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1.
Blood Press Monit ; 25(1): 42-49, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare two oscillometric devices used in national health surveys in Germany, Datascope Accutorr Plus and Mobil-O-Graph PWA and to develop formulas for the conversion of blood pressure (BP) values. METHODS: One hundred and four adults aged 21-86 years had nine alternate same-arm BP measurements according to the International Protocol revision 2010 for the validation of BP measuring devices in adults of the European Society of Hypertension. Measurements 2-8 yielded six pairs of measurements at 30- to 60-second interval with the two devices, totaling 743 pairs used for analysis. RESULTS: Mean Mobil-O-Graph SBP and DBP were higher than those from Datascope. Mean differences (Mobil-O-Graph minus Datascope) increased within BP ranges (optimal, normal, high normal, hypertensive stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3): SBP 0.5 ± 8.5, 3.1 ± 8.2, 3.7 ± 8.0, 5.3 ± 8.8, 13.8 ± 10.2 and 15.0 ± 25.9, respectively, and DBP 2.6 ± 5.6, 6.0 ± 4.9, 6.6 ± 5.2, 8.4 ± 4.8, 12.3 ± 4.6 and 20.4 ± 4.2, respectively. For Mobil-O-Graph pulse pressure less than 43 mm Hg, the DBP difference was 6.3 ± 5.5, and for Mobil-O-Graph pulse pressure more than 50 mm Hg, the SBP difference was 7.4 ± 9.3. The prevalence of BP at least 140/90 mm Hg was 28.8% with Mobil-O-Graph and 20.5% with Datascope. Bidirectional conversion models of SBP and DBP adjusting for BP, pulse pressure, sex, age and cuff width to arm circumference ratio were developed. CONCLUSION: The disagreement in oscillometric devices can reach a magnitude that can be relevant for clinical and epidemiological contexts. The here generated conversion formulas may help to improve comparability.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723976

RESUMO

CONTEXT: No universal waist circumference (WC) percentile cut-offs used have been proposed for screening central obesity in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To develop international WC percentile cut-offs for children and adolescents with normal weight based on data from eight countries in different regions and examine the relation with cardiovascular risk. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used pooled data on WC in 113,453 children and adolescents (males, 50.2%) aged 4-20 years from eight countries in different regions (Bulgaria, China, Iran, Korea, Malaysia, Poland, Seychelles, and Switzerland). We calculated WC percentile cut-offs in samples including or excluding children with obesity, overweight or underweight. WC percentiles were generated using the general additive model for location scale and shape (GAMLSS). We also estimated the predictive power of the WC 90th percentile cut-offs to predict cardiovascular risk using receiver operator characteristics curve analysis based on data from three countries that had available data (China, Iran and Korea). We also examined which WC percentiles connected with WC cut-offs for central obesity in adults (at age of 18 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: WC measured based on recommendation by the World Health Organization. RESULTS: We validated the performance of the age- and sex- specific 90th percentile WC cut-offs calculated in children and adolescents (6-18 years of age) with normal weight (excluding youth with obesity, overweight or underweight) by linking it with cardiovascular risk (AUC: 0.69 for boys; 0.63 for girls). In addition, WC percentile among normal weight children linked relatively well with established WC cut-offs for central obesity in adults (e.g., AUC in US adolescents: 0.71 for boys; 0.68 for girls). CONCLUSION: The international WC cut-offs developed in this study could be useful to screen central obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years and allow direct comparison of WC distributions between populations and over time.

3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529181

RESUMO

Trends of frequent chronic diseases and health problems, e.g. allergic diseases, have already been published based on the KiGGS Wave 2 study as part of the health monitoring of children and adolescents in Germany. The present work complements these findings with results on less frequent noncommunicable diseases and the trend of communicable, vaccine-preventable diseases.Information from parents about diagnoses and diseases of their 0­ to 17-year-old children from the representative cross-sectional survey KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017) are compared with those from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006) and KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012).The current KiGGS results show almost unchanged prevalences for the noncommunicable diseases epilepsy, migraine, and heart disease. However, the data from KiGGS Wave 2 are supportive of an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which nevertheless continues to be relatively rare and predominantly type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.The decline in measles, chicken pox, and whooping cough diseases related to changes in vaccination recommendations shows that preventive measures can effectively benefit children and adolescents.However, the data on vaccine-preventable diseases indicate regionally varying immunity gaps in certain age groups, so the prevention potential of the vaccination recommendations of the Standing Vaccination Commission (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute does not seem to have been sufficiently exploited.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Varicela/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain not only causes suffering in children and adolescents, but also leads to school absenteeism, medication intake, medical treatment, and an increased risk of recurrent pain in adulthood. OBJECTIVES: Based on data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), the 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain in girls and boys is reported, and is compared with the prevalence from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006). The consequences of recurrent headache were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from >11,000 participants (KiGGS Wave 2) and from >12,000 (KiGGS baseline) participants aged between 3 and 17 years were analyzed. For 3­ to 10-year-olds, parents/guardians answered the questions, while 11- to 17-year-olds provided information themselves. RESULTS: In 3­ to 10-year-olds, recurrent abdominal pain was most prevalent, affecting one third of girls and one quarter of boys. Headache was the most frequent type of pain in 11- to 17-year-olds, affecting almost every second girl and about every third boy. The 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain has increased in girls and boys, especially in the age groups 7 to 10 years and 11 to 13 years. Among recurrent headache sufferers, adolescents take medication almost twice as often as children. CONCLUSIONS: Headache, abdominal, and back pain are still and with increasing prevalence very common symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany. Their prevention requires a holistic view of children's health in the psychosocial living environment, and healthcare context.


Assuntos
Dor/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
5.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 2314029, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186951

RESUMO

Universal blood pressure (BP) screening in children and adolescents is questioned in prevention guidelines, while measuring blood pressure in the young in the context of overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension is promoted. This study quantifies with population data the underestimation of elevated blood pressure that would result from limiting BP screening only to those with overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension in the young. Selective screening was simulated with representative national health examination data from Germany (age 3-17, N=14,633, KiGGS0 study 2003-2006; age 18-39, N=1,884, DEGS1 2008-2011 study), with mean of two oscillometric measurements on one occasion; cutoffs for hypertensive BP in children were the 95th percentile using KiGGS percentiles, and for sensitivity analyses Fourth Report percentiles, in adults 140/90 mmHg; childhood overweight and obesity were classified according to the International Obesity Task Force and for adults as BMI ≥25 and ≥30 kg/m2. In 3-17-year-olds, different selective BP screening scenarios were simulated: screening only in those with obesity, overweight, parental hypertension, combination of overweight and parental hypertension, resulting in screening 5.6%, 20.0%, 28.5%, and 42.6% of the population and detecting 17.2%, 38.6%, 30.3%, and 58.2% of all hypertensive cases in the population. In conclusion our results show a large screening gap that would result from selective BP screening only in those with overweight, obesity, or parental hypertension.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(16): e15093, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008932

RESUMO

Strong evidence exists for the benefits of screening for hypertension to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and determinants of blood pressure (BP) measurement by a health professional in the general population and in individuals without hypertension in Germany.Data from 17,431 participants 15+ years from the cross-sectional GEDA2014/2015-EHIS survey were used to calculate the percentage of the population who had no BP measurement within the last year and the last 3 years. In multivariate models, the determinants of no BP measurement were analyzed. The frequency of BP measurement was compared between 30 European countries.In Germany, 27.5% of men and 16.6% of women had no BP measurement by a health professional within the last year and 10.9%, respectively 5.4% not within the last 3 years. In individuals without known hypertension, 34.1% of men and 23.6% of women aged 15 to 19 years had no BP measurement in the last 3 years compared to 5.2% of men and 4.8% of women 70+ years. Independent predictors of not receiving a BP measurement in the last 3 years besides age were male sex, good self-rated health, low health awareness, and no medical consultations but not educational level. Germany has low proportions of no BP measurement compared to other European countries.Hypertension screening needs improvement in all age groups, especially in the young who have the lowest screening proportions but also in the elderly who have the highest hypertension risk.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(3): 448-453, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are lacking to provide cutoffs for hypotension in children based on outcome studies and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) definitions are based on normal populations. The goal of this study was to compare different normal population based cutoffs including fifth percentile of systolic blood pressure (P5-SBP) in children and adolescents from the German Health Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), US population data (Fourth Report), and cutoffs from PALS and ATLS guidelines. METHODS: Fifth percentile of systolic blood pressure according to age, sex, and height was modeled based on standardized resting oscillometric BP measurements (12,199 children aged 3-17 years) from KiGGS 2003-2006. In addition, we applied the age-adjusted pediatric shock index in the KiGGS study. RESULTS: The KiGGS P5-SBP was on average 7 mm Hg higher than Fourth Report P5-SBP (5-10 mm Hg depending on age-sex group). For children aged 3 to 9 years, KIGGS P5-SBP at median height follows the formula 82 mm Hg + age; for age 10 to 17 years, the increase was not linear and is presented in a simplified table. Pediatric Advanced Life Support/ATLS thresholds were between KiGGS and Fourth Report until age of 11 years. The adult threshold of 90 mm Hg was reached by KiGGS P5-SBP median height at 8 years, PALS/ATLS at age of 10 years, and Fourth Report P5-SBP at 12 years. The pediatric shock index, which is supposed to identify severely injured children, was exceeded by 2.3% nonacutely ill KiGGS participants. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that percentile cutoffs vary by reference population. The 90 mm Hg cutoff for adolescents targets only those in the less than 1% of the low SBP range and represents an undertriage compared with P5 at younger ages according to both KiGGS and Fourth Report. Finally, current pediatric shock index cutoffs when applied to a healthy cohort lead to a relevant percentage of false positives. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/prognostic, level III.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL), defined as the ability to access, understand, appraise and apply health information, offers a promising approach to reduce the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and to improve the management of CVD in populations. DESIGN: We used data from nationwide cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA2014/2015-EHIS) survey. 13,577 adults ≥ 40 years completed a comprehensive standardized paper or online questionnaire including the short form of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16). METHODS: We compared participants with and without CVD with regard to their HL. We also analyzed the association between HL level and health care outcomes among individuals with CVD, i.e. frequency of general practitioner or specialist consultations, hospitalization and treatment delay. RESULTS: The percentage of "problematic" or "inadequate" HL, defined as "not sufficient" HL, was significantly higher in individuals with CVD compared to without CVD (men 41.8% vs. 33.6%, women 46.7% vs. 33.4%). Having CVD was independently associated with "not sufficient" HL after adjusting for age, education, income, health consciousness and social support (adjusted OR: men 1.36, women 1.64). Among participants with CVD, individuals with "inadequate" HL were more likely to have more than 6 general practitioner consultations (49.3% vs. 28.7%), hospitalization (46.6% vs. 36.0%) in the last 12 months and to experience delay in getting health care because of long waiting lists for an appointment (30.7% vs. 18.5%) compared to participants with "sufficient" HL. CONCLUSION: "Problematic" or "inadequate" HL is independently associated with CVD and health care use. This is a challenge and an opportunity for both CVD prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Hypertens ; 2018: 8429891, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356390

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) tracking from childhood to adulthood has two aspects: the ranking stability relative to others over time and the prediction of future values. This study investigates BP tracking in children and adolescents in Germany in the context of hypertension risk factors. BP was measured and analyzed in 2542 participants of the German Health Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (t0 2003-2006; 3 to 17-year olds) and of a six year follow-up "Motorik Modul" (t1 2009-2012; 9 to 24-year olds). BP tracking coefficients were calculated from Spearman's rank-order correlations. Predictive values and logistic regression models were used to forecast t1-BP above the hypertension threshold from t0-BP as well as from baseline and follow-up hypertension risk factors. BP tracking was moderate (0.33-0.50 for SBP and 0.19-0.39 for DBP) with no statistically significant differences between sex and age groups. Baseline hypertensive BP was the strongest independent predictor of hypertensive BP at follow-up (OR 4.3 and 3.4 for age groups 3-10 and 11-17 years) after adjusting for sex, BMI trajectories, birthweight, parental hypertension, and age-group dependent-sports/physical activity. However, the positive predictive value of baseline hypertensive BP for hypertensive BP at follow-up in 3- to 10-year olds was only 39% (34% in 11- to 17-year olds) and increased only moderately in the presence of additional risk factors. Our analysis with population-based data from Germany shows that BP in children and adolescents tracks only moderately over six years. BP in childhood is the strongest independent predictor of future BP but its predictive value is limited.

10.
Obes Facts ; 11(5): 400-412, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In order to quantify the preventive potential of body weight reduction in Germany, population-attributable risks (PARs) were estimated for 13 cancer types. METHODS: PARs were calculated using body weight prevalence from a nationwide survey from 1998, cancer incidence estimates for 2010 from cancer registry data and relative risk estimates from published meta-analyses. Three counterfactual scenarios were evaluated: reducing BMI to maximally 21 kg/m² (main analysis) and weight reductions among overweight and obese persons of 5% and 10%. RESULTS: An estimated 9% of all incident cancer cases in Germany - 40,748 cases - could be attributed to excess body weight in 2010. The highest proportions were estimated for endometrial cancer (48%) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (48% for women, 46% for men). The largest case numbers were estimated for postmenopausal breast (9,081 cases), colorectal (8,002 cases among men, 3,297 cases among women) and endometrial cancer (5,468 cases). The additional counterfactual scenarios suggested that weight reductions of 5% and 10% could prevent 5,572 cases and 11,427 cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In Germany there is a considerable preventive potential for cancers associated with excess body weight. Efforts to prevent further weight gain and encourage weight loss should be promoted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191268

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) represent an emerging global public health challenge. In Germany, about 6.7 million adults are affected by diabetes according to national health surveys, including 1.3 million with undiagnosed diabetes. Complications of diabetes result in an increasing burden for individuals and society as well as enormous costs for the health care system. In response, the Federal Ministry of Health commissioned the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to implement a diabetes surveillance system and the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA) to develop a diabetes prevention strategy. In a two-day workshop jointly organized by the RKI and the BZgA, representatives from public health institutes in seven countries shared their expertise and knowledge on diabetes prevention and surveillance. Day one focused on NCD surveillance systems and emphasized both the strengthening of sustainable data sources and the timely and targeted dissemination of results using innovative formats. The second day focused on diabetes prevention strategies and highlighted the importance of involving all relevant stakeholders in the development process to facilitate its acceptance and implementation. Furthermore, the effective translation of prevention measures into real-world settings requires data from surveillance systems to identify high-risk groups and evaluate the effect of measures at the population level based on analyses of time trends in risk factors and disease outcomes. Overall, the workshop highlighted the close link between diabetes prevention strategies and surveillance systems. It was generally stated that only robust data enables effective prevention measures to encounter the increasing burden from diabetes and other NCDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Metas , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are a major cause of mortality and loss of quality of life in Germany. Research into risk factors of these diseases requires large population-based cohort studies. Complete and accurate assessment of the incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases is a key element for valid interpretation of the results from such studies. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify population-based cohort studies with incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in Germany and to summarize their methods for assessment and classification of disease endpoints, including myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes, stroke, heart failure, and arterial hypertension. METHODS: Within the framework of a workshop, representatives of the ascertained population-based cohort studies in Germany with incidence of cardiovascular or metabolic diseases were invited to present and to systematically provide information on their methods of endpoint identification. RESULTS: We identified eight studies from different regions in Germany with a total of 100,571 participants, aged 18-83 years at baseline. Self-reporting by study participants is the major source for further inquiries to assess disease endpoints in these studies. Most studies use additional data sources to verify the incidence of diseases, such as documents provided by the treating physician or hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the central role of self-reporting and the efforts associated with identification and verification of disease endpoints in cohort studies. They also provide a basis for future population-based studies that aim for standardized assessment of the incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190441, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293619

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the 40 to 69 year old general population in Germany stratified by sex and to analyze differences between socio-economic status (SES), region and community size in individuals without CVD. The analysis is based on the newly recalibrated SCORE Deutschland risk charts and considered other comorbidities for the classification of the high CVD risk group according to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 3,498 participants (40-69 years) from the German Health Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1) without a history of CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke) we estimated the proportion with a low (SCORE <1%), moderate (SCORE 1-<5%) and high 10-year CVD mortality risk (SCORE ≥5% or diabetes, renal insufficiency, SBP/DPB ≥180/110 mmHg or cholesterol >8 mmol/l). The prevalence of low, moderate and high risk was 42.8%, 38.5% and 18.8% in men and 73.7%, 18.1% and 8.2% in women. The prevalence of high risk was significantly lower in women with a high compared to a low SES (3.3% vs. 11.2%) and in communities with ≥100.000 inhabitants compared to <20.000 inhabitants (5.4% vs.10.9%). There were no significant associations between predicted CVD mortality risk and SES or community size in men and regions in men and women. Among the high risk group, 58.2% of men and 9.8% of women had SCORE ≥5%, leaving the majority of women (60.1%) classified as high risks due to diabetes and SCORE <5%. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in predicted cardiovascular mortality in women and support the need of large-scale prevention efforts beyond individual lifestyle modification or treatment. Furthermore, the importance of additional comorbidities for the high risk group classification is highlighted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(10): 1042-1050, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664546

RESUMO

A direct relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure (BP) has been reported, but the possible confounding impact of diet on this association is unclear. The authors performed a cross-sectional analysis in the representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (n=6788, aged 18-79 years). In adjusted regression models considering dietary factors, each 1-mg/dL higher uric acid value was associated with a 1.10-mm Hg (P=.0002) and a 0.60-mm Hg (P=.04) higher systolic BP among participants younger than 50 years and participants 50 years and older, respectively. For diastolic BP, uric acid was a significant predictor (ß=0.71 mm Hg, P=.0001) among participants younger than 50 years and for participants 50 years and older without antihypertensive treatment. Adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for participants with hyperuricemia were broadly similar in younger (odds ratio, 1.71; P=.02) and older (odds ratio, 1.81; P=.0003) participants. Uric acid is a significant predictor of systolic BP and hypertension prevalence in the general adult population in Germany independently of several known dietary BP influences.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pediatr ; 187: 174-181.e3, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present population-based resting heart rate (RHR) percentiles and associated factors in children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Standardized RHR measurements with an oscillometric device were obtained from 3- to 17-year-olds who participated in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (n = 11 986). Age- and sex-specific RHR percentiles were derived using flexible age-dependent modeling. Linear regression was used to test associations of RHR and associated factors. RESULTS: RHR decreased with age and mean RHR was on average 3.0 beats per minute (bpm) higher in girls than in boys (P < .01). The 95th RHR-KiGGS-percentile (P95) in boys and girls are up to 10 bpm lower than P95 based on pooled heterogeneous international studies and more similar to percentiles based on population data from NHANES (higher or lower by ≤5 bpm, depending on age). Factors independently associated with RHR in both sexes were age, SBP and height in children aged 3-10 years; and age, systolic blood pressure, and high aerobic fitness in adolescents aged 11-17 years. In girls, we further found an association between RHR and underweight (OR 3.3 and 4.7 for underweight girls aged 3-10 and 11-17, respectively, compared with normal weight girls). Associations between RHR and aerobic fitness, physical activity, and media use were stronger in boys than in girls. CONCLUSION: This study provides population-based RHR percentiles and evidence for sex-dependent associations of cardiovascular risk factors with RHR in children and adolescents, many of which are lifestyle related.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Oscilometria , Fatores de Risco
16.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 114(12): 212, 2017 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407846
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of all cardiovascular diseases are caused by eight, mostly preventable risk factors. OBJECTIVES: In view of the considerable differences in the prevalence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between the 16 German federal states, the regional distribution of cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed stratified for men and women, using population-based data. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 62,606) from the national, telephone health surveys "German Health Update" from 2009, 2010 and 2012 were used to estimate the prevalence of physical inactivity, risky alcohol consumption, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity and diagnosed hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia and the accumulated number of risk factors stratified for men and women in the federal states. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of age and social status on prevalence differences. RESULTS: At the national level, 36.0% of men and 26.6% of women had three or more risk factors. Large differences between men and women were found for risky alcohol consumption (32.8% versus 21.7%), low fruit and vegetable consumption (20.6% versus 10.4%) and current smoking (32.6% versus 24.9%). The prevalence of all eight risk factors differed considerably between federal states. The highest prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in both sexes as well as risky alcohol consumption in men were observed in the Eastern federal states (except for Berlin). Sachsen-Anhalt was the only federal state with the highest prevalence for two risk factors. Current smoking was most prevalent in the three federal city states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. Saarland had the highest prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption in both sexes. Regional differences remained after adjustment for age and social status. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence for regional differences in cardiovascular risk factor levels in Germany that resemble variations in the prevalence and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between federal states with a more unfavorable situation in the East (except for Berlin). Overall, this study shows a considerable need for the prevention of mostly modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in men and women in Germany.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Saúde do Homem/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/mortalidade , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Hypertens ; 35(2): 250-258, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze incident hypertension and its risk factors based on 11.9 years follow-up of a recent National Examination Survey cohort in Germany. METHODS: Out of 7124 participants of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), 640 had died at follow-up 2008-2011 and 3045 were reexamined as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Baseline and follow-up included standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements. Hypertension was defined as BP of at least 140/90 mmHg or intake of antihypertensive medication in participants with known hypertension. RESULTS: Out of 2231 GNHIES98-DEGS1 participants aged 18-79 years without hypertension in 1998, 26.2% developed hypertension within a mean of 11.9 (range 10.0-14.1) years (men 29.0%, women 23.4%). In univariate analysis, hypertension incidence was positively associated with age, BMI, initial BP levels, pulse pressure, and alcohol consumption. Comorbidities such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia increased the chance to develop hypertension. In the multivariate model, initial SBP and DBP levels had the strongest influence on the development of future hypertension (7% increase in men and 5% in women per mmHg SBP). The percentage of aware, treated, and controlled hypertensive patients were 75.8, 62.1, and 50.3% in men and 83.8, 73.3, and 59.0% in women. CONCLUSION: The high 11.9-year incidence in all age groups points to the lifelong potential for prevention of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Diástole , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sístole , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 113(42): 704-711, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease continues to be the single most common cause of death and to account for the largest single portion of treatment costs in Germany. Reliable data on regional differences in the frequency of cardio - vascular disease are important for the planning of targeted care structures and preventive measures. METHODS: Pooled data from the German Health Update (GEDA), a nationwide telephone health survey conducted in 2009, 2010 and 2012 (n = 62 214) were used to estimate the lifetime prevalence of major cardiovascular disease (self-reported medical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, other coronary heart disease, stroke, or congestive heart failure) in each of the German federal states. The influence of sociodemographic factors on regional prevalence differences was examined in adjusted logistic regression analyses. Prevalences were compared with mortality rates from cardiovascular disease that were obtained from cause-of-death statistics. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Germany ranged from 10.0% in Baden-W¨rttemberg to 15.8% in Saxony-Anhalt. After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and size of the communities of residence, nine of the other 15 states had significantly higher prevalences than Baden-W¨rttemberg, with odds ratios ranging from 1.26 (Hesse) to 1.55 (Saxony-Anhalt). Four of the five states that previously constituted the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) had above-average figures for prevalence and mortality. CONCLUSION: There are relevant differences among the German federal states in the lifetime prevalence of major cardiovascular disease, which are only partly accounted for by differences in age and sex distribution, socioeconomic status, and community size.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 113(42): 712-719, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from three representative health examination surveys in Germany were analyzed to examine secular trends in the prevalence and magnitude of cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: The target variables were the following cardiometabolic risk factors: lack of exercise, smoking, obesity, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, serum glucose, self-reported high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, and the use of antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, and antidiabetic drugs. 9347 data sets from men and 10 068 from women were analyzed. The calculated means and prevalences were standardized to the age structure of the German population as of 31 December 2010 and compared across the three time periods of the surveys: 1990-1992, 1997-1999, and 2008-11. RESULTS: Over the entire period of observation (1990-2011), the mean systolic blood pressure fell from 137 to 128 mmHg in men and from 132 to 120 mmHg in women; the mean serum glucose concentration fell from 5.6 to 5.3 mmol/L in men and from 5.4 to 5.0 mmol/l in women; and the mean total cholesterol level fell from 6.2 to 5.3 mmol/L in both sexes. In men, smoking and lack of exercise became less common. On the other hand, the prevalence of use of antidiabetic, cholesterol-lowering, and antihypertensive drugs rose over the same time period, as did that of self-reported diabetes. The first of the three surveys (1990-1992) revealed differences between persons residing in the former East and West Germany in most of the health variables studied; these differences became less marked over time, up to the last survey in 2008-2011. CONCLUSION: The cardiometabolic risk profile of the German adult population as a whole improved over a period of 20 years. Further in-depth analyses are now planned.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
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