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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6336, 2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303764

RESUMO

The human proteome is a crucial intermediate between complex diseases and their genetic and environmental components, and an important source of drug development targets and biomarkers. Here, we comprehensively assess the genetic architecture of 257 circulating protein biomarkers of cardiometabolic relevance through high-depth (22.5×) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in 1328 individuals. We discover 131 independent sequence variant associations (P < 7.45 × 10-11) across the allele frequency spectrum, all of which replicate in an independent cohort (n = 1605, 18.4x WGS). We identify for the first time replicating evidence for rare-variant cis-acting protein quantitative trait loci for five genes, involving both coding and noncoding variation. We construct and validate polygenic scores that explain up to 45% of protein level variation. We find causal links between protein levels and disease risk, identifying high-value biomarkers and drug development targets.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1128-1134, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in patients with colorectal cancer have been consistently associated with higher mortality in observational studies. It is unclear whether low 25(OH)D levels directly influence colorectal cancer mortality. To minimize bias, we use genetic variants associated with vitamin D levels to evaluate the association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Six genetic variants have been robustly identified to be associated with 25(OH)D levels in genome-wide association studies. On the basis of data from the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium, the individual genetic variants and a weighted genetic risk score were tested for association with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox proportional hazards models in 7,657 patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer, of whom 2,438 died from any cause and 1,648 died from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: The 25(OH)D decreasing allele of SNP rs2282679 (GC gene, encodes group-specific component/vitamin D-binding protein) was associated with poorer colorectal cancer-specific survival, although not significant after multiple-testing correction. None of the other five SNPs showed an association. The genetic risk score showed nonsignificant associations with increased overall [HR = 1.54; confidence interval (CI), 0.86-2.78] and colorectal cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.86-3.58). A significant increased risk of overall mortality was observed in women (HR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.45-7.33; P heterogeneity = 0.01) and normal-weight individuals (HR = 4.14; 95% CI, 1.50-11.43, P heterogeneity = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided little evidence for an association of genetic predisposition of lower vitamin D levels with increased overall or colorectal cancer-specific survival, although power might have been an issue. IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to investigate the association in specific subgroups.

4.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(2): 232-241, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718940

RESUMO

Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci that are associated with complex traits and diseases, but index variants are often not causal and reside in non-coding regions of the genome. To gain a better understanding of the relevant biological mechanisms, intermediate traits such as gene expression and protein levels are increasingly being investigated because these are likely mediators between genetic variants and disease outcome. Genetic variants associated with intermediate traits, termed molecular quantitative trait loci (molQTLs), can then be used as instrumental variables in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to identify the causal features and mechanisms of complex traits. Challenges such as pleiotropy and the non-specificity of molQTLs remain, and further approaches and methods need to be developed.

5.
Epigenomics ; 11(16): 1765-1778, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755748

RESUMO

Aim: Use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer, but mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. In the colon, MHT appears to act through estrogen receptor ß (ERß) which may influence DNA methylation by binding to DNA. Using genome-wide methylation profiling data, we aimed to identify genes that may be differentially methylated according to MHT use. Materials & methods: DNA methylation was measured using Illumina HumanMethylation450k arrays in two independent tumor sample sets of colorectal cancer patients. Differential methylation was determined using R/limma. Results: In the discovery analysis, two CpG sites showed differential DNA methylation according to MHT use, both were not replicated. In stratified analyses, 342 CpG sites were associated with current MHT use only in ERß-positive tumors. Conclusion: The suggestive findings of differential methylation according to current MHT use in ERß-positive tumors warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Epigenetics ; 14(5): 477-493, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931802

RESUMO

Involvement of sex hormones in colorectal cancer (CRC) development has been linked to oestrogen receptor ß (ERß). Expression of ERß is found reduced in tumour tissue and inversely related to mortality. However, mechanisms are not well understood. Our study aimed to detect differentially methylated genes associated with ERß expression, which could point to mechanisms by which ERß could influence risk and prognosis of CRC. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed using Illumina HumanMethylation450k BeadChip arrays in two independent tumour sample sets of CRC patients recruited in 2003-2010 by the German DACHS study (discovery cohort n = 917, replication cohort n = 907). ERß expression was measured using immunohistochemistry and scored as negative, moderate and high. Differentially methylated CpG sites and genomic regions were determined using limma in the R-package RnBeads. For the comparison of tumours with moderate/high ERß versus negative expression, differentially methylated CpG sites were identified but not confirmed by replication. Comparing tumours of high with tumours of negative ERß expression revealed 2,904 differentially methylated CpG sites of which 403 were replicated (FDR adjusted p-value<0.05). Replicated CpGs were annotated to genes such as CD36, HK1 or LRP5. A survival analysis indicates that 30 of the replicated CpGs are also associated with overall survival (FDR-adjusted p-value<0.05). The regional analysis identified 60 differentially methylated promotor regions. The epigenome-wide analysis identified both novel genes as well as genes already implicated in CRC. Follow-up mechanistic studies to better understand the regulatory role of ERß could inform potential targets for improving treatment or prevention of CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Menarca/genética , Menopausa/genética , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
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