortality among Hispanics, yet susceptibility has been understudied. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations explain less than one-half of hereditary BC, and the proportion associated with other BC susceptibility genes is unknown. METHODS: Germline DNA from 1054 BRCA-mutation-negative Hispanic women with hereditary BC (BC diagnosed at age <51 years, bilateral BC, breast and ovarian cancer, or BC diagnosed at ages 51-70 years with ≥2 first-degree or second-degree relatives who had BC diagnosed at age <70 years), 312 local controls, and 887 multiethnic cohort controls was sequenced and analyzed for 12 known and suspected, high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes (ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM], breast cancer 1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 [BRIP1], cadherin 1 [CDH1], checkpoint kinase 2 [CHEK2], nibrin [NBN], neurofibromatosis type 1 [NF1], partner and localizer of BRCA2 [PALB2], phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN], RAD51 paralog 3 [RAD51C], RAD51D, serine/threonine kinase 11 [STK11], and TP53). RESULTS: Forty-nine (4.6%) pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (PVs) in 47 of 1054 participants (4.5%), including 21 truncating frameshift, 20 missense, 5 nonsense, and 4 splice variants, were identified in CHEK2 (n = 20), PALB2 (n = 18), ATM (n = 5), TP53 (n = 3), BRIP1 (n = 2), and CDH1 and NF1 (both n = 1) and none were identified in NBN, PTEN, STK11, RAD51C, or RAD51D. Nine participants carried the PALB2 c.2167_2168del PV (0.85%), and 14 carried the CHEK2 c.707T>C PV (1.32%). CONCLUSIONS: Of 1054 BRCA-negative, high-risk Hispanic women, 4.5% carried a PV in a cancer susceptibility gene, increasing understanding of hereditary BC in this population. Recurrent PVs in PALB2 and CHEK2 represented 47% (23 of 49) of the total, suggesting a founder effect. Accurate classification of variants was enabled by carefully controlling for ancestry and the increased identification of at-risk Hispanics for screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
17.
Cancer Genet ; 235-236: 31-38, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056428

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) hereditary pan-cancer panel testing can identify somatic variants, which exhibit lower allele frequencies than do germline variants and may confound hereditary cancer predisposition testing. This analysis examined the prevalence and characteristics of likely-somatic variants among 348,543 individuals tested using a clinical NGS hereditary pan-cancer panel. Variants showing allele frequencies between 10% and 30% were interpreted as likely somatic and identified in 753 (0.22%) individuals. They were most frequent in TP53, CHEK2 and ATM, commonly as C-to-T transitions. Among individuals who carried a likely-somatic variant and reported no personal cancer history, 54.2% (78/144) carried a variant in TP53, CHEK2 or ATM. With a reported cancer history, this percentage increased to 81.1% (494/609), predominantly in CHEK2 and TP53. Their presence was associated with age (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.5, 3.7; p<0.001) and personal history of cancer (OR=3.3, 95% CI 2.7, 4.0; p<0.001), particularly ovarian cancer. Germline ATM pathogenic variant carriers showed significant enrichment of likely-somatic variants (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6, 4.9; p = 0.005), regardless of cancer status. The appearance of likely-somatic variants is consistent with clonal hematopoiesis, possibly influenced by cancer treatment. These findings highlight the precision required of diagnostic laboratories to deliver accurate germline testing results.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Sequência de Bases , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1781-1796, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112363

RESUMO

BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) confer elevated risks of multiple cancers. However, most BRCA1/2 PSVs reports focus on European ancestry individuals. Knowledge of the PSV distribution in African descent individuals is poorly understood. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature and publicly available databases reporting BRCA1/2 PSVs also accessed the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) database to identify African or African descent individuals. Using these data, we inferred which of the BRCA PSVs were likely to be of African continental origin. Of the 43,817 BRCA1/2 PSV carriers in the CIMBA database, 469 (1%) were of African descent. Additional African descent individuals were identified in public databases (n = 291) and the literature (n = 601). We identified 164 unique BRCA1 and 173 unique BRCA2 PSVs in individuals of African ancestry. Of these, 83 BRCA1 and 91 BRCA2 PSVs are of likely or possible African origin. We observed numerous differences in the distribution of PSV type and function in African origin versus non-African origin PSVs. Research in populations of African ancestry with BRCA1/2 PSVs is needed to provide the information needed for clinical management and decision-making in African descent individuals worldwide.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Vigilância da População
19.
Environ Int ; 127: 412-419, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954728

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are among the most persistent and pervasive global environmental contaminants. Their toxic and endocrine-disrupting properties have made them a focus of concern for breast cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with serum PBDE levels in a case-control study nested within the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Participants were 902 women with invasive breast cancer (cases) and 936 with no such diagnosis (controls) who provided 10 mL of blood and were interviewed between 2011 and 2015. Blood samples were collected from cases an average of 35 months after diagnosis. PBDEs were measured in serum using automated solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. Statistical analyses were restricted to the three congeners with detection frequencies ≥75%: 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each BDE congener, adjusting for serum lipids and other potential confounders. RESULTS: The OR for each of the three BDE congeners was close to unity with a CI that included one. Analyses stratified by menopausal status, tumor hormone responsiveness, BMI, and changes in body weight yielded similarly null results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide no evidence that serum levels of BDE-47, BDE-100 or BDE-153 are associated with breast cancer risk. These results should be interpreted in the context of study limitations which include the reliance on PBDE measurements that may not represent pre-diagnostic, early-life or chronic exposures and a lack of information on genetic polymorphisms and other factors which may affect endogenous estrogen levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Extração em Fase Sólida
20.
Toxicol Sci ; 169(2): 380-398, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796839

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in household materials. Their environmental persistence has led to continuous human exposure and significant tissue levels. Three PBDE congeners (BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-153) have been frequently detected in human serum. Although these compounds appear to possess endocrine disrupting activity, studies are largely missing to determine the biological mechanisms of PBDEs in breast cancer cells. Here, we assessed PBDE bioactivities with three complementary strategies: receptor binding/activity assays; nonbiased RNA-sequencing analysis using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line MCF-7aroERE; and in vivo assessments using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of human breast cancer. According to the results from in vitro experiments, the PBDE congeners regulate distinct nuclear receptor signaling pathways. BDE-47 acts as a weak agonist of both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα); it could stimulate proliferation of MCF-7aroERE and induced expression of ER-regulated genes (including cell cycle genes). BDE-153 was found to act as a weak antagonist of ERα. BDE-100 could act as (1) an agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), inducing expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and (2) as a very weak agonist/antagonist of ERα. In vivo, a mixture of the three congeners with ratios detected in human serum was tested in an ER+ PDX model. The mixture exhibited estrogenic activity through apoptosis/cell cycle regulation and increased the expression of a proliferation marker, Ki-67. These results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of PBDE exposure in breast cancer cells.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Bifenil Polibromatos/sangue , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Progesterona/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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