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1.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-9, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343223

RESUMO

Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as following a healthy dietary pattern may delay or prevent prostate cancer (PCa) progression. However, few studies have evaluated whether following specific dietary patterns after PCa diagnosis impacts risk of disease progression among men with localized PCa managed by active surveillance (AS). 564 men enrolled in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study, a protocol-driven AS study utilizing a pre-specified prostate-specific antigen monitoring and surveillance biopsy regimen, completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at enrollment and had ≥ 1 surveillance biopsy during follow-up. FFQs were used to evaluate adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (Healthy Eating index (HEI))-2015, alternative Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary patterns. Multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 237 men experienced an increase in Gleason score on subsequent biopsy (grade reclassification). Higher HEI-2015, aMED or DASH diet scores after diagnosis were not associated with significant reductions in the risk of grade reclassification during AS. However, these dietary patterns have well-established protective effects on chronic diseases and mortality and remain a prudent choice for men with prostate cancer managed by AS.

2.
J Hum Evol ; 171: 103229, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115145

RESUMO

In mammals, trait variation is often reported to be greater among males than females. However, to date, mainly only morphological traits have been studied. Energy expenditure represents the metabolic costs of multiple physical, physiological, and behavioral traits. Energy expenditure could exhibit particularly high greater male variation through a cumulative effect if those traits mostly exhibit greater male variation, or a lack of greater male variation if many of them do not. Sex differences in energy expenditure variation have been little explored. We analyzed a large database on energy expenditure in adult humans (1494 males and 3108 females) to investigate whether humans have evolved sex differences in the degree of interindividual variation in energy expenditure. We found that, even when statistically comparing males and females of the same age, height, and body composition, there is much more variation in total, activity, and basal energy expenditure among males. However, with aging, variation in total energy expenditure decreases, and because this happens more rapidly in males, the magnitude of greater male variation, though still large, is attenuated in older age groups. Considerably greater male variation in both total and activity energy expenditure could be explained by greater male variation in levels of daily activity. The considerably greater male variation in basal energy expenditure is remarkable and may be explained, at least in part, by greater male variation in the size of energy-demanding organs. If energy expenditure is a trait that is of indirect interest to females when choosing a sexual partner, this would suggest that energy expenditure is under sexual selection. However, we present a novel energetics model demonstrating that it is also possible that females have been under stabilizing selection pressure for an intermediate basal energy expenditure to maximize energy available for reproduction.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(11): 2063-2069, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multivitamin (MVI) use is a common health behavior but there is conflicting evidence from prospective studies about whether this behavior increases or decreases prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Associations of MVI use and prostate cancer risk were evaluated using data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Cox proportional hazards models estimated associations of MVI use with risk of total, low-, and high-grade prostate cancer. Longitudinal data were used to evaluate screening and biopsy patterns. To account for differential biopsy patterns, the probability of prostate cancer was estimated for men with a positive screening value but no biopsy. Incidence density ratios were used to approximate HRs, and associations of MVI use with predicted prostate cancer risk were compared with observed. RESULTS: Analyses of data from observed biopsies suggest a respective 19% (95% confidence interval, 10%-28%) and 21% (12%-31%) higher risk of high-grade prostate cancer for current and long-term MVI use, compared with no use. Current and long-term MVI use was associated with a shorter time to first on-study biopsy, indicating the potential for detection bias. After accounting for differential acceptance of biopsy, associations of MVI use with prostate cancer were attenuated and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In SELECT, biopsy acceptance patterns differed by MVI use. Estimates of associations of MVI use with prostate cancer risk based on observed biopsy data may be biased by differential acceptance of biopsy. IMPACT: Differential biopsy ascertainment may impact associations of risk factors and prostate cancer. Detailed screening and biopsy data can be used to analytically minimize such bias.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata , Selênio , Humanos , Masculino , Biópsia , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Vitamina E , Vitaminas
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055772

RESUMO

Precision nutrition is an emerging concept that aims to develop nutrition recommendations tailored to different people's circumstances and biological characteristics. Responses to dietary change and the resulting health outcomes from consuming different diets may vary significantly between people based on interactions between their genetic backgrounds, physiology, microbiome, underlying health status, behaviors, social influences, and environmental exposures. On January 11-12, 2021, the National Institutes of Health convened a workshop entitled "Precision Nutrition: Research Gaps and Opportunities" to bring together experts to discuss the issues involved in better understanding and addressing precision nutrition. The Workshop proceeded in three parts: Part I covered many aspects of genetics and physiology that mediate the links between nutrient intake and health conditions such as cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Part II reviewed potential contributors to interindividual variability in dietary exposures and responses such as baseline nutritional status, circadian rhythm/sleep, environmental exposures, sensory properties of food, stress, inflammation, and the social determinants of health. Part III presented the need for systems approaches, with new methods and technologies that can facilitate the study and implementation of precision nutrition, and workforce development needed to create a new generation of researchers. The workshop concluded that much research will be needed before more precise nutrition recommendations can be achieved. This includes better understanding and accounting for variables such as age, sex, ethnicity, medical history, genetics, and social and environmental factors. The advent of new methods and technologies and the availability of considerably more data bring tremendous opportunity. However, the field must proceed with appropriate levels of caution and make sure the factors listed above are all considered, and systems approaches, and methods are incorporated. It will be important to develop and train an expanded workforce with the goal of reducing health disparities and improving precision nutritional advice for all Americans.

5.
J Nutr ; 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies examined associations between Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and chronic disease risk based on self-reported diet without measurement error correction. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to test associations between biomarker-calibration of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived HEI-2010 with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. WHI is registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00000611. METHODS: Data were derived from WHI postmenopausal women (n = 100,374) aged 50-79 y at enrollment (1993-1998) at 40 US clinical centers, linked to nutritional biomarker substudies and outcomes over subsequent decades of follow-up. Baseline or year 1 FFQ-derived HEI-2010 scores were calibrated with nutritional biomarkers and participant characteristics [e.g., body mass index (BMI)] for systematic measurement error correction. Calibrated data were then used in hazard ratio (HR) models examining associations with incidence of CVD (total, subtypes, mortality), cancer (total, subtypes, mortality), and T2D in WHI participants with approximately two decades of follow-up. Models were multivariable-adjusted with further adjustment for BMI and doubly-labeled water (DLW)-calibrated energy. RESULTS: Multivariable adjusted HRs modeled a 20% increment in HEI-2010 score in relation to outcomes. HRs were modest using uncalibrated HEI-2010 scores (HRs = 0.91-1.09). Using biomarker calibrated HEI-2010, 20% increments in scores yielded multivariable-adjusted HRs (95%CIs) of: 0.75 (0.60-0.93): coronary heart disease; 0.75, (0.61.-0.91): myocardial infarction; 0.96 (0.92-1.01): stroke; 0.88 (0.75-1.02): CVD mortality; 0.81 (0.70-0.94): colorectal cancer; 0.81 (0.74-0.88): breast cancer; 0.79 (0.73-0.87): cancer mortality; and 0.45 (0.36-0.55): T2D. Except for cancer mortality and T2D incidence, results became null when adjusted for DLW-calibrated energy intake and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarker calibration of FFQ-derived HEI-2010 was associated with lower CVD and cancer incidence and mortality and lower T2D incidence in postmenopausal women. Attenuation after adjustment with BMI and DLW-calibrated energy suggest that energy intake and/or obesity are strong drivers of diet-related chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.

6.
iScience ; 25(8): 104682, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865134

RESUMO

Lower ambient temperature (Ta) requires greater energy expenditure to sustain body temperature. However, effects of Ta on human energetics may be buffered by environmental modification and behavioral compensation. We used the IAEA DLW database for adults in the USA (n = 3213) to determine the effect of Ta (-10 to +30°C) on TEE, basal (BEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity level (PAL). There were no significant relationships (p > 0.05) between maximum, minimum and average Ta and TEE, BEE, AEE and PAL. After adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass and age, statistically significant (p < 0.01) relationships between TEE, BEE and Ta emerged in females but the effect sizes were not biologically meaningful. Temperatures inside buildings are regulated at 18-25°C independent of latitude. Hence, adults in the US modify their environments to keep TEE constant across a wide range of external ambient temperatures.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 80(3): 256-275, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835498

RESUMO

The WHI (Women's Health Initiative) enrolled 161,808 racially and ethnically diverse postmenopausal women, ages 50-79 years, from 1993 to 1998 at 40 clinical centers across the United States. In its clinical trial component, WHI evaluated 3 randomized interventions (menopausal hormone therapy; diet modification; and calcium/vitamin D supplementation) for the primary prevention of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, in older women. In the WHI observational study, numerous clinical, behavioral, and social factors have been evaluated as predictors of incident chronic disease and mortality. Although the original interventions have been completed, the WHI data and biomarker resources continue to be leveraged and expanded through ancillary studies to yield novel insights regarding cardiovascular disease prevention and healthy aging in women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Cálcio , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D , Saúde da Mulher
8.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(7): 3449-3459, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583696

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association of coffee and caffeine with breast cancer (BCa) risk, overall and by ER/PR status. We also examined potential interactions of coffee and caffeine with postmenopausal hormone use. METHODS: Our study included 77,688 postmenopausal participants from the Women's Health Initiative observational study cohort without a history of any cancer at baseline (except non-melanoma skin) and with valid Food Frequency Questionnaire data and complete data on dietary caffeine. Regular coffee (none, 1, 2-3, 4-5, and ≥ 6 cups/day) and caffeine (tertiles) were assessed at baseline. Information on BCa risk factors was collected at baseline. The associations were examined using survival analysis, accounting for death as a competing risk. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for our cohort was 18.3 years. During the follow-up, 5005 women developed invasive breast cancer. In multivariable analysis, coffee was not associated with the overall invasive BCa risk. Higher caffeine intake was mildly associated with increased BCa risk (2nd vs. 1st tertile SHR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18, 3rd vs. 1st tertile SHR-1.05, 95% CI 0.98-1.13, overall p = 0.03). We found no interaction of coffee/caffeine with postmenopausal hormone use (p interaction = 0.44 and 0.42, respectively). In the exploratory analysis by ER/PR status, we found a positive association of caffeine with ER+ /PR+ BCa (2nd vs. 1st tertile SHR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28, 3rd vs. 1st tertile SHR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24, overall p = 0.002); no associations were observed for ER-/PR- tumors. Coffee was not associated with the risk of ER+ /PR+ or ER-/PR- tumors. CONCLUSION: We found no associations of coffee with BCa risk, overall and for ER/PR-defined tumor subtypes. The higher caffeine consumption was mildly and positively associated with the overall BCa risk and with ER+ /PR+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco
9.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(4): 811-822, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602929

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the association between dietary patterns and total and obesity-related cancers risk. Additionally, to examine if acculturation modifies this relationship. Subject and Methods: Dietary intake of postmenopausal Hispanic women (N=5,482) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative was estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire and used to calculate dietary pattern scores; Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Mexican Diet (MexD) score, alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), and the energy adjusted-Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™). Associations were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: 631 cancers and 396 obesity-related cancers were diagnosed over a mean-follow up of 12 years. Across dietary scores, there were no significant associations with cancer risk or mortality. Trend analysis suggest a potentially lower risk for total cancer related to the highest MexD score (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.45-1.04, P-trend=0.03), and lower risk for obesity-related cancer mortality related to the highest score category for MexD (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.37-1.16, P-trend=0.02), and aMED (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45-1.67, P-trend=0.04). Further analysis suggests less acculturated women with higher MexD scores had 56% lower risk for any cancer (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88, P-trend=0.03) and 83% lower risk for cancer mortality (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.76, P-trend=0.01) compared to more acculturated Hispanic women. Conclusions: Dietary patterns were not associated with cancer risk and mortality in postmenopausal Hispanic women. Less-acculturated, Spanish-preferred speakers, who reported consuming a more traditional Mexican diet may experience a lower risk for cancer and cancer mortality.

10.
J Clin Transl Sci ; 6(1): e22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321219

RESUMO

Introduction: Transdisciplinary (TD) research and community-based participatory research (CBPR) represent promising investigative approaches to ameliorate health disparities. Public investments in team-based TD research to address multifactorial public health problems have increased over the last two decades. Similarly, recognition that community participation in research and social action is essential to promoting health equity is reflected in increased prioritization of community engagement in research and practice. Yet, models that describe and guide the combined TD and CBPR approach are lacking. Methods: We utilized a qualitative, convergent parallel case study design that included document reviews and one-on-one interviews to assess how investigators from the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative integrated TD team science and CBPR in their work, and what they perceived as the impact of that work on health equity. Results: Twenty-five CPHHD investigators and National Institutes of Health program staff participated in a one-on-one interview. Document and interview data informed the development of an iterative conceptual model of TD CBPR comprising five domains: problem focus, contexts, collaboration and partnership, outcomes, and societal impact of TD CBPR. Conclusions: TD team science and CBPR are integrally related; combining principles of both can facilitate more efficient, equitable progress toward team outcomes, improved population health, and increased health equity. This model could assist researchers and public health practitioners in designing community-relevant, scientifically rigorous research with practical implications for improving health and quality of life among marginalized populations.

11.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314957

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Due to cancer survivors living longer and morbidity associated with cancer treatments, it is necessary to understand symptoms experienced by cancer survivors. This study will analyze the symptom burden among a large cohort of survivors across multiple cancer sites. METHODS: Data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) study were used to examine the symptom burden of older cancer survivors. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was utilized to determine differences in symptoms by cancer site, treatment, and other covariates. RESULTS: The most frequently reported symptoms among cancer survivors were fatigue (15.8%) and feeling sad or depressed (14.1%). Multivariable analyses indicated that more symptoms were reported among survivors who were younger (p = 0.002), divorced or separated (p = 0.03), and had a combination of public and private insurance (p = 0.01). Survivors who received chemotherapy (p < 0.001), radiation (p = 0.01), or hormone therapy (p = 0.02) reported more symptoms than survivors who did not receive these treatments. Survivors diagnosed with cancer < 5 years ago reported fewer symptoms than longer-term survivors, particularly those diagnosed > 10 years ago (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that common physical and psychological symptoms are reported across cancer types. Cancer survivors diagnosed with cancer 10 or more years ago reported more symptoms than those recently diagnosed. This suggests that symptoms may remain a problem for some survivors decades after their diagnosis. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Future research should focus on implementing active surveillance of cancer survivors. Healthcare providers and those who care for cancer survivors should understand that the symptom burden associated with cancer may persist even decades following diagnosis.

12.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 72(3): 230-262, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294043

RESUMO

The overall 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined is now 68%, and there are over 16.9 million survivors in the United States. Evidence from laboratory and observational studies suggests that factors such as diet, physical activity, and obesity may affect risk for recurrence and overall survival after a cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this American Cancer Society guideline is to provide evidence-based, cancer-specific recommendations for anthropometric parameters, physical activity, diet, and alcohol intake for reducing recurrence and cancer-specific and overall mortality. The audiences for this guideline are health care providers caring for cancer survivors as well as cancer survivors and their families. The guideline is intended to serve as a resource for informing American Cancer Society programs, health policy, and the media. Sources of evidence that form the basis of this guideline are systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses, pooled analyses of cohort studies, and large randomized clinical trials published since 2012. Recommendations for nutrition and physical activity during cancer treatment, informed by current practice, large cancer care organizations, and reviews of other expert bodies, are also presented. To provide additional context for the guidelines, the authors also include information on the relationship between health-related behaviors and comorbidities, long-term sequelae and patient-reported outcomes, and health disparities, with attention to enabling survivors' ability to adhere to recommendations. Approaches to meet survivors' needs are addressed as well as clinical care coordination and resources for nutrition and physical activity counseling after a cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , American Cancer Society , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Nutr ; 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of diet and chronic disease include a recent important focus on dietary patterns. Patterns are typically defined by listing dietary variables, and by totaling scores that reflect whether consumption is encouraged or discouraged for listed variables. However, precision may be improved by including total energy consumption among the dietary variables, and by scoring dietary variables empirically. OBJECTIVES: To relate Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 components and total energy intake to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts, and to define and evaluate an associated empirical-scores healthy eating index (E-HEI). DESIGN: Analyses are conducted in WHI cohorts (n = 67,247) of healthy post-menopausal women, aged 50-79 years when enrolled during 1993-1998 at 40 US clinical centers, with embedded nutrition biomarker studies. Replicate food frequency assessments for HEI-2010 ratio variables and doubly-labeled water total energy assessments, separated by about 6 months, are used as response variables to jointly calibrate baseline dietary data to reduce measurement error influences, using two nutrition biomarker studies (n = 199). Calibrated dietary variables are associated with mortality risk, and an E-HEI is defined, using cross-validated hazard ratio regression estimation. RESULTS: Of 15 dietary variables considered all but empty calories calibrated well. Ten variables related significantly (P < 0.05) to total mortality, with favorable fruits, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains, and unsaturated fat associations, and unfavorable sodium, saturated fat, and total energy associations. The E-HEI had cross-validated total mortality HRs (95% CIs) of 0.87 (0.82, 0.93), 0.80 (0.76, 0.86), 0.77 (0.72, 0.82), and 0.74 (0.69, 0.79) respectively, for quintiles 2 through 5 compared to quintile 1. These depart more strongly from the null than do HRs for HEI-2010 quintiles, primarily because of total energy. CONCLUSION: Mortality among US postmenopausal women depends strongly on diet, as evidenced by a new E-HEI that differs substantially from earlier dietary pattern score specifications.

14.
J Nutr ; 152(7): 1711-1720, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations of red and processed meat with chronic disease risk remain to be clarified, in part because of measurement error in self-reported diet. OBJECTIVES: We sought to develop metabolomics-based biomarkers for red and processed meat, and to evaluate associations of biomarker-calibrated meat intake with chronic disease risk among postmenopausal women. METHODS: Study participants were women who were members of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study cohorts. These participants were postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y when enrolled during 1993-1998 at 40 US clinical centers with embedded human feeding and nutrition biomarker studies. Literature reports of metabolomics correlates of meat consumption were used to develop meat intake biomarkers from serum and 24-h urine metabolites in a 153-participant feeding study (2010-2014). Resulting biomarkers were used in a 450-participant biomarker study (2007-2009) to develop linear regression calibration equations that adjust FFQ intakes for random and systematic measurement error. Biomarker-calibrated meat intakes were associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes incidence among 81,954 WHI participants (1993-2020). RESULTS: Biomarkers and calibration equations meeting prespecified criteria were developed for consumption of red meat and red plus processed meat combined, but not for processed meat consumption. Following control for nondietary confounding factors, hazard ratios were calculated for a 40% increment above the red meat median intake for coronary artery disease (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.14), heart failure (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.33), breast cancer (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13) for, total invasive cancer (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09), and diabetes (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.34, 1.39). HRs for red plus processed meat intake were similar. HRs were close to the null, and mostly nonsignificant following additional control for dietary potential confounding factors, including calibrated total energy consumption. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high-meat dietary pattern is associated with somewhat higher chronic disease risks. These elevations appear to be largely attributable to the dietary pattern, rather than to consumption of red or processed meat per se.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Dieta , Carne , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 14(4)2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215537

RESUMO

The glycemic index (GI) reflects the relative ability of carbohydrates to raise blood glucose. We utilized a controlled feeding study to assess the impact of the dietary GI on ß-cell function in adults with prediabetes (17F/18M, mean ± SEM: BMI 32.44 ± 0.94 kg/m2, age 54.2 ± 1.57 years). Following a 2 week Control diet (GI = 55-58), participants were randomized to either a 4 week low GI (LGI: GI < 35, n = 17) or high GI (HGI: GI > 70, n = 18) diet (55% of energy from carbohydrate/30% fat/15% protein). The data from 4 h meal tolerance tests (MTTs) underwent mathematical modeling to assess insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and ß-cell function. Glucose concentrations during the MTT decreased on the LGI diet (p < 0.001) and trended to increase on the HGI diet (p = 0.14; LGI vs. HGI p < 0.001), with parallel changes in insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Total insulin secretion, adjusted for glucose and insulin sensitivity, increased on the LGI diet (p = 0.002), and trended lower on the HGI diet (p = 0.10; LGI vs. HGI p = 0.001). There was no significant diet effect on insulin sensitivity or other measures of ß-cell function. Total insulin clearance increased on the LGI diet (p = 0.01; LGI vs. HGI p < 0.001). We conclude that short-term consumption of an LGI diet reduced glucose exposure and insulin secretion but had no impact on measures of ß-cell function.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico , Estado Pré-Diabético , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 32, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher physical activity levels are associated with lower breast cancer-specific mortality. In addition, the metabolic syndrome is associated with higher breast cancer-specific mortality. Whether the physical activity association with breast cancer mortality is modified by number of metabolic syndrome components (cardiometabolic risk factors) in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer remains unknown. METHODS: Cardiovascular risk factors included high waist circumference, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Breast cancers were verified by medical record review. Mortality finding were enhanced by serial National Death Index queries. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate associations between baseline physical activity and subsequent breast cancer-specific and overall mortality following breast cancer diagnosis in Women's Health Initiative participants. These associations were examined after stratifying by cardiometabolic risk factor group. RESULTS: Among 161,308 Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants, 8543 breast cancers occurred after 9.5 years (median) follow-up in women, additionally with information on cardiometabolic risk factors and physical activity at entry. In multi-variable analyses, as measured from cancer diagnosis, higher physical activity levels were associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.95, trend P < 0.001) but not with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.04, trend P = 0.09). The physical activity and all-cause mortality association was not significantly modified by cardiometabolic risk factor number. CONCLUSIONS: Among women with early-stage breast cancer, although higher antecedent physical activity was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, the association did not differ by cardiometabolic risk factor number.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Síndrome Metabólica , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 99, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013190

RESUMO

Low total energy expenditure (TEE, MJ/d) has been a hypothesized risk factor for weight gain, but repeatability of TEE, a critical variable in longitudinal studies of energy balance, is understudied. We examine repeated doubly labeled water (DLW) measurements of TEE in 348 adults and 47 children from the IAEA DLW Database (mean ± SD time interval: 1.9 ± 2.9 y) to assess repeatability of TEE, and to examine if TEE adjusted for age, sex, fat-free mass, and fat mass is associated with changes in weight or body composition. Here, we report that repeatability of TEE is high for adults, but not children. Bivariate Bayesian mixed models show no among or within-individual correlation between body composition (fat mass or percentage) and unadjusted TEE in adults. For adults aged 20-60 y (N = 267; time interval: 7.4 ± 12.2 weeks), increases in adjusted TEE are associated with weight gain but not with changes in body composition; results are similar for subjects with intervals >4 weeks (N = 53; 29.1 ± 12.8 weeks). This suggests low TEE is not a risk factor for, and high TEE is not protective against, weight or body fat gain over the time intervals tested.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Água/metabolismo , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aumento de Peso/fisiologia
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 15(4): 255-264, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012972

RESUMO

Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and chronic inflammation, have been positively associated both with postmenopausal breast cancer and with resting energy expenditure (REE). However, there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the associations between REE and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between predicted REE (calculated using the Ikeda, Livingston, and Mifflin equations) and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer overall and by subtypes, and by level of body fat) among 137,283 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). All predicted REEs were positively associated with risk of invasive breast cancer [HRq5 vs. q1 = 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.57-1.81; HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.57-1.82; and HR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.56-1.80 for Ikeda, Livingston, and Mifflin, respectively]. These positive associations were observed irrespective of the hormone receptor subtype, grade, and stage of the tumors, but were most pronounced for estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive tumors. After additional adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the associations were mostly attenuated and remained statistically significant for most of the outcomes. We also observed an interaction between the predicted REEs and BMI, with the associations being somewhat stronger among normal weight and overweight women than among obese women (Pinteractions < 0.05). Our findings indicate that relatively high REE is associated with increased risk of invasive breast cancer among postmenopausal women (particularly for the obesity-related tumor subtypes), irrespective of the equation used. Further studies using more objective measures of REE are, however, needed to confirm our findings. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study showed that higher resting energy expenditure (REE) was associated with higher postmenopausal breast cancer risk. REE provides energy to support cancer-associated disorders such as obesity and inflammation. Thus, studies on its association with breast cancer can help to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(6): 1061-1070, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094071

RESUMO

We recently evaluated associations of biomarker-calibrated protein intake, protein density, carbohydrate intake, and carbohydrate density with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (1993-present, 40 US clinical centers). The biomarkers relied on serum and urine metabolomics profiles, and biomarker calibration used regression of biomarkers on food frequency questionnaires. Here we develop corresponding calibration equations using food records and dietary recalls. In addition, we use calibrated intakes based on food records in disease association estimation in a cohort subset (n = 29,294) having food records. In this analysis, more biomarker variation was explained by food records than by FFQs for absolute macronutrient intake, with 24-hour recalls being intermediate. However, the percentage of biomarker variation explained was similar for each assessment approach for macronutrient densities. Invasive breast cancer risk was related inversely to carbohydrate and protein densities using food records, in analyses that included (calibrated) total energy intake and body mass index. Corresponding analyses for absolute intakes did not differ from the null, nor did absolute or relative intakes associate significantly with colorectal cancer or coronary heart disease. These analyses do not suggest major advantages for food records or dietary recalls in comparison with less costly and logistically simpler food frequency questionnaires for these nutritional variables.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Pós-Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Calibragem , Carboidratos , Doença Crônica , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Nutr ; 152(4): 1107-1117, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently developed protein and carbohydrate intake biomarkers using metabolomics profiles in serum and urine, and used them to correct self-reported dietary data for measurement error. Biomarker-calibrated carbohydrate density was inversely associated with chronic disease risk, whereas protein density associations were mixed. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate and extend this earlier work through biomarker development for protein and carbohydrate components, including animal protein and fiber. METHODS: Prospective disease association analyses were undertaken in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts of postmenopausal US women, aged 50-79 y when enrolled at 40 US clinical centers. Biomarkers were developed using an embedded human feeding study (n = 153). Calibration equations for protein and carbohydrate components were developed using a WHI nutritional biomarker study (n = 436). Calibrated intakes were associated with chronic disease incidence in WHI cohorts (n = 81,954) over a 20-y (median) follow-up period, using HR regression methods. RESULTS: Previously reported elevations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) with higher-protein diets tended to be explained by animal protein density. For example, for coronary heart disease a 20% increment in animal protein density had an HR of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.42) relative to the HR for total protein density. In comparison, cancer and diabetes risk showed little association with animal protein density beyond that attributable to total protein density. Inverse carbohydrate density associations with total CVD were mostly attributable to fiber density, with a 20% increment HR factor of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.94). Cancer risk showed little association with fiber density, whereas diabetes risk had a 20% increment HR of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.98) relative to the HRs for total carbohydrate density. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of postmenopausal US women, CVD risk was associated with high-animal-protein and low-fiber diets, cancer risk was associated with low-carbohydrate diets, and diabetes risk was associated with low-fiber/low-carbohydrate diets.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Pós-Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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