*J Chem Phys ; 152(16): 161103, 2020 Apr 30.*

##### RESUMO

Efficient Boltzmann-sampling using first-principles methods is challenging for extended systems due to the steep scaling of electronic structure methods with the system size. Stochastic approaches provide a gentler system-size dependency at the cost of introducing "noisy" forces, which could limit the efficiency of the sampling. When the forces are deterministic, the first-order Langevin dynamics (FOLD) offers efficient sampling by combining a well-chosen preconditioning matrix S with a time-step-bias-mitigating propagator [G. Mazzola and S. Sorella, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 015703 (2017)]. However, when forces are noisy, S is set equal to the force-covariance matrix, a procedure that severely limits the efficiency and the stability of the sampling. Here, we develop a new, general, optimal, and stable sampling approach for FOLD under noisy forces. We apply it for silicon nanocrystals treated with stochastic density functional theory and show efficiency improvements by an order-of-magnitude.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(2): 1064-1072, 2020 Feb 11.*

##### RESUMO

Generalized Kohn-Sham density functional theory is a popular computational tool for the ground state of extended systems, particularly within range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals that capture the long-range electronic interaction. Unfortunately, the heavy computational cost of the nonlocal exchange operator in RSH-DFT usually confines the approach to systems with at most a few hundred electrons. A significant reduction in the computational cost is achieved by representing the density matrix with stochastic orbitals and a stochastic decomposition of the Coulomb convolution (J. Phys. Chem. A 2016, 120, 3071). Here, we extend the stochastic RSH approach to excited states within the framework of linear-response generalized Kohn-Sham time-dependent density functional theory (GKS-TDDFT) based on the plane-wave basis. As a validation of the stochastic GKS-TDDFT method, the excitation energies of small molecules N2 and CO are calculated and compared to the deterministic results. The computational efficiency of the stochastic method is demonstrated with a two-dimensional MoS2 sheet (â¼1500 electrons), whose excitation energy, exciton charge density, and (excited state) geometric relaxation are determined in the absence and presence of a point defect.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(17): 174115, 2019 Nov 07.*

##### RESUMO

Over this past decade, we combined the idea of stochastic resolution of identity with a variety of electronic structure methods. In our stochastic Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) method, the density is an average over multiple stochastic samples, with stochastic errors that decrease as the inverse square root of the number of sampling orbitals. Here, we develop a stochastic embedding density functional theory method (se-DFT) that selectively reduces the stochastic error (specifically on the forces) for a selected subsystem(s). The motivation, similar to that of other quantum embedding methods, is that for many systems of practical interest, the properties are often determined by only a small subsystem. In stochastic embedding DFT, two sets of orbitals are used: a deterministic one associated with the embedded subspace and the rest, which is described by a stochastic set. The method agrees exactly with deterministic calculations in the limit of a large number of stochastic samples. We apply se-DFT to study a p-nitroaniline molecule in water, where the statistical errors in the forces on the system (the p-nitroaniline molecule) are reduced by an order of magnitude compared with nonembedding stochastic DFT.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(12): 6703-6711, 2019 Dec 10.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a stochastic resolution of identity approach to the real-time second-order Green's function (real-time sRI-GF2) theory, extending our recent work for imaginary-time Matsubara Green's function [ Takeshita et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2019 , 151 , 044114 ]. The approach provides a framework to obtain the quasi-particle spectra across a wide range of frequencies and predicts ionization potentials and electron affinities. To assess the accuracy of the real-time sRI-GF2, we study a series of molecules and compare our results to experiments as well as to a many-body perturbation approach based on the GW approximation, where we find that the real-time sRI-GF2 is as accurate as self-consistent GW. The stochastic formulation reduces the formal computatinal scaling from O(Ne5) down to O(Ne3) where Ne is the number of electrons. This is illustrated for a chain of hydrogen dimers, where we observe a slightly lower than cubic scaling for systems containing up to Ne ≈ 1000 electrons.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(11): 114116, 2019 Sep 21.*

##### RESUMO

Linear scaling density functional theory is important for understanding electronic structure properties of nanometer scale systems. Recently developed stochastic density functional theory can achieve linear or even sublinear scaling for various electronic properties without relying on the sparsity of the density matrix. The basic idea relies on projecting stochastic orbitals onto the occupied space by expanding the Fermi-Dirac operator and repeating this for Nχ stochastic orbitals. Often, a large number of stochastic orbitals are required to reduce the statistical fluctuations (which scale as Nχ -1/2) below a tolerable threshold. In this work, we introduce a new stochastic density functional theory that can efficiently reduce the statistical fluctuations for certain observable and can also be integrated with an embedded fragmentation scheme. The approach is based on dividing the occupied space into energy windows and projecting the stochastic orbitals with a single expansion onto all windows simultaneously. This allows for a significant reduction of the noise as illustrated for bulk silicon with a large supercell. We also provide theoretical analysis to rationalize why the noise can be reduced only for a certain class of ground state properties, such as the forces and electron density.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(4): 044114, 2019 Jul 28.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a stochastic resolution of identity representation to the second-order Matsubara Green's function (sRI-GF2) theory. Using a stochastic resolution of the Coulomb integrals, the second order Born self-energy in GF2 is decoupled and reduced to matrix products/contractions, which reduces the computational cost from O(N5) to O(N3) (with N being the number of atomic orbitals). The current approach can be viewed as an extension to our previous work on stochastic resolution of identity second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory [T. Y. Takeshita et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 13, 4605 (2017)] and offers an alternative to previous stochastic GF2 formulations [D. Neuhauser et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 13, 5396 (2017)]. We show that sRI-GF2 recovers the deterministic GF2 results for small systems, is computationally faster than deterministic GF2 for N > 80, and is a practical approach to describe weak correlations in systems with 103 electrons and more.

*J Chem Phys ; 150(18): 184118, 2019 May 14.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a stochastic approach to time-dependent density functional theory with optimally tuned range-separated hybrids containing nonlocal exchange, for calculating optical spectra. The attractive electron-hole interaction, which leads to the formation of excitons, is included through a time-dependent linear-response technique with a nonlocal exchange interaction which is computed very efficiently through a stochastic scheme. The method is inexpensive and scales quadratically with the number of electrons, at almost the same (low) cost of time dependent Kohn-Sham with local functionals. Our results are in excellent agreement with experimental data, and the efficiency of the approach is demonstrated on large finite phosphorene sheets containing up to 1958 valence electrons.

*J Chem Phys ; 150(3): 034106, 2019 Jan 21.*

##### RESUMO

The stochastic density functional theory (DFT) [R. Baer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 106402 (2013)] is a valuable linear-scaling approach to Kohn-Sham DFT that does not rely on the sparsity of the density matrix. Linear (and often sub-linear) scaling is achieved by introducing a controlled statistical error in the density, energy, and forces. The statistical error (noise) is proportional to the inverse square root of the number of stochastic orbitals and thus decreases slowly; however, by dividing the system into fragments that are embedded stochastically, the statistical error can be reduced significantly. This has been shown to provide remarkable results for non-covalently-bonded systems; however, the application to covalently bonded systems had limited success, particularly for delocalized electrons. Here, we show that the statistical error in the density correlates with both the density and the density matrix of the system and propose a new fragmentation scheme that elegantly interpolates between overlapped fragments. We assess the performance of the approach for bulk silicon of varying supercell sizes (up to Ne = 16 384 electrons) and show that overlapped fragments reduce significantly the statistical noise even for systems with a delocalized density matrix.

*J Chem Phys ; 149(17): 174107, 2018 Nov 07.*

##### RESUMO

We show that a rigid scissors-like GW self-consistency approach, labeled here Δ ¯ G W 0 , can be trivially implemented at zero additional cost for large scale one-shot G 0 W 0 calculations. The method significantly improves one-shot G 0 W 0 and for large systems is very accurate. Δ ¯ G W 0 is similar in spirit to evGW 0 where the self-consistency is only applied on the eigenvalues entering Green's function, while both W and the eigenvectors of Green's function are held fixed. Δ ¯ G W 0 further assumes that the shift of the eigenvalues is rigid scissors-like so that all occupied states are shifted by the same amount and analogously for all the unoccupied states. We show that this results in a trivial modification of the time-dependent G 0 W 0 self-energy, enabling an a posteriori self-consistency cycle. The method is applicable for our recent stochastic-GW approach, thereby enabling self-consistent calculations for giant systems with thousands of electrons. The accuracy of Δ ¯ G W 0 increases with the system size. For molecules, it is up to 0.4-0.5 eV away from coupled-cluster single double triple (CCSD(T)), but for tetracene and hexacene, it matches the ionization energies from both CCSD(T) and evGW 0 to better than 0.05 eV. For solids, as exemplified here by periodic supercells of semiconductors and insulators with 6192 valence electrons, the method matches evGW 0 quite well and both methods are in good agreement with the experiment.

*Faraday Discuss ; 212(0): 547-567, 2018 12 13.*

##### RESUMO

Splittings of the translation-rotation (TR) eigenstates of the solid light-molecule endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, H2O, HF) attributed to the symmetry breaking have been observed in the infrared (IR) and inelastic neutron scattering spectra of these species in the past couple of years. In a recent paper [Felker et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2017, 19, 31274], we established that the electrostatic, quadrupolar interaction between the guest molecule M and the twelve nearest-neighbor C60 cages of the solid is the main source of the symmetry breaking. The splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF calculated using this model were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Utilizing the same electrostatic model, this theoretical study investigates the effects of the symmetry breaking on the excited TR eigenstates of the three species, and how they manifest in their simulated low-temperature (5-6 K) near-IR (NIR) and far-IR (FIR) spectra. The TR eigenstates are calculated variationally for both the major P and minor H crystal orientations. For the H orientation, the calculated splittings of all of the TR levels of these species are less than 0.1 cm-1. For the dominant P orientation, the splittings vary strongly depending on the character of the excitations involved. In all of the species, the splittings of the higher rotationally excited levels are comparable in magnitude to those for the j = 1 levels. For the levels corresponding to purely translational excitations, the calculated splittings are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the purely rotational eigenstates. Based on the computed TR eigenstates, the low-temperature NIR (for M = H2) and FIR (for M = HF and H2O) spectra are simulated for both the P and H orientations, and also combined as their weighted sum (0.15H + 0.85P). The weighted sum spectra computed for M = H2 and HF match quantitatively the corresponding measured spectra, while for M = H2O, the weighted sum FIR spectrum predicts features that can potentially be observed experimentally.

*iScience ; 7: 120-131, 2018 Sep 28.*

##### RESUMO

Neutral zinc alkoxide complexes show high activity toward the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters and carbonates, to generate biodegradable plastics applicable in several areas. Herein, we use a ferrocene-chelating heteroscorpionate complex in redox-switchable polymerization reactions, and we show that it is a moderately active catalyst for the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide, É-caprolactone, trimethylene carbonate, and Î´-valerolactone. Uniquely for this type of catalyst, the oxidized complex has a similar polymerization activity as the corresponding reduced compound, but displays significantly different rates of reaction in the case of trimethylene carbonate and Î´-valerolactone. Investigations of the oxidized compound suggest the presence of an organic radical rather than an Fe(III) complex. Electronic structure and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to support the proposed electronic states of the catalytic complex and to help explain the observed reactivity differences. The catalyst was also compared with a monomeric phenoxide complex to show the influence of the phosphine-zinc interaction on catalytic properties.

*J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(17): 5173-5178, 2018 Sep 06.*

##### RESUMO

One of the outstanding puzzles in the photoelectron spectroscopy of water anion clusters, which serve as precursors to the hydrated electron, is that the excess electron has multiple vertical detachment energies (VDEs), with different groups seeing different distributions of VDEs. We have studied the photoelectron spectroscopy of water cluster anions using simulation techniques designed to mimic the different ways that water cluster anions are produced experimentally. Our simulations take advantage of density functional theory-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics with an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional that is shown to give outstanding accuracy for calculating electron binding energies for this system. We find that our simulations are able to accurately reproduce the experimentally observed VDEs for cluster anions of different sizes, with different VDE distributions observed depending on how the water cluster anions are prepared. For cluster anion sizes up to 20 water molecules, we see that the excess electron always resides on the surface of the cluster and that the different discrete VDEs result from the discrete number of hydrogen bonds made to the electron by water molecules on the surface. Clusters that are less thermally equilibrated have surface waters that tend to make single H-bonds to the electron, resulting in lower VDEs, while clusters that are more thermally equilibrated have surface waters that prefer to make two H-bonds to the electron, resulting in higher VDEs.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(7): 3504-3511, 2018 Jul 10.*

##### RESUMO

Psi4NumPy demonstrates the use of efficient computational kernels from the open-source Psi4 program through the popular NumPy library for linear algebra in Python to facilitate the rapid development of clear, understandable Python computer code for new quantum chemical methods, while maintaining a relatively low execution time. Using these tools, reference implementations have been created for a number of methods, including self-consistent field (SCF), SCF response, many-body perturbation theory, coupled-cluster theory, configuration interaction, and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. Furthermore, several reference codes have been integrated into Jupyter notebooks, allowing background, underlying theory, and formula information to be associated with the implementation. Psi4NumPy tools and associated reference implementations can lower the barrier for future development of quantum chemistry methods. These implementations also demonstrate the power of the hybrid C++/Python programming approach employed by the Psi4 program.

*J Chem Phys ; 146(22): 224111, 2017 Jun 14.*

##### RESUMO

An ab initio Langevin dynamics approach is developed based on stochastic density functional theory (sDFT) within a new embedded saturated fragment formalism, applicable to covalently bonded systems. The forces on the nuclei generated by sDFT contain a random component natural to Langevin dynamics, and its standard deviation is used to estimate the friction term on each atom by satisfying the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The overall approach scales linearly with the system size even if the density matrix is not local and is thus applicable to ordered as well as disordered extended systems. We implement the approach for a series of silicon nanocrystals (NCs) of varying size with a diameter of up to 3 nm corresponding to Ne = 3000 electrons and generate a set of configurations that are distributed canonically at a fixed temperature, ranging from cryogenic to room temperature. We also analyze the structure properties of the NCs and discuss the reconstruction of the surface geometry.

*Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(46): 31274-31283, 2017 Nov 29.*

##### RESUMO

Symmetry breaking has been recently observed in the endofullerenes M@C60 (M = H2, HF, H2O), manifesting in the splittings of the three-fold degenerate ground states of the endohedral ortho-H2, ortho-H2O and the j = 1 level of HF. The nature of the interaction causing the symmetry breaking is established in this study. A fragment of the solid C60 is considered, comprised of the central C60 molecule surrounded by twelve nearest-neighbor (NN) C60 molecules. The fullerenes have either P (major) or H (minor) orientational orderings, and are assumed to be rigid with Ih symmetry. Only the central C60 is occupied by the guest molecule M, while the NN fullerenes are all empty. The key proposition of the study is that the electrostatic interactions between the charge densities on the NN C60 molecules and that on M inside the central C60 give rise to the symmetry breaking responsible for the measured level splittings. Using this model, the M@C60 level splittings of interest are calculated variationally and using perturbation theory, for both the P and H orientations. Those obtained for the dominant P orientation are in excellent agreement with the experimental results, with respect to the splitting magnitudes and patterns, for all three M@C60 systems considered, pointing strongly to the quadrupolar M-NN interactions as the main cause of the symmetry breaking. The level splittings calculated for the H orientation are about 30 times smaller than the ones in the P orientation.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(11): 5396-5403, 2017 Nov 14.*

##### RESUMO

The second-order Matsubara Green's function method (GF2) is a robust temperature-dependent quantum chemistry approach, extending beyond the random-phase approximation. However, until now the scope of GF2 applications was quite limited as they require computer resources that rise steeply with system size. In each step of the self-consistent GF2 calculation there are two parts: estimating of the self-energy from the previous step's Green's function and updating the Green's function from the self-energy. The first part formally scales as the fifth power of the system size, while the second has a much gentler cubic scaling. Here, we develop a stochastic approach to GF2 (sGF2), which reduces the fifth power scaling of the first step to merely quadratic, leaving the overall sGF2 scaling as cubic. We apply the method to linear hydrogen chains with up to 1000 electrons, showing that the approach is numerically stable, efficient, and accurate. The stochastic errors are very small, on the order of 0.1% or less of the correlation energy for large systems, with only a moderate computational effort. The first iteration of GF2 is an MP2 calculation that is done in linear scaling; hence we obtain an extremely fast stochastic MP2 (sMP2) method as a byproduct. While here we consider finite systems with large band gaps where at low temperatures effects are negligible, the sGF2 formalism is temperature dependent and general and can be applied to finite or periodic systems with small gaps at finite temperatures.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(10): 4605-4610, 2017 Oct 10.*

##### RESUMO

A stochastic orbital approach to the resolution of identity (RI) approximation for 4-index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) is presented. The stochastic RI-ERIs are then applied to second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) utilizing a multiple stochastic orbital approach. The introduction of multiple stochastic orbitals results in an O(NAO3) scaling for both the stochastic RI-ERIs and stochastic RI-MP2, NAO being the number of basis functions. For a range of water clusters we demonstrate that this method exhibits a small prefactor and observed scalings of O(Ne2.4) for total energies and O(Ne3.1) for forces (Ne being the number of correlated electrons), outperforming MP2 for clusters with as few as 21 water molecules.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(10): 4997-5003, 2017 Oct 10.*

##### RESUMO

Quasiparticle (QP) excitations are extremely important for understanding and predicting charge transfer and transport in molecules, nanostructures, and extended systems. Since density functional theory (DFT) within the Kohn-Sham (KS) formulation does not provide reliable QP energies, many-body perturbation techniques such as the GW approximation are essential. The main practical drawback of GW implementations is the high computational scaling with system size, prohibiting its use in extended, open boundary systems with many dozens of electrons or more. Recently, a stochastic formulation of GW (sGW) was presented (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 076402) with a near-linear-scaling complexity, illustrated for a series of silicon nanocrystals reaching systems of more than 3000 electrons. This advance provides a route for many-body calculations on very large systems that were impossible with previous approaches. While earlier we have shown the gentle scaling of sGW, its accuracy was not extensively demonstrated. Therefore, we show that this new sGW approach is very accurate by calculating the ionization energies of a group of sufficiently small molecules where a comparison to other GW codes is still possible. Using a set of 10 such molecules, we demonstrate that sGW provides reliable vertical ionization energies in close agreement with benchmark deterministic GW results (J. Chem. Theory Comput, 2015, 11, 5665), with mean (absolute) deviation of 0.05 and 0.09 eV. For completeness, we also provide a detailed review of the sGW theory and numerical implementation.

*Nanoscale ; 8(43): 18476-18482, 2016 Nov 03.*

##### RESUMO

We propose a new type of nanodevice, capable of both path-selectivity and anisotropic lasing, that is based on loss-compensation and amplification by a localized plasmon polariton. The nanodevice is a Y-shaped plasmonic nanostructure embedded in an anisotropic host medium with gain. The anisotropy leads to path selectivity, an effect which is more pronounced once gain is included. Such a device is potentially realizable via bottom-up techniques. The path-selectivity may be coupled with activation of a rotation of the anisotropic host medium for inducing a light-guiding switching functionality.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 13178, 2016 10 11.*

##### RESUMO

Multiexciton generation, by which more than a single electron-hole pair is generated on optical excitation, is a promising paradigm for pushing the efficiency of solar cells beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit of 31%. Utilizing this paradigm, however, requires the onset energy of multiexciton generation to be close to twice the band gap energy and the efficiency to increase rapidly above this onset. This challenge remains unattainable even using confined nanocrystals, nanorods or nanowires. Here, we show how both goals can be achieved in a nanorod heterostructure with type-II band offsets. Using pseudopotential atomistic calculation on a model type-II semiconductor heterostructure we predict the optimal conditions for controlling multiexciton generation efficiencies at twice the band gap energy. For a finite band offset, this requires a sharp interface along with a reduction of the exciton cooling and may enable a route for breaking the Shockley-Queisser limit.