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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stargardt disease (STGD1) is caused by biallelic mutations in ABCA4, but many patients are genetically unsolved due to insensitive mutation-scanning methods. We aimed to develop a cost-effective sequencing method for ABCA4 exons and regions carrying known causal deep-intronic variants. METHODS: Fifty exons and 12 regions containing 14 deep-intronic variants of ABCA4 were sequenced using double-tiled single molecule Molecular Inversion Probe (smMIP)-based next-generation sequencing. DNAs of 16 STGD1 cases carrying 29 ABCA4 alleles and of four healthy persons were sequenced using 483 smMIPs. Thereafter, DNAs of 411 STGD1 cases with one or no ABCA4 variant were sequenced. The effect of novel noncoding variants on splicing was analyzed using in vitro splice assays. RESULTS: Thirty-four ABCA4 variants previously identified in 16 STGD1 cases were reliably identified. In 155/411 probands (38%), two causal variants were identified. We identified 11 deep-intronic variants present in 62 alleles. Two known and two new noncanonical splice site variants showed splice defects, and one novel deep-intronic variant (c.4539+2065C>G) resulted in a 170-nt mRNA pseudoexon insertion (p.[Arg1514Lysfs*35,=]). CONCLUSIONS: smMIPs-based sequence analysis of coding and selected noncoding regions of ABCA4 enabled cost-effective mutation detection in STGD1 cases in previously unsolved cases.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 35(2): 256-266.e5, 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753826

RESUMO

Biallelic germline mutations affecting NTHL1 predispose carriers to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer, but the complete phenotype is unknown. We describe 29 individuals carrying biallelic germline NTHL1 mutations from 17 families, of which 26 developed one (n = 10) or multiple (n = 16) malignancies in 14 different tissues. An unexpected high breast cancer incidence was observed in female carriers (60%). Mutational signature analysis of 14 tumors from 7 organs revealed that NTHL1 deficiency underlies the main mutational process in all but one of the tumors (93%). These results reveal NTHL1 as a multi-tumor predisposition gene with a high lifetime risk for extracolonic cancers and a typical mutational signature observed across tumor types, which can assist in the recognition of this syndrome.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14611, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279461

RESUMO

A genome-wide evaluation of the effects of ionizing radiation on mutation induction in the mouse germline has identified multisite de novo mutations (MSDNs) as marker for previous exposure. Here we present the results of a small pilot study of whole genome sequencing in offspring of soldiers who served in radar units on weapon systems that were emitting high-frequency radiation. We found cases of exceptionally high MSDN rates as well as an increased mean in our cohort: While a MSDN mutation is detected in average in 1 out of 5 offspring of unexposed controls, we observed 12 MSDNs in altogether 18 offspring, including a family with 6 MSDNs in 3 offspring. Moreover, we found two translocations, also resulting from neighboring mutations. Our findings indicate that MSDNs might be suited in principle for the assessment of DNA damage from ionizing radiation also in humans. However, as exact person-related dose values in risk groups are usually not available, the interpretation of MSDNs in single families would benefit from larger molecular epidemiologic studies on this new biomarker.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116028

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic background, hampering identification of underlying genetic risk factors. We hypothesized that combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in multi-generation pedigrees with multiple affected individuals can point toward novel ADHD genes. Three families with multiple ADHD-affected members (Ntotal = 70) and apparent dominant inheritance pattern were included in this study. Genotyping was performed in 37 family members, and WES was additionally carried out in 10 of those. Linkage analysis was performed using multi-point analysis in Superlink Online SNP 1.1. From prioritized linkage regions with a LOD score ≥ 2, a total of 24 genes harboring rare variants were selected. Those genes were taken forward and were jointly analyzed in gene-set analyses of exome-chip data using the MAGMA software in an independent sample of patients with persistent ADHD and healthy controls (N = 9365). The gene-set including all 24 genes together, and particularly the gene-set from one of the three families (12 genes), were significantly associated with persistent ADHD in this sample. Among the latter, gene-wide analysis for the AAED1 gene reached significance. A rare variant (rs151326868) within AAED1 segregated with ADHD in one of the families. The analytic strategy followed here is an effective approach for identifying novel ADHD risk genes. Additionally, this study suggests that both rare and more frequent variants in multiple genes act together in contributing to ADHD risk, even in individual multi-case families.

5.
Clin Chem ; 63(2): 503-512, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in next generation DNA sequencing (NGS), NGS-based single gene tests for diagnostic purposes require improvements in terms of completeness, quality, speed, and cost. Single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) are a technology with unrealized potential in the area of clinical genetic testing. In this proof-of-concept study, we selected 2 frequently requested gene tests, those for the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and developed an automated work flow based on smMIPs. METHODS: The BRCA1 and BRCA2 smMIPs were validated using 166 human genomic DNA samples with known variant status. A generic automated work flow was built to perform smMIP-based enrichment and sequencing for BRCA1, BRCA2, and the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) c.1100del variant. RESULTS: Pathogenic and benign variants were analyzed in a subset of 152 previously BRCA-genotyped samples, yielding an analytical sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Following automation, blind analysis of 65 in-house samples and 267 Norwegian samples correctly identified all true-positive variants (>3000), with no false positives. Consequent to process optimization, turnaround times were reduced by 60% to currently 10-15 days. Copy number variants were detected with an analytical sensitivity of 100% and an analytical specificity of 88%. CONCLUSIONS: smMIP-based genetic testing enables automated and reliable analysis of the coding sequences of BRCA1 and BRCA2. The use of single-molecule tags, double-tiled targeted enrichment, and capturing and sequencing in duplo, in combination with automated library preparation and data analysis, results in a robust process and reduces routine turnaround times. Furthermore, smMIP-based copy number variation analysis could make independent copy number variation tools like multiplex ligation-dependent probes amplification dispensable.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Sondas de DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
6.
J Mol Diagn ; 18(6): 851-863, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27637301

RESUMO

Sequencing of tumor DNA to detect genetic aberrations is becoming increasingly important, not only to refine cancer diagnoses but also to predict response to targeted treatments. Next-generation sequencing is widely adopted in diagnostics for the analyses of DNA extracted from routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, fine-needle aspirates, or cytologic smears. PCR-based enrichment strategies are usually required to obtain sufficient read depth for reliable detection of genetic aberrations. However, although the read depth relates to sensitivity and specificity, PCR duplicates generated during target enrichment may result in overestimation of library complexity, which may result in false-negative results. Here, we report the validation of a 23-gene panel covering 41 hotspot regions using single-molecule tagging of DNA molecules by single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs), allowing assessment of library complexity. The smMIP approach outperforms Sanger and Ampliseq-Personal Genome Machine-based sequencing in our clinical diagnostic setting. Furthermore, single-molecule tags allow consensus sequence read formation, allowing detection to 1% allele frequency and reliable exclusion of variants to 3%. The number of false-positive calls is also markedly reduced (>10-fold), and our panel design allows for distinction between true mutations and deamination artifacts. Not only is this technique superior, smMIP-based library preparation is also scalable, easy to automate, and flexible. We have thus implemented this approach for sequence analysis of clinical samples in our routine diagnostic workflow.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Frequência do Gene , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Mol Syndromol ; 7(3): 144-52, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27587990

RESUMO

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are prevalent slow-flow vascular lesions which harbour the risk to develop intracranial haemorrhages, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominantly inherited CCMs were found to be associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations in 3 genes, CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10) in 1999, 2003 and 2005, respectively. Despite the availability of high-throughput sequencing techniques, no further CCM gene has been published since. Here, we report on the identification of an autosomal dominantly inherited frameshift mutation in a gene of thus far unknown function, FAM222B (C17orf63), through exome sequencing of CCM patients mutation-negative for CCM1-3. A yeast 2-hybrid screen revealed interactions of FAM222B with the tubulin cytoskeleton and STAMBP which is known to be associated with microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome. However, a phenotype similar to existing models was not found, neither in fam222bb/fam222ba double mutant zebrafish generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases nor in an in vitro sprouting assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells transfected with siRNA against FAM222B. These observations led to the assumption that aberrant FAM222B is not involved in the formation of CCMs.

8.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0152047, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007659

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly people worldwide. Cuticular drusen (CD) is a clinical subtype of AMD, which typically displays an earlier age at onset, and has a strong genetic component. Genetic studies support a role for rare sequence variants in CD susceptibility, and rare sequence variants in the CFH gene have been identified in 8.8% of CD cases. To further explore the role of rare variants in CD, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in 14 affected members of six families and 12 sporadic cases with CD. We detected rare sequence variants in CFH and FBLN5, which previously were shown to harbor rare variants in patients with CD. In addition, we detected heterozygous rare sequence variants in several genes encoding components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including FBLN1, FBLN3/EFEMP1, FBLN5, FBLN6/HMCN1, FBN2, and COL15A1. Two rare pathogenic variants were identified in the COL15A1 gene: one in a sporadic case and another was found to segregate in a family with six affected individuals with CD. In addition, two rare pathogenic variants were identified in the FGL1 gene in three unrelated CD cases. These findings suggest that alterations in the ECM and in the coagulation pathway may play a role in the pathogenesis of CD. The identified candidate genes require further analyses in larger cohorts to confirm their role in the CD subtype of AMD. No evidence was found of rare sequence variants in a single gene that segregate with CD in the six families, suggesting that the disease is genetically heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Degeneração Macular/genética , Drusas Retinianas/genética , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Exoma/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética
9.
Prenat Diagn ; 36(3): 216-23, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate Illumina's two-channel NextSeq 500 sequencing system for noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of fetal whole chromosome and partial aberrations. METHODS: A total of 162 plasma samples, previously sequenced for NIPT on a SOLiD 5500xl platform, were sequenced on the NextSeq 500 using 75-bp single-end sequencing, followed by analysis using the WISECONDOR algorithm. RESULTS: For whole chromosome aneuploidy detection, all samples were classified correctly (in total 3× T13, 3× T18, 8× T21 and 145× euploid). Three partial aberrations (36-Mb terminal loss of 5p, 14-Mb gain on 18p and 33-Mb terminal loss of 13q) were also correctly identified. Fetal fractions in 34 male samples sequenced on both the SOLiD 5500xl and NextSeq 500 platform showed no significant difference. To test robustness, two sample sets, containing both euploid and aneuploid samples, were sequenced on different NextSeq 500 machines, revealing identical results. With unchanged laboratory flow, the NIPT turnaround time could be reduced from 15-16 calendar days to 7-8 calendar days, after switching from the SOLiD 5500xl to the NextSeq 500 platform. CONCLUSIONS: The NextSeq 500 platform can be used for NIPT to detect both whole and partial chromosome aberrations. It has fast turnaround times and is suitable for mid-sized laboratories.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Líquido Amniótico/química , Líquido Amniótico/metabolismo , Vilosidades Coriônicas/química , Vilosidades Coriônicas/metabolismo , DNA/análise , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Feto/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Nat Genet ; 48(2): 144-51, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26691986

RESUMO

Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding α-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice demonstrated increased cell shedding and the presence of large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, indicates that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , alfa Catenina/genética , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Linhagem , Distrofias Retinianas/patologia
11.
J Pathol ; 236(2): 155-64, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25712196

RESUMO

Heritable genetic variants can significantly affect the lifetime risk of developing cancer, including polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC). Variants in genes currently known to be associated with a high risk for polyposis or CRC, however, explain only a limited number of hereditary cases. The identification of additional genetic causes is, therefore, crucial to improve CRC prevention, detection and treatment. We have performed genome-wide and targeted DNA copy number profiling and resequencing in early-onset and familial polyposis/CRC patients, and show that deletions affecting the open reading frame of the tumour suppressor gene FOCAD are recurrent and significantly enriched in CRC patients compared with unaffected controls. All patients carrying FOCAD deletions exhibited a personal or family history of polyposis. RNA in situ hybridization revealed FOCAD expression in epithelial cells in the colonic crypt, the site of tumour initiation, as well as in colonic tumours and organoids. Our data suggest that monoallelic germline deletions in the tumour suppressor gene FOCAD underlie moderate genetic predisposition to the development of polyposis and CRC.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Deleção de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(2): 189-94, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24781754

RESUMO

In a consanguineous Turkish family diagnosed with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (arNSHI), a homozygous region of 47.4 Mb was shared by the two affected siblings on chromosome 6p21.1-q15. This region contains 247 genes including the known deafness gene MYO6. No pathogenic variants were found in MYO6, neither with sequence analysis of the coding region and splice sites nor with mRNA analysis. Subsequent candidate gene evaluation revealed CLIC5 as an excellent candidate gene. The orthologous mouse gene is mutated in the jitterbug mutant that exhibits progressive hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction. Mutation analysis of CLIC5 revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation c.96T>A (p.(Cys32Ter)) that segregated with the hearing loss. Further analysis of CLIC5 in 213 arNSHI patients from mostly Dutch and Spanish origin did not reveal any additional pathogenic variants. CLIC5 mutations are thus not a common cause of arNSHI in these populations. The hearing loss in the present family had an onset in early childhood and progressed from mild to severe or even profound before the second decade. Impaired hearing is accompanied by vestibular areflexia and in one of the patients with mild renal dysfunction. Although we demonstrate that CLIC5 is expressed in many other human tissues, no additional symptoms were observed in these patients. In conclusion, our results show that CLIC5 is a novel arNSHI gene involved in progressive hearing impairment, vestibular and possibly mild renal dysfunction in a family of Turkish origin.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Homozigoto , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Doenças Vestibulares/genética , Adolescente , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico
14.
Clin Chem ; 61(1): 154-62, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25274553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dideoxy-based chain termination sequencing developed by Sanger is the gold standard sequencing approach and allows clinical diagnostics of disorders with relatively low genetic heterogeneity. Recently, new next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have found their way into diagnostic laboratories, enabling the sequencing of large targeted gene panels or exomes. The development of benchtop NGS instruments now allows the analysis of single genes or small gene panels, making these platforms increasingly competitive with Sanger sequencing. METHODS: We developed a generic automated ion semiconductor sequencing work flow that can be used in a clinical setting and can serve as a substitute for Sanger sequencing. Standard amplicon-based enrichment remained identical to PCR for Sanger sequencing. A novel postenrichment pooling strategy was developed, limiting the number of library preparations and reducing sequencing costs up to 70% compared to Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 1224 known pathogenic variants were analyzed, yielding an analytical sensitivity of 99.92% and specificity of 99.99%. In a second experiment, a total of 100 patient-derived DNA samples were analyzed using a blind analysis. The results showed an analytical sensitivity of 99.60% and specificity of 99.98%, comparable to Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Ion semiconductor sequencing can be a first choice mutation scanning technique, independent of the genes analyzed.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/instrumentação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Robótica , Semicondutores , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação
15.
J Med Genet ; 51(7): 444-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24737827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent inherited retinal disease, which shows a relatively high incidence of the autosomal-recessive form in Pakistan. METHODS: Genome-wide high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays were used to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals of one consanguineous family. DNA of three affected and two healthy siblings was used for SNP genotyping. Genotyping data were then analysed by Homozygosity Mapper. DNA of the proband was further analysed employing exome sequencing. RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping revealed a single homozygous region on chromosome 16, shared by three affected individuals. Subsequent exome sequencing identified a novel missense mutation, c.995G>A; p.(Gly332Asp), in DHX38. This mutation was found to be present in a homozygous state in four affected individuals while two healthy siblings and the parents of the affected persons were heterozygous for this mutation. This variant thereby yields a logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 3.25, which is highly suggestive for linkage. This variant was neither detected in 180 ethnically matched control individuals, nor in 7540 Africans or Caucasians and an in-house database that contained the exome data of 400 individuals. CONCLUSIONS: By combining genome-wide homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, a novel missense mutation was identified in the DHX38 gene that encodes the pre-mRNA splicing factor PRP16, in a Pakistani family with early-onset autosomal-recessive RP. The phenotype is different from those associated with other retinal pre-mRNA splicing factors and DHX38 is the first pre-mRNA splicing gene that is putatively associated with autosomal-recessive inherited RP.


Assuntos
Coloboma/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Macula Lutea/anormalidades , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Processamento de RNA
16.
Hum Mutat ; 34(12): 1721-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24123792

RESUMO

The advent of massive parallel sequencing is rapidly changing the strategies employed for the genetic diagnosis and research of rare diseases that involve a large number of genes. So far it is not clear whether these approaches perform significantly better than conventional single gene testing as requested by clinicians. The current yield of this traditional diagnostic approach depends on a complex of factors that include gene-specific phenotype traits, and the relative frequency of the involvement of specific genes. To gauge the impact of the paradigm shift that is occurring in molecular diagnostics, we assessed traditional Sanger-based sequencing (in 2011) and exome sequencing followed by targeted bioinformatics analysis (in 2012) for five different conditions that are highly heterogeneous, and for which our center provides molecular diagnosis. We find that exome sequencing has a much higher diagnostic yield than Sanger sequencing for deafness, blindness, mitochondrial disease, and movement disorders. For microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer, this was low under both strategies. Even if all genes that could have been ordered by physicians had been tested, the larger number of genes captured by the exome would still have led to a clearly superior diagnostic yield at a fraction of the cost.


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
17.
J Med Genet ; 50(12): 802-11, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24123876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intellectual disability (ID) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1-3% of the general population. Mutations in more than 10% of all human genes are considered to be involved in this disorder, although the majority of these genes are still unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated 19 small non-consanguineous families with two to five affected siblings in order to identify pathogenic gene variants in known, novel and potential ID candidate genes. Non-consanguineous families have been largely ignored in gene identification studies as small family size precludes prior mapping of the genetic defect. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using exome sequencing, we identified pathogenic mutations in three genes, DDHD2, SLC6A8, and SLC9A6, of which the latter two have previously been implicated in X-linked ID phenotypes. In addition, we identified potentially pathogenic mutations in BCORL1 on the X-chromosome and in MCM3AP, PTPRT, SYNE1, and ZNF528 on autosomes. CONCLUSIONS: We show that potentially pathogenic gene variants can be identified in small, non-consanguineous families with as few as two affected siblings, thus emphasising their value in the identification of syndromic and non-syndromic ID genes.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
18.
Ophthalmology ; 120(12): 2697-2705, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24084495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by night blindness and peripheral vision loss, and in many cases leads to blindness. Despite extensive knowledge about genes involved in the pathogenesis of RP, the genetic cause remains elusive in many patients. In this study, we aimed to identify novel genes that are involved in the cause of RP. DESIGN: We present a case series with mutations in the mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 769 patients with nonsyndromic RP and 174 Dutch control individuals participated in this study. METHODS: Exome sequencing analysis was performed in a proband of Dutch origin who was initially diagnosed with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive RP. Mutations in MVK were identified and subsequently tested for segregation within the patient's family and screened in a large cohort of patients with genetically unsolved RP. Patients with mutations underwent extensive clinical reexamination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Digital fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus autofluorescence analysis were performed in patients with MVK mutations. Mevalonate kinase (MK) enzyme activity was analyzed in cultured lymphoblastoid cells, and mevalonic acid levels were measured in urine samples. RESULTS: Exome variant filtering and prioritization led to the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in MVK (p.I268T and p.A334T) in the proband and her affected brother. Screening of our nonsyndromic RP patient cohort revealed an additional individual who was homozygous for the p.A334T alteration. Clinical reevaluation of all 3 patients showed a classic form of RP with variable extraocular symptoms, such as history of recurrent childhood febrile crises in 2 patients, mild ataxia in 1, and renal failure in 1. All 3 affected individuals showed a significantly decreased MK activity and highly elevated levels of urinary mevalonic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Although the MK activity in cells and mevalonic acid concentrations in urine are strongly aberrant and comparable to that in patients with systemic mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), only mild clinical symptoms related to this syndrome were observed in our patients. In the current article, we add another phenotype to the spectrum of diverging disorders associated with mutations in MVK.


Assuntos
Mutação , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Adulto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletrorretinografia , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Ácido Mevalônico/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Retinite Pigmentosa/urina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 110, 2013 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23879989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in EFTUD2 were proven to cause a very distinct mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida (MFDGA, OMIM #610536). Recently, gross deletions and mutations in EFTUD2 were determined to cause syndromic esophageal atresia (EA), as well. We set forth to find further conditions caused by mutations in the EFTUD2 gene (OMIM *603892). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed exome sequencing in two familial cases with clinical features overlapping with MFDGA and EA, but which were previously assumed to represent distinct entities, a syndrome with esophageal atresia, hypoplasia of zygomatic complex, microcephaly, cup-shaped ears, congenital heart defect, and intellectual disability in a mother and her two children [AJMG 143A(11):1135-1142, 2007] and a supposedly autosomal recessive oto-facial syndrome with midline malformations in two sisters [AJMG 132(4):398-401, 2005]. While the analysis of our exome data was in progress, a recent publication made EFTUD2 mutations highly likely in these families. This hypothesis could be confirmed with exome as well as with Sanger sequencing. Also, in three further sporadic patients, clinically overlapping to these two families, de novo mutations within EFTUD2 were identified by Sanger sequencing. Our clinical and molecular workup of the patients discloses a broad phenotypic spectrum, and describes for the first time an instance of germline mosaicism for an EFTUD2 mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of the eight patients described here further broaden the phenotypic spectrum caused by EFTUD2 mutations or deletions. We here show, that it not only includes mandibulofacial dysostosis type Guion-Almeida, which should be reclassified as an acrofacial dysostosis because of thumb anomalies (present in 12/35 or 34% of patients) and syndromic esophageal atresia [JMG 49(12). 737-746, 2012], but also the two new syndromes, namely oto-facial syndrome with midline malformations published by Mégarbané et al. [AJMG 132(4): 398-401, 2005] and the syndrome published by Wieczorek et al. [AJMG 143A(11): 1135-1142, 2007] The finding of mild phenotypic features in the mother of one family that could have been overlooked and the possibility of germline mosaicism in apparently healthy parents in the other family should be taken into account when counseling such families.


Assuntos
Atresia Esofágica/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Atresia Esofágica/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5 , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 93(1): 110-7, 2013 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23746546

RESUMO

The majority of the genetic causes of autosomal-recessive (ar) cone-rod dystrophy (CRD) are currently unknown. A combined approach of homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.565C>T [p.Glu189*]) in RAB28 in a German family with three siblings with arCRD. Another homozygous nonsense mutation (c.409C>T [p.Arg137*]) was identified in a family of Moroccan Jewish descent with two siblings affected by arCRD. All five affected individuals presented with hyperpigmentation in the macula, progressive loss of the visual acuity, atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and severely reduced cone and rod responses on the electroretinogram. RAB28 encodes a member of the Rab subfamily of the RAS-related small GTPases. Alternative RNA splicing yields three predicted protein isoforms with alternative C-termini, which are all truncated by the nonsense mutations identified in the arCRD families in this report. Opposed to other Rab GTPases that are generally geranylgeranylated, RAB28 is predicted to be farnesylated. Staining of rat retina showed localization of RAB28 to the basal body and the ciliary rootlet of the photoreceptors. Analogous to the function of other RAB family members, RAB28 might be involved in ciliary transport in photoreceptor cells. This study reveals a crucial role for RAB28 in photoreceptor function and suggests that mutations in other Rab proteins may also be associated with retinal dystrophies.


Assuntos
Genes Recessivos , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Criança , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cílios/metabolismo , Cílios/patologia , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Homozigoto , Humanos , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Linhagem , Cílio Conector dos Fotorreceptores/metabolismo , Cílio Conector dos Fotorreceptores/patologia , Prenilação de Proteína , Transporte Proteico , Ratos , Retina/enzimologia , Retina/patologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/enzimologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/enzimologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/enzimologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/patologia , Acuidade Visual , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
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