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1.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Czech National Childhood Diabetes Register (CENDA) is a web-based nationwide database that collects treatment and outcome data in children and adolescents with diabetes. Here, we present data from the first 5 years of CENDA (2013-2017). METHODS: Data include characteristics of disease onset and annual summaries of key clinical care parameters from every patient treated by participating pediatric diabetes outpatient clinics. RESULTS: The database contains data of 4361 children (aged 0-19 years) from 52 centers (85% of all Czech pediatric patients). Of these, 94% had type 1 diabetes (T1D), 4.5% had genetically proven monogenic or secondary, and 1.5% had type 2 diabetes. In children with T1D, median glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased throughout the observed period from 66.3 to 61.0 mmol/mol (P < .0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] for change -5.6 to -4 mmol/mol). Consequently, the proportion of children reaching the target therapeutic goal of 58.5 mmol/mol increased from 28% in 2013 to 40% in 2017. The proportion of children treated with insulin pumps (CSII) remained stable over the observed period (25%). In a subanalysis of 1602 patients (long-standing T1D diagnosed before 2011), the main predictors associated with lower HbA1c were treatment with CSII, male sex and care provided at a large diabetes center (>100 patients). CONCLUSIONS: A significant continuous decrease in HbA1c was observed in Czech children over the past 5 years. As this improvement was not accompanied by appreciable changes in the mode of therapy, we assume that the establishment of our nationwide register has itself constituted a stimulus towards improvement in the care process.

2.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 132: 86-95, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825510

RESUMO

Due to the additional particle coalescence in the coating, changes in the dissolution profile occur over time in the formulations coated by aqueous ethylcellulose latex. Dry thermal treatment (DT) of the coating can be used as a prevention of this process. Alternatively, it is advisable to take advantage of the synergistic effect of high humidity during wet treatment (WT), which substantially accelerates the film formation. This can be a problem for time-controlled systems, which are based on the coating rupture due to the penetration of water into the core causing the increase in the system volume. This process can begin already during the WT, which may affect the coating adversely. The submitted work was focused on the stability testing of two pellet core compositions: pellets containing swelling superdisintegrant sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS) and pellets containing osmotically active polyethylene glycol (PEG). Another objective was to identify the treatment/storage condition effects on the pellet dissolution profiles. These pellets are intended to prevent hypoglycemia for patients with diabetes mellitus and therefore, besides the excipients, pellet cores contain 75% or 80% of glucose. The pellet coating is formed by ethylcellulose-based latex, which provides the required lag time (120-360 min). The sample stability was evaluated depending on the pellet core composition (PEG, CMS) for two types of final pellet coating treatment (DT or WT). Scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed the penetration of glucose and polyethylene glycol from the core to the PEG pellet surface after WT. For the CMS sample, significant pellet swelling after WT (under the conditions of elevated humidity) was statistically confirmed by the means of stereomicroscopic data evaluation. Therefore, the acceleration of dissolution rate during the stress tests is caused by the soluble substance penetration through the coating in the case of PEG pellets or by dosage form volume increase in the case of CMS pellets. The observed mechanisms can be generally anticipated during the stability testing of the ethylcellulose coated dosage forms. The aforementioned processes do not occur after DT and the pellets are stable in the environment without increased humidity.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Implantes de Medicamento/química , Glucose/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , Celulose/química , Química Farmacêutica , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Excipientes/química , Glucose/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Amido/química , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Behav Res Ther ; 112: 42-62, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502721

RESUMO

Fear extinction studies in youth have yielded mixed results due to developmental processes and variations in design, methodology and dependent measures. This systematic review focused on studies with healthy youth between 2 and 17 years of age to identify experimental parameters of studies documenting extinction effects. Thirty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes emerged (a) some studies employed parameters and task demands that are complex and require active participant involvement whereas others involved simple stimulus configurations and passive participant involvement, and (b) variation exists among dependent measures in units of measurement, timing and type of measurement. The review identified that studies using geometric shape conditioned stimuli (CS) paired with a tone unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g., metal scraping on slate), as well as face CSs with a scream US produced the most reliable extinction effects, although the latter combination may be associated with higher drop-out than shape CSs and a tone US. The most commonly used and effective dependent measures for revealing extinction effects were skin conductance responses (SCR) and subjective ratings (SR) of CS valence, fearfulness and arousal. Fear potentiated startle (FPS) blink reflexes were also an effective but less commonly used measure. It is recommended that future studies use shape CSs and the metal scraping on slate US in studies involving children and either shape CSs and the metal scraping on slate US or face CSs paired with a scream US with adolescents. It is also recommended that US expectancy ratings and CS evaluations are assessed trial-by-trial and between-phase, and that startle-eliciting stimuli to measure startle blink reflexes are delivered on every second trial per CS so that SCR and FPS can be examined. However, further research is required to determine whether increased participant involvement due to providing trial-by-trial and between-phase ratings of the CSs and US differentially influences responding, particularly in children relative to adolescents and adults.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366712

RESUMO

The beneficial effect of implementation intentions (II) on prospective memory (PM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia has been reported. However, these studies were limited to brief interventions such that the transfer and long-term effects of II training remains unclear. This study examined whether a 10-session II programme could improve PM performance, social functioning and functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia immediately after training and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 42) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to II training (n = 21) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 21). Participants in the II group learned the verbal and imagery component of II and were encouraged to apply these strategies in their daily lives. We found that the II group performed better than the TAU group on computer-based PM tasks and a daily life PM task (telephone call at specified date and time) at post-treatment and at 3-month follow-up. The II group also exhibited better working ability than the TAU group at post-treatment. Our results suggest that the II intervention programme may have lasting beneficial effects in PM performance and significant transfer effects to functional capacity in schizophrenia patients.

5.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 23(6): 350-363, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to execute a planned intention in the future. It can be divided into event- and time-based, according to the nature of the PM cue. Event-based PM cues can be classified as focal or non-focal. Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have been found to be impaired in both event- and time-based PM. PM has been found to be improved by implementation intentions, which is an encoding strategy in the format of "if X then Y". This study examined the effect of implementation intentions on a non-focal event-based and a time-based PM task in patients with SCZ. METHODS: Forty-two patients with SCZ and 42 healthy controls were allocated to either an implementation intention or a control PM instruction condition and were asked to complete two PM tasks. RESULTS: Implementation intentions was found to improve performance in both the non-focal event-based and time-based PM tasks in patients with SCZ and healthy controls, with no costs to the ongoing task. The improvement in time-based PM performance in the implementation intentions condition was partially mediated by the frequency of clock checking behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation intentions can facilitate PM performance in patients with SCZ and has the potential to be used as a clinical intervention tool.

6.
Am Psychol ; 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234314

RESUMO

A frequently observed research finding is that females outperform males on tasks of verbal and language abilities, but there is considerable variability in effect sizes from sample to sample. The gold standard for evaluating gender differences in cognitive ability is to recruit a large, demographically representative sample. We examined 3 decades of U.S. student achievement in reading and writing from the National Assessment of Educational Progress to determine the magnitude of gender differences (N = 3.9 million), and whether these were declining over time as claimed by Feingold (1988). Examination of effect sizes found a developmental progression from initially small gender differences in Grade 4 toward larger effects as students progress through schooling. Differences for reading were small-to-medium (d = -.32 by Grade 12), and medium-sized for writing (d = -.55 by Grade 12) and were stable over the historical time. Additionally, there were pronounced imbalances in gender ratios at the lower left and upper right tails of the ability spectrum. These results are interpreted in the context of Hyde's (2005) gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that most psychological gender differences are only small or trivial in size. Language and verbal abilities represent one exception to the general rule of gender similarities, and we discuss the educational implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record

7.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 8105407, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116745

RESUMO

Objective: The poor metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has a negative impact on the developing brain. Hyperglycemia and glycemic fluctuations disrupt mainly executive functions. To assess a hypothesized deficit of the executive functions, we evaluated visual processing and reaction time in an oddball task. Methods: Oddball visual event-related potentials (ERPs), reaction time, and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were examined in a cohort of twenty-two 12- to 18-year-old T1D patients without diabetic retinopathy at normal glycemia and in nineteen 10- to 21-year-old healthy controls. Results: The P100 peak time of the VEPs was significantly prolonged in T1D patients compared with the control group (p < 0.017). In contrast to the deteriorated sensory response, the area under the curve of the P3b component of the ERPs was significantly larger (p = 0.035) in patients, while reaction time in the same task did not differ between groups (p = 0.713). Conclusions: The deterioration on a sensory level, enhanced activity during cognitive processing, and balanced behavioral response support the view that neuroplasticity counterbalances the neural impairment by enhanced cognitive processing to achieve normal behavioral performance in T1D adolescents.

8.
Sports (Basel) ; 6(3)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060451

RESUMO

Engaging in physical exercise in a virtual reality (VR) environment has been reported to improve physical effort and affective states. However, these conclusions might be influenced by experimental design factors, such as comparing VR environments against a non-VR environment without actively controlling for the presence of visual input in non-VR conditions. The present study addressed this issue to examine affective and attentional states in a virtual running task. Participants (n = 40), completed a 21 min run on a treadmill at 70% of Vmax. One group of participants ran in a computer-generated VR environment that included other virtual runners while another group ran while viewing neutral images. Participants in both conditions showed a pattern of reduced positive affect and increased tension during the run with a return to high positive affect after the run. In the VR condition, higher levels of immersive tendencies and attention/absorption in the virtual environment were associated with more positive affect after the run. In addition, participants in the VR condition focused attention more on external task-relevant stimuli and less to internal states than participants in the neutral images condition. However, the neutral images condition produced less negative affect and more enjoyment after the run than the VR condition. The finding suggest that the effects of exercising in a VR environment will depend on individual difference factors (e.g., attention/absorption in the virtual world) but it may not always be better than distracting attention away from exercise-related cues.

9.
Body Image ; 27: 67-76, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144731

RESUMO

This study explored the efficacy of reflective writing tasks for reducing state body dissatisfaction and improving self-improvement motivation. Participants (N = 153) were exposed to a threatening body image scenario, after which they reported their state body dissatisfaction. Following randomisation to one of three interventions (self-esteem, self-compassion, or positive distraction control), participants completed the state body dissatisfaction measures again along with a measure of self-improvement motivation. At post-intervention, state weight dissatisfaction and appearance dissatisfaction were significantly lower and self-improvement motivation was significantly higher in the self-compassion group than in both the self-esteem and control groups. Trait body dissatisfaction moderated the efficacy of the intervention whereby the benefit of the self-compassion intervention became evident at moderate levels of trait body dissatisfaction, and was most apparent at high levels of body dissatisfaction. Self-compassion was a robust and efficacious method through which to promote immediate improvements to bodily feelings and desire to self-improve.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2105, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844444

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) insensitivity syndrome (GHIS) is a rare clinical condition in which production of insulin-like growth factor 1 is blunted and, consequently, postnatal growth impaired. Autosomal-recessive mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT5B), the key signal transducer for GH, cause severe GHIS with additional characteristics of immune and, often fatal, pulmonary complications. Here we report dominant-negative, inactivating STAT5B germline mutations in patients with growth failure, eczema, and elevated IgE but without severe immune and pulmonary problems. These STAT5B missense mutants are robustly tyrosine phosphorylated upon stimulation, but are unable to nuclear localize, or fail to bind canonical STAT5B DNA response elements. Importantly, each variant retains the ability to dimerize with wild-type STAT5B, disrupting the normal transcriptional functions of wild-type STAT5B. We conclude that these STAT5B variants exert dominant-negative effects through distinct pathomechanisms, manifesting in milder clinical GHIS with general sparing of the immune system.

11.
J Pers Assess ; 100(3): 333-342, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537758

RESUMO

This research aimed to validate a simplified Chinese version of the Empathy Quotient (EQ; 60 items) for use with Mainland Chinese people. The original English version of the EQ was translated into simplified Chinese. Through an online survey, 588 Mainland Chinese participants completed the EQ and 3 other questionnaires: the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Thirty-five participants completed retesting of the EQ 3 to 4 weeks later. Sex differences on the EQ scores and psychometric properties of the EQ items were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that an EQ 15-item structural model fitted the data quite well. Self-report empathy, as assessed by the current simplified Chinese version of the EQ, appeared to relate to participants' autistic and alexithymic traits but not sex.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artifact is common in cardiac RR interval data derived from 24-hr recordings and has a significant impact on heart rate variability (HRV) measures. However, the relative impact of progressively added artifact on a large group of commonly used HRV measures has not been assessed. This study compared the relative sensitivity of 38 commonly used HRV measures to artifact to determine which measures show the most change with increasing increments of artifact. A secondary aim was to ascertain whether short-term and long-term HRV measures, as groups, share similarities in their sensitivity to artifact. METHODS: Up to 10% of artifact was added to 20 artificial RR (ARR) files and 20 human cardiac recordings, which had been assessed for artifact by a cardiac technician. The added artifact simulated deletion of RR intervals and insertion of individual short RR intervals. Thirty-eight HRV measures were calculated for each file. Regression analysis was used to rank the HRV measures according to their sensitivity to artifact as determined by the magnitude of slope. RESULTS: RMSSD, SDANN, SDNN, RR triangular index and TINN, normalized power and relative power linear measures, and most nonlinear methods examined are most robust to artifact. CONCLUSION: Short-term time domain HRV measures are more sensitive to added artifact than long-term measures. Absolute power frequency domain measures across all frequency bands are more sensitive than normalized and relative frequency domain measures. Most nonlinear HRV measures assessed were relatively robust to added artifact, with Poincare plot SD1 being most sensitive.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 10: 15-19, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114452

RESUMO

Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early (n = 26) and chronic schizophrenia (n = 32) using a novel virtual reality task. Clinical participants and demographically-matched controls were administered the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability, which provides indices of first- and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, and quantifies three different types of mentalising errors (viz., overmentalising, reduced mentalising, and no ToM). Individuals with early schizophrenia performed significantly poorer than healthy controls on first-order affective and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, but significantly higher than individuals with chronic schizophrenia on all ToM subscales. Whereas a lack of mental state concept was associated with negative symptoms, overmentalising was associated with positive symptoms. These findings suggest that ToM abilities selectively deteriorate with illness chronicity and error types are related to these individuals' presenting symptomology. An implication of the findings is that social-cognitive interventions for schizophrenia need to consider the nature, time course and symptomatology of the presenting patient.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 258: 145-152, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024892

RESUMO

Mental Time Travel (MTT) is the ability of individuals to project themselves to the past or to the future. Studies have shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients are impaired in MTT. The present study aimed to examine whether MTT in patients with SZ can be improved through Life Review Therapy. Fifty patients with SZ were randomly assigned to the training (SZ-training) or control (SZ-control) group. Whereas the SZ-training group received four-week Life Review Therapy in addition to conventional treatment, the SZ-control group only received conventional treatment. MTT, emotional status, life satisfaction and cognitive functions were assessed before and after the training. We also recruited 25 matched healthy controls to complete all the assessments at baseline. After training, the SZ-training group showed higher specificity and more field perspective than the SZ-control group. No significant difference was found between the SZ-training group post-training assessment and the healthy controls. The SZ-training group also showed significant improvements in emotional expression, semantic memory and verbal fluency, but the SZ-control group did not show such improvements. These results indicated that Life Review Therapy is effective in improving MTT of SZ patients.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biopharm Drug Dispos ; 38(8): 458-463, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670738

RESUMO

Maintaining a stable glycaemia in diabetes mellitus type 1 requires flexible insulin administration and carbohydrate intake to affected individuals. In real life, there might be some situations limiting the insulin-sugar balance control, e.g. night sleep or prolonged sporting activities. Glucose pellets with a pre-determined time lag between the pellet administration and glucose release were developed to mimic a 'snack eaten in advance'. In this article, a 13 C-glucose breath test was introduced to translate laboratory dissolution testing to clinical confirmation of the glucose release pattern using 5% δ abundance to differentiate the appearance of in 13 C exhaled breath. An independent two-sample t-test (p = 0.20) confirmed an average clinical lag time of 300 min and an in vitro time of 338 min to be identical at a level of significance of α = 0.05. Moreover, using the same statistical method, the clinical tmax (564 min) and the in vitro t50 (594 min) were also considered identical (p = 0.34). It was concluded that dissolution testing is a relevant method to determine the time lags of dosage forms with controlled release of glucose and that the 13 C-glucose breath test is a suitable clinical tool for lag time verification in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Glucose/química , Glucose/farmacocinética , Adulto , Cápsulas , Isótopos de Carbono/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Psych J ; 6(3): 185-193, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708267

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of age on the relationship between future time perspective (FTP) and future-oriented coping. A total of 1,915 participants aged 9-84 years completed measures of FTP and future-oriented coping. Moderation analyses were conducted to examine whether age played a role in the association between FTP and future-oriented coping (proactive and preventive). Results showed that proactive and preventive coping were negatively correlated with age, and age moderated the association between FTP and preventive coping but not proactive coping. Furthermore, the strength of the positive association between FTP and preventive coping was strongest among the older participants, moderate among the middle-aged participants, and weakest among the younger participants. These results suggest that the association between FTP and preventive coping varies across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Percepção do Tempo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 57: 172-179, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) emphasize anticipatory processing as a prominent maintaining factor occurring before social-evaluative events. While anticipatory processing is a maladaptive process, the cognitive mechanisms that underlie ineffective control of attention are still unclear. The present study tested predictions derived from attentional control theory in a sample of undergraduate students high and low on social anxiety symptoms. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to either engage in anticipatory processing prior to a threat of a speech task or a control condition with no social evaluative threat. After completing a series of questionnaires, participants performed pro-saccades and antisaccades in response to peripherally presented facial expressions presented in either single-task or mixed-task blocks. RESULTS: Correct antisaccade latencies were longer than correct pro-saccade latencies in-line with attentional control theory. High socially anxious individuals who anticipated did not exhibit impairment on the inhibition and shifting functions compared to high socially anxious individuals who did not anticipate or low socially anxious individuals in either the anticipatory or control condition. Low socially anxious individuals who anticipated exhibited shorter antisaccade latencies and a switch benefit compared to low socially anxious individuals in the control condition. LIMITATIONS: The study used an analogue sample; however findings from analogue samples are generally consistent with clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social threat induced anticipatory processing facilitates executive functioning for low socially anxious individuals when anticipating a social-evaluative situation.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Inibição (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Emoções/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distribuição Aleatória , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 106: 14-28, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28366738

RESUMO

Ample evidence identifies strong links between major depressive disorder (MDD) and both risk of ischemic or coronary heart disease (CHD) and resultant morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanistic bases of these linkages are poorly defined. Systemic factors linked to MDD, including vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, obesity and diabetes, together with associated behavioral changes, all elevate CHD risk. Nonetheless, experimental evidence indicates the myocardium is also directly modified in depression, independently of these factors, impairing infarct tolerance and cardioprotection. It may be that MDD effectively breaks the heart's intrinsic defense mechanisms. Four extrinsic processes are implicated in this psycho-cardiac coupling, presenting potential targets for therapeutic intervention if causally involved: sympathetic over-activity vs. vagal under-activity, together with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immuno-inflammatory dysfunctions. However, direct evidence of their involvement remains limited, and whether targeting these upstream mediators is effective (or practical) in limiting the cardiac consequences of MDD is unknown. Detailing myocardial phenotype in MDD can also inform approaches to cardioprotection, yet cardiac molecular changes are similarly ill defined. Studies support myocardial sensitization to ischemic insult in models of MDD, including worsened oxidative and nitrosative damage, apoptosis (with altered Bcl-2 family expression) and infarction. Moreover, depression may de-sensitize hearts to protective conditioning stimuli. The mechanistic underpinnings of these changes await delineation. Such information not only advances our fundamental understanding of psychological determinants of health, but also better informs management of the cardiac consequences of MDD and implementing cardioprotection in this cohort.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 159: 263-278, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347936

RESUMO

This study investigated developmental differences in aversive conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement (i.e., the recovery of conditioned aversive associations following reexposure to the unconditioned stimulus [US] post-extinction). This study examined these mechanisms in children (Mage=8.8years), adolescents (Mage=16.1years), and adults (Mage=32.3years) using differential aversive conditioning with a geometric shape conditional stimulus (CS+) paired with an aversive sound US and another shape (CS-) presented alone. Following an extinction phase in which both CSs were presented alone, half of the participants in each age group received three US exposures (reinstatement condition) and the other half did not (control condition), followed by all participants completing an extinction retest phase on the same day. Findings indicated (a) significant differences in generalizing aversive expectancies to safe stimuli during conditioning and extinction that persisted during retest in children relative to adults and adolescents, (b) significantly less positive CS reevaluations during extinction that persisted during retest in adolescents relative to adults and children, and (c) reinstatement of US expectancies to the CS+ relative to the CS- in all age groups. Results suggest important differences in stimulus safety learning in children and stimulus valence reevaluation in adolescents relative to adults.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Condicionamento Clássico , Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Retenção (Psicologia) , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Aprendizagem por Associação , Criança , Feminino , Generalização (Psicologia) , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Neuropsychol Rehabil ; 27(5): 834-870, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26095322

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability and validity of the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability (VAMA). The VAMA consists of 12 video clips depicting a social drama imposed within an interactive virtual environment with questions assessing the mental states of virtual friends. Response options capture the continuum of ability (i.e., impaired, reduced, accurate, and hypermentalising) within first- and second-order cognitive and affective theory of mind (ToM). Sixty-two healthy participants were administered the VAMA, three other ToM measures, and additional measures of neurocognitive abilities and social functioning. The VAMA had sound internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. Significant correlations between performance on the VAMA and other ToM measures provided preliminary evidence of convergent validity. Small to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the VAMA and neurocognitive tasks. Further, the VAMA was found to correlate significantly with indices of social functioning and was rated as more immersive, more reflective of everyday ToM processes, and was afforded a higher recommendation than an existing computer-based ToM task. These results provide potential evidence that the VAMA is an ecologically valid tool that is sensitive to the spread of ability that can occur in ToM subprocesses and may be a valuable addition to existing ToM measures. Future research should explore the validity and utility of the VAMA in larger, more diverse samples of healthy adult and clinical populations.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Recognição (Psicologia) , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
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