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1.
Nutr Cancer ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511883

RESUMO

Non-supplemental carotenoids and retinol may potentiate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic intraprostatic inflammation is linked to prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of circulating carotenoids and retinol with intraprostatic inflammation in benign tissue. We included 235 men from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial placebo arm who had a negative end-of-study biopsy, most (92.8%) done without clinical indication. α-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and retinol were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography using pooled year 1 and 4 serum. Presence and extent of intraprostatic inflammation in benign tissue was assessed in 3 (of 6-10) biopsy cores. Logistic (any core with inflammation vs none) and polytomous logistic (some or all cores with inflammation vs none) regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of intraprostatic inflammation by concentration tertile adjusting for age, race, prostate cancer family history, and serum cholesterol. None of the carotenoids or retinol was associated with intraprostatic inflammation, except ß-cryptoxanthin, which appeared to be positively associated with any core with inflammation [vs none, T2: OR (95% CI) = 2.67 (1.19, 5.99); T3: 1.80 (0.84, 3.82), P-trend = 0.12]. These findings suggest that common circulating carotenoids and retinol are not useful dietary intervention targets for preventing prostate cancer via modulating intraprostatic inflammation.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325511

RESUMO

Poor diet quality is a leading risk factor for death in the United States (U.S.). We examined the association between Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores and death from all-causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia not otherwise specified (NOS) among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (1993-2017). This analysis included 59,388 participants who completed a food frequency questionnaire and were free of cancer, CVD and diabetes at enrollment. Stratified Cox proportional hazards models were fit using person-years from enrollment as the underlying time metric. We estimated multivariable adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk of death associated with HEI-2015 quintiles, with higher scores reflecting more optimal diet quality. Over a median of 18.2 years, 9,679 total deaths 3,303 cancer deaths, 2,362 CVD deaths, and 488 deaths from Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia NOS occurred. Compared to those with lower scores, women with higher HEI-2015 scores had an 18% lower risk of all-cause mortality and 21% lower risk of cancer mortality. HEI-2015 scores were not associated with mortality from CVD, Alzheimer's Disease and dementia NOS. Consuming a diet aligned with 2015-2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines may have beneficial impacts for preventing death from cancer and overall.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33330926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential cardiovascular impact of dietary cholesterol intake has been actively debated for decades. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate associations of dietary cholesterol and egg intakes with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We included 96,831 US postmenopausal women aged 50-79 y without known CVD or cancer during baseline enrollment (1993-1998) of the Women's Health Initiative. Dietary information was collected using a validated FFQ. Incident CVD [i.e., ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke] and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were ascertained and adjudicated through February 2018. RESULTS: A total of 9808 incident CVD cases and 19,508 all-cause deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 17.8 y and 18.9 y, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for traditional risk factors and key dietary nutrients including dietary saturated fat, there were modest associations of dietary cholesterol intake with incident CVD (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P-trend < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15; P-trend < 0.001). Significant positive associations were also observed between dietary cholesterol and incident IHD (P-trend = 0.007), incident ischemic stroke (P-trend = 0.002), and CVD mortality (P-trend = 0.002), whereas there was an inverse association for incident hemorrhagic stroke (P-trend = 0.037) and no association for mortality from cancer, Alzheimer disease/dementia, respiratory diseases, or other causes (P-trend > 0.05). Higher egg consumption was also associated with modestly higher risk of incident CVD (P-trend = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (P-trend < 0.001), with HRs of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.22), respectively, when comparing ≥1 egg/d with <1 egg/wk. CONCLUSIONS: Both higher dietary cholesterol intake and higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with modestly elevated risk of incident CVD and all-cause mortality in US postmenopausal women.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased mortality independent of BMI, resulting in discordant metabolic phenotypes, such as metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy normal-weight individuals. Studies investigating dietary intake in MetS have reported mixed results, due in part to the limitations of self-reported measures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of biomarker-calibrated estimates of energy and protein in MetS and metabolic phenotypes. METHODS: Postmenopausal participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study who were free of MetS at baseline, had available data from FFQs at baseline, and had components of MetS at Year 3 (n = 3963) were included. Dietary energy and protein intakes were estimated using biomarker calibration methods. MetS was defined as 3 or more of the following: elevated serum triglycerides (≥150 mg/dL), low HDL cholesterol (<50 mg/dL), hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg], elevated serum glucose (>100 mg/dL), and abdominal adiposity (waist circumference > 89 cm). Models were adjusted for age, WHI study component, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, recreational physical activity, disease history, and parity. RESULTS: For every 10% increment in total calibrated energy intake, women were at a 1.37-fold elevated risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.15-1.63); a 10% increment in calibrated total protein intake was associated with a 1.21-fold elevated risk of MetS (95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Specifically, animal protein intake was associated with MetS (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14), whereas vegetable protein intake was not (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03). No differences were seen when examining metabolic phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher calibrated total energy, total protein, and total animal protein intakes were strongly associated with MetS. If replicated in clinical trials, these results will have implications for the promotion of energy and animal protein restrictions for the reduction of MetS risks.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female hormones may play roles during renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carcinogenesis. The aims of this study were to investigate associations between hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and risk of RCC and to assess whether the associations were modified by exogenous estrogen, commonly used among women who have undergone hysterectomy. METHODS: Postmenopausal women (n = 144,599) ages 50-79 years at enrollment (1993-1998) in the Women's Health Initiative were followed for a mean of 15.9 years. Hysterectomy and oophorectomy were self-reported. Incident RCC cases were confirmed by physician review of medical records and pathology reports. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 583 women developed RCC during follow-up. We observed that hysterectomy, regardless of oophorectomy status, was significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.60). The association appeared to be more pronounced in women with age at hysterectomy younger than 40 years (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.80) or older than 55 years (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.01-2.29). Oophorectomy was not significantly associated with risk of RCC. There was no evidence that exogenous estrogen use modified the association between hysterectomy and risk of RCC. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we showed that women with a history of hysterectomy had 28% increased risk of RCC, and this finding was not modified by exogenous hormone use. IMPACT: If our findings are confirmed, women should be made aware of increased risk of RCC when considering hysterectomy.

6.
Metabolomics ; 16(12): 121, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns low in glycemic load are associated with reduced risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Improvements in serum lipid concentrations may play a role in these observed associations. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how dietary patterns differing in glycemic load affect clinical lipid panel measures and plasma lipidomics profiles. METHODS: In a crossover, controlled feeding study, 80 healthy participants (n = 40 men, n = 40 women), 18-45 y were randomized to receive low-glycemic load (LGL) or high glycemic load (HGL) diets for 28 days each with at least a 28-day washout period between controlled diets. Fasting plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of each diet period. Lipids on a clinical panel including total-, VLDL-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured using an auto-analyzer. Lipidomics analysis using mass-spectrometry provided the concentrations of 863 species. Linear mixed models and lipid ontology enrichment analysis were implemented. RESULTS: Lipids from the clinical panel were not significantly different between diets. Univariate analysis showed that 67 species on the lipidomics panel, predominantly in the triacylglycerol class, were higher after the LGL diet compared to the HGL (FDR < 0.05). Three species with FA 17:0 were lower after LGL diet with enrichment analysis (FDR < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the context of controlled eucaloric diets with similar macronutrient distribution, these results suggest that there are relative shifts in lipid species, but the overall pool does not change. Further studies are needed to better understand in which compartment the different lipid species are transported in blood, and how these shifts are related to health outcomes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00622661.

7.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic abnormalities are a leading cause of death among women, including women with cancer. METHODS: This study examined the association between prediagnosis cardiovascular health and total and cause-specific mortality among 12,076 postmenopausal women who developed local- or regional-stage invasive cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Cardiovascular risk factors included waist circumference, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes. Obesity-related cancers included breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for important predictors of survival. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 10.0 years from the date of the cancer diagnosis, there were 3607 total deaths, with 1546 (43%) due to cancer. Most participants (62.9%) had 1 or 2 cardiometabolic risk factors, and 8.1% had 3 or 4. In adjusted models, women with 3 to 4 risk factors (vs none) had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.73-2.30), death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 2.88-5.57), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.1-1.72), and other-cause mortality (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.70-2.69). A higher waist circumference was associated with greater all-cause mortality (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06-1.30) and cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women diagnosed with cancer in the WHI, cardiometabolic risk factors before the cancer diagnosis were associated with greater all-cause, CVD, cancer-specific, and other-cause mortality. These results raise hypotheses regarding potential clinical intervention strategies targeting cardiometabolic abnormalities that require future prospective studies for confirmation. LAY SUMMARY: This study uses information from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) to find out whether cardiac risk factors are related to a greater risk of dying among older women with cancer. The WHI is the largest study of medical problems faced by older women in this country. The results show that women who have 3 or 4 risk factors are more likely to die of any cause, heart disease, or cancer in comparison with women with no risk factors. It is concluded that interventions to help to lower the burden of cardiac risk factors can have an important impact on survivorship among women with cancer.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

9.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Determine the feasibility of a remotely delivered mobile health (mHealth)-supported intervention to improve diet and physical activity in hematologic malignancy survivors. METHODS: Pilot randomized controlled trial of a 16-week intervention for improving diet and physical activity: individualized goal-setting (daily steps, sodium, saturated fat, added sugar intake) per feedback from mHealth trackers (Fitbit for activity; Healthwatch360 for diet), supplemented by a Facebook peer support group. Controls accessed the trackers without goal-setting or peer support. Everyone received standardized survivorship counseling with tailored advice from a clinician. Actigraphy and food frequency questionnaires assessed activity and diet at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-one participants (51.2% male; median age 45.1 years; 7.0 years from treatment) were randomized (24 intervention; 17 control). Fitbit and Healthwatch360 use were more common among intervention versus control participants (75.0% versus 70.6% and 50.0% versus 17.7% of eligible days, respectively). Most intervention participants (66.7%) engaged with Facebook; overall, 91.7% interacted with the study's mHealth applications. While no comparisons in activity or dietary outcomes between intervention versus control group met statistical significance, the intervention was associated with greater reductions in the targeted dietary factors and improvements in Healthy Eating Index-2015 score, moderate-vigorous physical activity time, and daily steps. Participant retention at 6 months was 90.2%. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction based on individualized goal-setting enhanced by mHealth and social media peer support was feasible and acceptable among cancer survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Effective and easily disseminated strategies that improve diet and physical activity in this population are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03574012) on June 29, 2018.

10.
J Nutr ; 150(11): 2874-2881, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline plays an integral role in one-carbon metabolism in the body, but it is unclear whether genetic polymorphisms are associated with variations in plasma choline and its metabolites. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the association of genetic variants in choline and one-carbon metabolism with plasma choline and its metabolites. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1423 postmenopausal women in a case-control study nested within the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), and trimethylamine N-oxide were determined in 12-h fasting blood samples collected at baseline (1993-1998). Candidate and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT), BHMT2, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent 1) (MTHFD1), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR). Linear regression was used to derive percentage difference in plasma concentrations per variant allele, adjusting for confounders, including B-vitamin biomarkers. Potential effect modification by plasma vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate concentrations and folic-acid fortification periods was examined. RESULTS: The candidate SNP BHMT R239Q (rs3733890) was associated with lower concentrations of plasma betaine and DMG concentrations (-4.00% and -6.75% per variant allele, respectively; both nominal P < 0.05). Another candidate SNP, BHMT2 rs626105 A>G, was associated with higher plasma DMG concentration (13.0%; P < 0.0001). Several tagSNPs in these 2 genes were associated with plasma concentrations after correction for multiple comparisons. Vitamin B-12 status was a significant effect modifier of the association between the genetic variant BHMT2 rs626105 A>G and plasma DMG concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations in metabolic enzymes were associated with plasma concentrations of choline and its metabolites. Our findings contribute to the knowledge on the variation in blood nutrient concentrations in postmenopausal women.

11.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(8): nzaa126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832844

RESUMO

Background: Over 23 million Americans have type 2 diabetes (T2D). Eating habits such as breakfast consumption, time-restricted eating, and limiting daily eating occasions have been explored as behaviors for reducing T2D risk, but prior evidence is inconclusive. Objectives: Our objectives were to examine associations between number of daily eating occasions and T2D risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) and whether associations vary by BMI, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women in the WHI-DM who comprised a 4.6% subsample completing 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) at years 3 and 6 as part of trial adherence activities (n = 2159). Numbers of eating occasions per day were obtained from the year 3 24HRs, and participants were grouped into approximate tertiles as 1-3 (n = 795), 4 (n = 713), and ≥5 (n = 651) daily eating occasions as the exposure. Incident diabetes was self-reported on semiannual questionnaires as the outcome. Results: Approximately 15% (15.4%, n = 332) of the WHI-DM 24HR cohort reported incident diabetes at follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression tested associations of eating occasions with T2D adjusted for neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, waist circumference, race/ethnicity, family history of T2D, recreational physical activity, Healthy Eating Index-2005, 24HR energy intake, and WHI-DM arm. Compared with women reporting 1-3 meals/d, those consuming 4 meals/d had a T2D HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.84) without further increases in risk for ≥5 meals/d. In stratified analyses, associations for 4 meals/d compared with 1-3 meals/d were stronger in women with BMI <30.0 kg/m2 (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.39) and women aged ≥60 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.33). Conclusions: Four meals per day compared with 1-3 meals/d was associated with increased risk of T2D in postmenopausal women, but no dose-response effect was observed for additional eating occasions. Further studies are needed to understand eating occasions in relation to T2D risk.

12.
Econ Hum Biol ; 39: 100917, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801099

RESUMO

Seattle's Sweetened Beverage Tax is an excise tax of 1.75 cents per ounce on sugar-sweetened beverages and is one of the highest beverage taxes in the U.S. This study examined the impact of Seattle's tax on the prices of beverages. We conducted audits of 407 retail food stores and eating places (quick service restaurants and coffee shops) before and 6 months after the tax was implemented in Seattle and in a comparison area. Ordinary least squares difference-in-differences models with store fixed effects were used to estimate the effect of the tax on prices, stratified by beverage type and store type. In secondary analyses, we assessed the effect of the tax on the price of non-taxed beverages and foods. Results from the adjusted difference-in-differences models indicated the tax was associated with an average increase of 1.58 cents per ounce among Seattle retailers, representing 90 % of the price of the tax. By store type, price increases were highest in smaller grocery stores and drug stores. By beverage type, price increases were highest for energy beverages and soda and lowest for bottled coffee and juice drinks. Prices of some non-taxed beverages also increased while the prices of select healthy foods generally did not. The sweetened beverage tax in Seattle is higher than beverage taxes in most other cities, and nearly the full cost of the tax is being passed through to consumers for many beverage types and stores types.

13.
Prev Med ; 139: 106234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795644

RESUMO

Older adults have physical and social barriers to eating but whether this affects functional status is unknown. We examined associations between eating barriers and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). In 2012-14, a subset of alive and participating women (n = 5910) completed an in-home examination including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) (grip strength, balance, timed walking speed, chair stand). WHI participants complete annual mailed questionnaires; the 2013-14 questionnaire included items on eating alone, eating < two meals/day, dentition problems affecting eating, physical difficulties with cooking/shopping and monetary resources for food. Linear regression tested associations of these eating barriers with SPPB, adjusting for BMI, age, race/ethnicity, and medical multimorbidities. Over half (56.8%) of participants were ≥ 75 years, 98.8% had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and 66% had multimorbidities. Eating barriers, excluding eating alone, were associated with significantly lower total (all p < .001) and component-specific, multivariate-adjusted SPPB scores (all p < .05). Compared to no barriers, eating < two meals/day (7.83 vs. 8.38, p < .0002), dentition problems (7.69 vs. 8.38, p < .0001), inability to shop/prepare meals (7.74 vs. 8.38, p < .0001) and insufficient resources (7.84 vs. 8.37 p < .001) were significantly associated with multivariate-adjusted mean SPPB score < 8. Models additionally adjusting for Healthy Eating Index-2010 had little influence on scores. As barriers increased, scores declined further for grip strength (16.10 kg for 4-5 barriers, p = .001), timed walk (0.58 m/s for 4-5 barriers, p = .001) and total SPPB (7.27 for 4-5 barriers, p < .0001). In conclusion, in this WHI subset, eating barriers were associated with poor SPPB scores.

14.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and animal studies suggest an inverse association between chocolate consumption and the risk of cancer. Epidemiological studies have yielded inconsistent evidence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of chocolate candy consumption with incident, invasive total, breast, colorectal, and lung cancers in a large cohort of postmenopausal American women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with a mean 14.8-year follow-up. Chocolate candy intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Invasive cancer events were assessed by physician adjudication. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The Women's Health Initiative Study enrolled 161,808 postmenopausal women at 40 clinical centers nationwide between 1993 and 1998. Of these women, 114,281 with plausible food frequency or biometric data and no missing data on chocolate candy exposure were selected for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cancer risk in quartiles of chocolate candy consumption with the first quartile as referent. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: There were 16,164 documented incident invasive cancers, representing an incidence rate of 17.0 per 100 participants and 12.3 per 1000 person years during follow-up among participants without any preexisting cancers or missing outcome data. There were no statistically significant associations for total invasive cancer (P-linear = .47, P-curvature = .14), or invasive breast cancer (P-linear = .77, P-curvature = .26). For colorectal cancer P-linear was .02, P-curvature was .03, and compared with women eating a 1 oz (28.4 g) chocolate candy serving <1 time per month, the hazard ratio for ≥1.5 times/wk was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.35). This result may be attributable to the excess adiposity associated with frequent chocolate candy consumption. CONCLUSIONS: In the Women's Health Initiative, there was no significant association between chocolate candy consumption and invasive total or breast cancer. There was a modest 18% higher risk of invasive colorectal cancer for women who ate chocolate candy at least 1.5 times/wk. These results require confirmation.

15.
J Nutr ; 150(10): 2764-2771, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The carbon isotope ratio (CIR) is a proposed biomarker for added sugar (AS) intake in the United States; however, because the CIR is also associated with meat intake in most populations the need for specificity remains. The CIR of amino acids (AAs) has the potential to differentiate sugars from meat intakes, because essential AAs must derive from dietary protein whereas certain nonessential AAs can be synthesized from sugars. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether serum CIR-AAs in combination with participant characteristics could meet a prespecified biomarker criterion for AS intake in the Nutrition and Physical Activity Assessment Study Feeding Study (NPAAS-FS) of the Women's Health Initiative, a population in which the whole-serum CIR was not associated with AS intake. METHODS: Postmenopausal women (n = 145) from Seattle, WA, were provided with individualized diets that approximated their habitual food intakes for 2 wk. Dietary intakes from consumed foods were characterized over the feeding period using the Nutrition Data System for Research. The CIR of 7 AAs-Ala, Gly, Val, Leu, Ile, Pro, and Phe-were measured in fasting serum collected at the end of the 2-wk feeding period, using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Biomarker models were evaluated using regression R2 ≥ 0.36 as a major biomarker criterion, based on the benchmark R2 values of well-established recovery biomarkers in the NPAAS-FS. RESULTS: AS intake was associated with CIR-Ala (ρ = 0.32; P < 0.0001). A model of AS intake based on CIR-Ala, CIR-Gly, CIR-Ile, smoking, leisure physical activity, and body weight met the biomarker criterion (R2 = 0.37). Biomarker-estimated AS intake was not associated with meat or animal protein intake. CONCLUSIONS: Results support serum CIR-AAs in combination with participant characteristics as potential biomarkers of AS intake in US populations, including those with low AS intake.The Women's Health Initiative is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00000611).

16.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(8): 107586, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546421

RESUMO

Oscillating glucose levels can increase oxidative stress and may contribute to ß-cell dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that increased glycemic variability contributes to ß-cell dysfunction by experimentally altering glucose variability with controlled diets varying in glycemic index (GI). Fifty-two adults with prediabetes received a 2-week moderate GI (GI = 55-58) control diet followed by randomization to a four-week low GI (LGI: GI < 35) or high GI (HGI HI > 70) diet. Those on the HGI diet were randomized to placebo or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Participants underwent blinded CGMS, fasting oxidative stress markers and an intravenous glucose tolerance test to estimate ß-cell function (disposition index: DI). On the control diet, DI was inversely correlated with SD glucose (r = -0.314, p = 0.03), but neither DI nor glucose variability were associated with oxidative stress markers. The LGI diet decreased SD glucose (Control 0.96 ±â€¯0.08 vs. LGI 0.79 ±â€¯0.06, p = 0.02) while the HGI diet increased it (Control 0.88 ±â€¯0.06 vs. HGI 1.06 ±â€¯0.07, p = 0.03). Neither DI nor oxidative stress markers changed after the LGI or HGI diets. NAC had no effect on DI, glucose variability or oxidative stress markers. We conclude small changes in glucose variability induced by dietary GI in adults with pre-diabetes are unlikely to contribute to ß-cell dysfunction.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(5): 1108-1109, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367120

Assuntos
Carne
18.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

19.
Menopause ; 27(7): 756-762, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This analysis examined whether specific social, physical, and financial factors were associated with diet quality among older, community-dwelling women. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis was conducted in a subset of 6,094 community-dwelling Women's Health Initiative participants who completed a food frequency questionnaire, administered from 2012 to 2013, and a self-administered supplemental questionnaire, administered approximately 1 year later. The supplemental questionnaire included five questions assessing social, physical, and financial factors related to eating. Diet quality was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010; range of 0-100; higher score indicates a higher quality diet). The total HEI-2010 score was calculated by summing individual scores representing the intake of nine adequacy components (beneficial food groups) and three moderation components (food groups to limit). Associations of responses to the five questions on the supplemental questionnaire with HEI-2010 scores were examined with multiple linear regression, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: Mean ±â€Šstandard deviation age of participants was 78.8 ±â€Š6.7 years. Reporting eating fewer than two meals per day, having dental or other mouth problems causing problems with eating, and not always being able to shop, cook, or feed oneself were associated with statistically significantly lower HEI-2010 scores, compared with those not reporting these issues, after multivariable adjustment: 5.37, 2.98, and 2.39 lower scores, respectively (all P values <0.0001). Reporting eating alone most of the time and not always having enough money to buy food were not associated with HEI-2010 scores. CONCLUSIONS: Among older, community-dwelling women, eating fewer than two meals per day, dental and other mouth problems, and diminished ability to shop for food, prepare meals, and feed oneself were associated with lower diet quality. These are potential targets for interventions to improve diet quality in older women. : Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A561.

20.
Microorganisms ; 8(3)2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156071

RESUMO

Although the gut microbiome has been associated with dietary patterns linked to health, microbial metabolism is not well characterized. This ancillary study was a proof of principle analysis for a novel application of metaproteomics to study microbial protein expression in a controlled dietary intervention. We measured the response of the microbiome to diet in a randomized crossover dietary intervention of a whole-grain, low glycemic load diet (WG) and a refined-grain, high glycemic load diet (RG). Total proteins in stools from 9 participants at the end of each diet period (n = 18) were analyzed by LC MS/MS and proteins were identified using the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) human gut microbiome database and UniProt human protein databases. T-tests, controlling for false discovery rate (FDR) <10%, were used to compare the Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and bacterial enzymes between the two interventions. Using shotgun proteomics, more than 53,000 unique peptides were identified including microbial (89%) and human peptides (11%). Forty-eight bacterial enzymes were statistically different between the diets, including those implicated in SCFA production and degradation of fatty acids. Enzymes associated with degradation of human mucin were significantly enriched in the RG diet. These results illustrate that the metaproteomic approach is a valuable tool to study the microbial metabolism of diets that may influence host health.

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