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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a novel adipokine enriched in brown adipose tissue has been observed to negatively regulate de novo hepatic lipogenesis and limit nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rodents. However, the role of Nrg4 in human NAFLD remains unclear to date. We analysed Nrg4 plasma levels and its association with liver disease severity together with the transcriptional profile of the Nrg4 pathway in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of NAFLD patients. METHODS: Plasma Nrg4 levels were measured in 65 NAFLD patients and 43 healthy controls (HC). Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were diagnosed and quantified with chemical shift MRI and transient elastography respectively. Furthermore, blood lipid levels, HOMA-IR and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ) were analysed. Microarray analyses to assess differences in the Nrg4 and its receptor family ErbB pathway in liver and VAT from an independent patient group with biopsy proven NAFL (simple steatosis) (n = 4), NASH (n = 5) and normal liver (n = 6) were performed. RESULTS: Plasma Nrg4 levels were not significantly different between NAFLD patients and HC (p = 0.622). Furthermore, plasma Nrg4 levels did not correlate with the hepatic fat fraction (r = -0.028, p = 0.829) and were not significantly different between NAFLD patients with or without hepatic fibrosis (p = 0.087). Finally, the expression profile of 82 genes related to the Nrg4-ErbB pathway in liver and VAT was not significantly different between NAFL, NASH or obese controls. CONCLUSION: Our study does not support a role for Nrg4 in the pathophysiology of human NAFLD.

2.
Transfusion ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmissible infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) remain a major concern for the safety of blood transfusion. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the trend of HBV prevalence and associated risk factors among a first-time donor population in a low endemic country. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 2010 and 2018, blood samples were collected from first-time donors presented at donor collection sites of Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. They were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), and HBV DNA, HIV and hepatitis virus C (HCV) antibodies and RNA, and syphilis antibodies. RESULTS: A total of 211,331 first-time blood donors (43.7% males, median age 25 years) were analyzed. HBsAg prevalence decreased from 0.06% in 2010 to 0.05% in 2018 (p = .004) and this declining trend was accompanied by an increased number of donors in the HBV vaccinated birth cohort (p < .001). HBsAg prevalence was 0.33% in foreign-born donors and 0.02% in Belgian natives (p < .001). Multivariate risk profiling showed that anti-HBc positivity was significantly associated with mainly foreign-born donors (odds ratio [OR] = 9.24) but also with older age (OR = 1.06), male gender (OR = 1.32), year of blood donation (OR = 0.94), and co-infections with HCV (OR = 4.31) or syphilis (OR = 4.91). DISCUSSION: The decreasing trend in HBV prevalence could mainly be explained by the introduction of the universal HBV vaccination. Being born in endemic areas was the most important predictor for HBV infection while the co-infections with syphilis suggest unreported sexual risk contacts.

3.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Comparative data on scores that predict outcome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) are scarce. We aimed to assess and compare the prognostic value of the Mayo Risk Score (MRS, 1989 and 1994), UK-PBC score, and GLOBE score in a large international cohort of patients with PBC. METHODS: Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients from 7 centers participating in the GLOBAL PBC Study Group were included. The discriminatory performance of the scores was assessed with concordance statistics at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Model for End-stage Liver Disease was included for comparison. Prediction accuracy was assessed by comparing predicted survival and actual survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,100 ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients with PBC were included, with a mean (SD) age of 53.6 (12.0) years, of whom 1,003 (91%) were female. During a median follow-up of 7.6 (interquartile range 4.1-11.7) years, 42 patients underwent liver transplantation, and 127 patients died. At 1 year, the concordance statistic for Model for End-stage Liver Disease was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.72), 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.80) for the UK-PBC score, 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.81) for the MRS (1989 and 1994), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84) for the GLOBE score. The GLOBE score showed superior discriminatory performance, but differences were not statistically different. For all scores, discriminatory performance increased in those with bilirubin >0.6 × ULN and advanced fibrosis estimated with Fibrosis-4. The predicted (median) minus observed 5-year transplant-free survival was +0.4% and +2.5% for the MRS (1989) and GLOBE score, respectively. DISCUSSION: All prognostic scores developed for PBC (GLOBE, UK-PBC, and MRS) demonstrated comparable discriminating performance for liver transplantation or death as well as good prediction accuracy.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the risk of infection and mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding (AVB). This study examines the incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections during hospitalization in patients with AVB on antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the database of an international, multicenter, observational study designed to examine the role of preemptive TIPS in patients with cirrhosis and AVB. Data collected on patients with cirrhosis hospitalized for AVB (n=2138) from a prospective cohort (October 2013-May 2015) at 34 referral centers, and retrospective cohort (October 2011-September 2013) at 19 of these centers. The primary outcome was incidence of bacterial infection during hospitalization. RESULTS: 1656 patients out of 1770 (93.6%) received antibiotic prophylaxis, the most frequently used being third-generation cephalosporins (76.2%) and quinolones (19.0%). Of these, 320 patients developed bacterial infection during hospitalization. Respiratory infection accounted for 43.6% of infections and for 49.7% of infected patients, and occurred early after admission (median 3 days, IQR 1-6). On multivariate analysis, respiratory infection was independently associated with Child-Pugh C (OR 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.7), grade III-IV encephalopathy (OR 2.8; 95%CI 1.8-4.4), orotracheal intubation for endoscopy (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.8-3.8), nasogastric tube (OR 1.7; 95%CI 1.2-2.4) or esophageal balloon tamponade (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.2-4.9). CONCLUSION: Bacterial infections develop in almost one fifth of patients with AVB despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Respiratory infection is the most frequent, is an early event after admission, and is associated with advanced liver failure, severe hepatic encephalopathy and use of nasogastric tube, orotracheal intubation for endoscopy or esophageal balloon tamponade. LAY SUMMARY: Bacterial infections develop during hospitalization in close to 20% of patients with acute variceal bleeding despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Respiratory bacterial infection is the most frequent and occurs early after admission. Respiratory infection is associated with advanced liver disease, severe hepatic encephalopathy and a need for a nasogastric tube, orotracheal intubation for endoscopy or esophageal balloon tamponade.

5.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(10): 1138-1146, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obeticholic acid (OCA) and fibrates are second-line therapies for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) with an inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). AIM: To know whether OCA and fibrates, administered together in combination with UDCA, have additive beneficial effects in patients with difficult-to-treat PBC. METHODS: PBC patients treated for ≥3 months with UDCA, OCA and fibrates (bezafibrate or fenofibrate) due to failure of either second-line therapy were included in a multicentre, uncontrolled retrospective cohort study. Changes in biochemical liver tests and pruritus were analysed using a generalised linear mixed-effect model. RESULTS: Among 58 patients included, half received OCA as second-line and fibrates as third-line therapy (Group OCA-Fibrate), while the other half had the inverse therapeutic sequence (Group Fibrate-OCA). The mean duration of triple therapy was 11 months (range 3-26). Compared to dual therapy, triple therapy was associated with a significant gain in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reduction: 22% per first year (95% CI 12%-31%), an effect that was stronger in OCA-Fibrate than in Fibrate-OCA group. Triple therapy was associated with a 3.4 (95% CI 1.4-8.2) odds ratio (OR) of reaching normal ALP and with a significant decrease in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin. The ORs of achieving the Paris-2 and Toronto criteria of adequate biochemical response were 6.8 (95% CI 2.8-16.7) and 9.2 (95% CI 3.4-25.1) respectively. Finally, triple therapy significantly improved pruritus in OCA-Fibrate but not in Fibrate-OCA group. CONCLUSIONS: Triple therapy with UDCA, OCA and fibrates is able to normalise biochemical liver tests and improve pruritus in patients with difficult-to-treat PBC.

6.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a common, potentially lethal inborn disorder caused by mutations in alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Homozygosity for the 'Pi*Z' variant of AAT (Pi*ZZ genotype) causes lung and liver disease, whereas heterozygous 'Pi*Z' carriage (Pi*MZ genotype) predisposes to gallstones and liver fibrosis. The clinical significance of the more common 'Pi*S' variant remains largely undefined and no robust data exist on the prevalence of liver tumours in AATD. DESIGN: Baseline phenotypes of AATD individuals and non-carriers were analysed in 482 380 participants in the UK Biobank. 1104 participants of a multinational cohort (586 Pi*ZZ, 239 Pi*SZ, 279 non-carriers) underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Among UK Biobank participants, Pi*ZZ individuals displayed the highest liver enzyme values, the highest occurrence of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (adjusted OR (aOR)=21.7 (8.8-53.7)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=44.5 (10.8-183.6)). Subjects with Pi*MZ genotype had slightly elevated liver enzymes and moderately increased odds for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=1.7 (1.2-2.2)) and cholelithiasis (aOR=1.3 (1.2-1.4)). Individuals with homozygous Pi*S mutation (Pi*SS genotype) harboured minimally elevated alanine aminotransferase values, but no other hepatobiliary abnormalities. Pi*SZ participants displayed higher liver enzymes, more frequent liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (aOR=3.1 (1.1-8.2)) and primary liver cancer (aOR=6.6 (1.6-26.9)). The higher fibrosis burden was confirmed in a multinational cohort. Male sex, age ≥50 years, obesity and the presence of diabetes were associated with significant liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: Our study defines the hepatobiliary phenotype of individuals with the most relevant AATD genotypes including their predisposition to liver tumours, thereby allowing evidence-based advice and individualised hepatological surveillance.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 217-223, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Belgian population of people living with HIV (PLHIV) has unrestricted access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, since 2017. International literature claims that half of the patients remain untreated in high-income countries with unrestricted access to DAA. This study was initiated to provide an overview of the present situation in Belgium and recommendations for HCV care in PLHIV in other regions. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of PLHIV in Belgium, from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2018. The HCV cascade of care was examined. RESULTS: Out of 4607 unique PLHIV, 322 (7.0%) tested positive for HCV antibody and HCV RNA positivity was seen in 289 (6.3%). Of those with a proven HCV infection, 207/289 (71.6%) initiated treatment. Of the 171 (82.6%) persons with a sustained virologic response (SVR), 16 (9.4%) subjects were reinfected. CONCLUSIONS: We present a care cascade of 4607 PLHIV in Belgium. Treatment initiation and SVR rates were high compared to other regions. Implementation of a national HCV register to track progress and yearly screening, especially in PLHIV with high-risk behavior, remains crucial. Identifying reasons for not initiating treatment is necessary to achieve elimination of HCV in PLHIV by 2030.

8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 64(3): 104160, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556586

RESUMO

The development of a polycystic liver is a characteristic of the monogenic disorders: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (ADPLD). Respectively two and one genes mainly cause ADPKD and ARPKD. In contrast, ADPLD is caused by at least six different genes which combined do not even explain the disease development in over half of the ADPLD population. Genetic testing is mainly performed to confirm the likelihood of developing PKD and if renal therapy is essential. However, pure ADPLD patients are frequently not genetically screened as knowledge about the genotype-phenotype correlation is currently limited. This paper will clarify the essence of genetic testing in ADPLD patients.

9.
Horm Metab Res ; 52(12): 869-876, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260239

RESUMO

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) might be a beneficial mediator in the development and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aim to evaluate the gene expression of BAT activity-related genes during the development and the dietary and surgical treatment of NASH. BAT was collected from male C57BL/6J mice that received a high fat-high sucrose diet (HF-HSD) or a normal chow diet (NCD) for 4 and 20 weeks (n=8-9 per dietary group and timepoint) and from mice that underwent dietary intervention (return to NCD) (n=8), roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n=6), or sham procedure (n=6) after 12 weeks HF-HSD. Expression of BAT genes involved in lipid metabolism (Cd36 and Cpt1b; p<0.05) and energy expenditure (Ucp1 and Ucp3; p<0.05) were significantly increased after 4 weeks HF-HSD compared with NCD, whereas in the occurrence of NASH after 20 weeks HF-HSD no difference was observed. We observed no differences in gene expression regarding lipid metabolism or energy expenditure at 8 weeks after dietary intervention (no NASH) compared with HF-HSD mice (NASH), nor in mice that underwent RYGB compared with SHAM. However, dietary intervention and RYGB both decreased the BAT gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (Il1b, Tnf-α and MCP-1; p<0.05). Gene expression of the batokine neuregulin 4 was significantly decreased after 20 weeks HF-HSD (p<0.05) compared with NCD, but was restored by dietary intervention and RYGB (p<0.05). In conclusion, BAT is hallmarked by dynamic alterations in the gene expression profile during the development of NASH and can be modulated by dietary intervention and bariatric surgery.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opportunity to redefine the care journeys for those living with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) includes facilitating access to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) programmes by nonspecialist risk 'flagging' of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop a nonexpert PBC stratification tool to help care pathway choices (standard vs. enhanced) choices in PBC. METHODS: We included ursodeoxycholic acid-treated patients with PBC from the Global PBC Study Group. The performance of baseline and 1-year clinical markers with transplant-free survival was assessed to develop the 'ABA' tool using Age (A), Bilirubin (B), and Alkaline phosphatase (A). Added value of fibrosis estimation was assessed. RESULTS: 'ABA' classification mapped three risk groups (n = 2226): low [Age > 50 years, bilirubin ≤ 1 × ULN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3 × ULN], high (Age ≤ 50 years, bilirubin > 1 × ULN, ALP > 3 × ULN), and intermediate (other). Transplant-free survival at 10 years in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89, 77, and 59% at baseline and 86, 76, and 40% at 1 year, respectively. We propose that high-risk patients at baseline be directly triaged to enhanced (PBC-dedicated) care and the remaining be reassessed at 1 year. Modelling showed after 1 year 46% patients were proposed to enhanced care and 54% to standard care. The 'ABA' mapped pathways facilitated identification of patients at risk based on a young age, as compared to traditional liver biochemical stratification. In patients proposed to standard care, estimated fibrosis stage had ongoing prognostic value. CONCLUSION: Nonspecialist use of the 'ABA' risk tool could prioritize care journey choices for patients with PBC.

11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most frequent cause of cirrhosis and a major indication for liver transplantation (LTx). Several alcohol use biomarkers have been developed in recent years and are already in use in several centres. However, in patients with liver disease their diagnostic performance might be influenced by altered biomarker formation by hepatic damage, altered excretion by kidney dysfunction and diuretics use and altered deposition in hair and nails. We systematically reviewed studies on the diagnostic accuracy of biomarkers of alcohol use in patients with liver disease and performed a detailed study quality assessment. METHODS: A structured search in PubMed/Medline/Embase databases was performed for relevant studies, published until 28 April 2019. The risk of bias and applicability concerns were assessed according to the adapted quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies-2 (QUADAS-2) checklist. RESULTS: Twelve out of 6449 studies met inclusion criteria. Urinary ethyl glucuronide and urinary ethyl sulfate showed high sensitivity (70 - 89% and 73 - 82%, respectively) and specificity (93 - 99% and 86 - 89%, respectively) for assessing any amount of alcohol use in the past days. Serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin showed low sensitivity but higher specificity (40 - 79% and 57 - 99%, respectively) to detect excessive alcohol use in the past weeks. Whole blood phosphatidylethanol showed high sensitivity and specificity (73 - 100% and 90 - 96%, respectively) to detect any amount of alcohol use in the previous weeks. Scalp hair ethyl glucuronide showed high sensitivity (85 - 100%) and specificity (97 - 100%) for detecting chronic excessive alcohol use in the past three to six months. Main limitations of the current evidence are the lack of an absolute gold standard to assess alcohol use, heterogeneous study populations and the paucity of studies. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary and scalp hair ethyl glucuronide are currently the most validated alcohol use biomarkers in patients with liver disease with good diagnostic accuracies. Phosphatidylethanol is a highly promising alcohol use biomarker, but so far less validated in liver patients. Alcohol use biomarkers can complement each other regarding diagnostic time window. More validation studies on alcohol use biomarkers in patients with liver disease are needed.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158468

RESUMO

Chronic renal failure after liver transplantation (LT) is significantly more frequent than after lung or heart transplantation and it results in an increased short and long-term mortality. Renal impairment may occur before LT (functional or due to preexisting parenchymal kidney disease), in the peri-operative period or later after LT. The number of patients with renal failure after LT has increased due to the liver allocation based on MELD and to the more liberal use of higher risk grafts. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity is the most important cause of renal dysfunction but is a modifiable factor. Strategy to prevent CNI-associated nephrotoxicity is post-op CNI minimization by induction therapy and reduced dose and/or delayed introduction of CNI in combination with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or everolimus with no penalty in term of rejection. With everolimus, usually started one month after LT, a drastic minimization of CNI is possible and this results in superior kidney function until at least 3 years follow up. At the moment of renal impairment a drastic reduction of CNI dose together with the introduction of MMF results in an improvement in GFR at 6 to 2 years with a low rate of acute rejection. However, secondary prevention fails to normalize renal function in most of the patients once e GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2ml.

13.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140868

RESUMO

A decrease or normalization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels in patients treated for primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) predicts a better survival. Obeticholic acid (OCA) is the approved second-line therapy if ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) fails, but its use may worsen pruritus. Adding bezafibrate to UCDA improved biochemical markers of cholestatic liver injury and decreased pruritus severity. Because normalization of ALP and bilirubin was only achieved in a minority of patients in these studies, we explored whether bezafibrate (off-label drug) could improve the effect of OCA (licensed drug) on cholestasis.

14.
Transplantation ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor hepatectomy and liver implantation time reduce long-term graft and patient survival after liver transplantation. It is not known whether these surgical times influence early outcomes after liver transplantation. METHODS: This single-center study evaluated the effect of donor hepatectomy and implantation time on the risk of nonanastomotic biliary strictures occurring within 1 year and of early allograft dysfunction after deceased-donor solitary liver transplantation, adjusting for other donor, recipient, and surgical factors. RESULTS: Of 917 transplants performed between 1/2000 and 12/2016, 106 (11.56%) developed nonanastomotic biliary strictures and 247 (27%) developed early allograft dysfunction. Donor hepatectomy time (median 35 min, IQR: 26-46) was an independent risk factor of nonanastomotic biliary strictures (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.35, p=0.01). Implantation time (median 80 min, IQR: 69-95) was independently associated with early allograft dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% CI:1.07-1.23, p<0.0001). The risk of early allograft dysfunction was increased by anastomosis time of both portal vein (adjusted OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-14.42, p=0.0001) and hepatic artery (adjusted OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.04-1.22, p=0.005). The magnitude of these effects was similar in donation after circulatory death liver grafts. CONCLUSIONS: Donor hepatectomy and implantation time negatively affect short-term outcomes.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 60: 103009, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the microbiome in liver transplantation (LT) outcome has received a growing interest in the past decades. In contrast to bacteria, the role of endogenous viral communities, known as the virome, is poorly described. Here, we applied a viral metagenomic approach to study the dynamic evolution of circulating viruses in the plasma of LT recipients and its effect on the clinical course of patients. METHODS: Patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) that received a LT due to endstage liver disease were included in this study. Longitudinal plasma samples were collected pre- and post-LT. Intact viral particles were isolated and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Short read libraries were analysed with an in-house bioinformatics pipeline. Key endpoints were the dynamics of viral families and post-LT complications. FINDINGS: The initiation of immunosuppression induced a bloom of the Anelloviridae that dominated the post-LT plasma virome. A variety of post-LT complication were observed. Nephrotoxicity was reported in 38% of the patients and was associated with a high abundance of anelloviruses. Besides nephrotoxicity, 16 (67%) patients experienced flares of viral or bacterial infections in post-transplant follow-up. These flares were recognized by an increased burden of anelloviruses (p < 0.05). Interestingly, no mortality was observed in patients infected with human pegivirus. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest a diagnostic potential for the Anelloviridae family in post-LT complications. Furthermore, the impact of human pegivirus infection on post-transplant survival should be further investigated. FUNDING: This trial was supported by Gilead Sciences grant number BE-2017-000133.

16.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity is recommended to optimize outcomes after solid organ transplantation (SOT). This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of HBV immunity at the time patients were placed on transplant waiting list over a period from 1997 to 2019 in a low HBV endemic region. METHODS: Data were obtained from the University Hospitals Leuven transplant database. Minors and patients with past/current HBV infection were excluded. From 1986, Belgian patients are covered by the universal infant vaccination; therefore, birth cohort was stratified in those born ≥1986 vs <1986. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 3297 SOT candidates. HBV immunity rate was superior in renal transplant candidates (55.3%), and this number was 21.5%, 15.4% and 16.8% for liver, cardiac and pulmonary transplant candidates, respectively, P < .001. Among liver transplant candidates, HBV immunity rate was 14.8% in decompensated cirrhotic patients and 27.9% in those without advanced cirrhosis (P < .001). The overall immunity rate increased from 19.3% in period 1997-2008 to 32.8% in 2009-2019, P < .001. In multivariable analyses, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.98, P < .001) and birth cohort ≥ 1986 (OR 95% CI: 1.18-2.66, P = .006) were associated with increased HBV immunity. CONCLUSION: An increase in HBV immunity was observed over a 20-year period related to the introduction of universal infant HBV vaccination. Nevertheless, this study highlights the low overall HBV immunity at the time of listing for organ transplantation and points out the need of an increased awareness and vaccination strategy at an early disease stage.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a serum marker of cholestasis. We investigated whether serum level of GGT is a prognostic marker for patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with PBC from the Global PBC Study Group, comprising 14 centers in Europe and North America. We obtained measurements of serum GGT at baseline and time points after treatment. We used Cox model hazard ratios to evaluate the association between GGT and clinical outcomes, including liver transplantation and liver-related death. RESULTS: Of the 2129 patients included in our analysis, 281 (13%) had a liver-related clinical endpoint. Mean age at diagnosis was 53 years and 91% of patients were female patients. We found a correlation between serum levels of GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (r = 0.71). Based on data collected at baseline and yearly for up to 5 years, higher serum levels of GGT were associated with lower hazard for transplant-free survival. Serum level of GGT at 12 months after treatment higher than 3.2-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) identified patients who required liver transplantation or with liver-related death at 10 years with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.70. The risk of liver transplantation or liver-related death in patients with serum level of GGT above 3.2-fold the ULN, despite level of ALP lower than 1.5-fold the ULN, was higher compared to patients with level of GGT lower than 3.2-fold the ULN and level of ALP lower than 1.5-fold the ULN (P < .05). Including information on level of GGT increased the prognostic value of the Globe score. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of GGT can be used to identify patients with PBC at risk for liver transplantation or death, and increase the prognostic value of ALP measurement. Our findings support the use of GGT as primary clinical endpoint in clinical trials. In patients with low serum level of ALP, a high level of GGT identifies those who might require treatment of metabolic disorders or PBC treatment escalation.

18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1066-1074, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are widely established as independent predictors of prognosis. Current treatment goals do not aim for normalization of surrogate markers because their association with survival has not been defined. METHODS: The patient cohort from the GLOBAL PBC Study Group was used, comprising of long-term follow-up data from European and North American centers. Ursodeoxycholic acid-treated and untreated patients with bilirubin levels ≤1 × upper limit of normal (ULN) at baseline or 1 year were included. The association of normal ALP with transplant-free survival was assessed in a subgroup with ALP ≤1.67 × ULN at 1 year. Optimal thresholds of bilirubin and ALP to predict liver transplantation (LT) or death were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 2,281 patients included in the time zero cohort and 2,555 patients in the 1-year cohort. The bilirubin threshold with the highest ability to predict LT or death at 1 year was 0.6 × ULN (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.69-2.66, P < 0.001). The 10-year survival rates of patients with bilirubin ≤0.6 × ULN and >0.6 × ULN were 91.3% and 79.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). The risk for LT or death was stable below the bilirubin levels of 0.6 × ULN, yet increased beyond this threshold. Ursodeoxycholic acid-induced reduction in bilirubin below this threshold was associated with an 11% improvement in 10-year survival. Furthermore, ALP normalization was optimal, with 10-year survival rates of 93.2% in patients with ALP ≤ 1 × ULN and 86.1% in those with ALP 1.0-1.67 × ULN. DISCUSSION: Attaining bilirubin levels ≤0.6 × ULN or normal ALP are associated with the lowest risk for LT or death in patients with PBC. This has important implications for treatment targets.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Colangite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colangite/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Valores de Referência , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(11): 2544-2553.e6, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The direct-acting antiviral combination glecaprevir/pibrentasvir has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for 8 weeks of treatment in treatment-naïve patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. We performed an integrated analysis of data from trials to evaluate the overall efficacy and safety of 8 weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We pooled data from 8 phase 2 or phase 3 trials of treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 to 6 infections, without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis, who received 8 weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. RESULTS: Of 1248 patients, 343 (27%) had cirrhosis. Most patients were white (80%) and had HCV genotype 1 infection (47%) or genotype 3 infection (22%); the median age was 54 years. Overall rates of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 were 97.6% (1218 of 1248) in the intention to treat (ITT) and 99.3% (1218 of 1226) in the modified ITT populations. When we excluded patients with genotype 3 infections with compensated cirrhosis (consistent with the European label), rates of sustained virologic response at post-treatment week 12 were 97.6% in the ITT and 99.4% in the modified ITT populations. Eight virologic failures (7 in patients without cirrhosis and 1 in a patient with cirrhosis) occurred in the ITT population. Virologic failure was not associated with markers of advanced liver disease or populations of interest (current alcohol use, opioid substitution therapy, history of injection-drug use, and severe renal impairment). Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 58% of patients. The most frequent AEs (>10%) were headache (12%) and fatigue (12%). Serious AEs and AEs that led to glecaprevir/pibrentasvir discontinuation were reported in 2% and less than 1% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a pooled analysis of data from 8 trials, we found that 8 weeks of treatment with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir is efficacious and well tolerated in treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 to 6 infections, with or without cirrhosis.

20.
Gut ; 69(10): 1832-1840, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Knowledge on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in liver transplant recipients is lacking, particularly in terms of severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, baseline clinical characteristics and early outcomes of a European cohort of liver transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN: We conducted an international prospective study across Europe on liver transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by microbiological assay during the first outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, management of immunosuppressive therapy and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: 57 patients were included (70% male, median (IQR) age at diagnosis 65 (57-70) years). 21 (37%), 32 (56%) and 21 (37%) patients had one cardiovascular disease, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, respectively. The most common symptoms were fever (79%), cough (55%), dyspnoea (46%), fatigue or myalgia (56%) and GI symptoms (33%). Immunosuppression was reduced in 22 recipients (37%) and discontinued in 4 (7%). With this regard, no impact on outcome was observed. Forty-one (72%) subjects were hospitalised and 11 (19%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Overall, we estimated a case fatality rate of 12% (95% CI 5% to 24%), which increased to 17% (95% CI 7% to 32%) among hospitalised patients. Five out of the seven patients who died had a history of cancer. CONCLUSION: In this European multicentre prospective study of liver transplant recipients, COVID-19 was associated with an overall and in-hospital fatality rate of 12% (95% CI 5% to 24%) and 17% (95% CI 7% to 32%), respectively. A history of cancer was more frequent in patients with poorer outcome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Hepatopatias/virologia , Transplante de Fígado , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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