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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines acknowledge the emerging role of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin for risk stratification and the early rule-out of myocardial infarction, but multiple thresholds have been described. We evaluate the safety and effectiveness of risk stratification thresholds in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=48,282) were enrolled in a multi-center trial across ten hospitals in Scotland. In a prespecified secondary and observational analysis, we compared the performance of the limit of detection (<2 ng/L) and an optimised risk stratification threshold (<5 ng/L) using the Abbott high sensitive troponin I assay. Patients with myocardial injury at presentation, with ≤ 2 hours of symptoms or with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were excluded. The negative predictive value (NPV) was determined in all patients and in subgroups for a primary outcome of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. The secondary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 12 months, with risk modelled using logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: In total, 32,837 consecutive patients (61±17 years, 47% female) were included, of whom 23,260 (71%) and 12,716 (39%) had cardiac troponin I concentrations <5 ng/L and <2 ng/L at presentation. The NPV for the primary outcome was 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.7-99.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-99.9%) in those with cardiac troponin I concentrations <5 ng/L and <2 ng/L, respectively. At both thresholds, the NPV was consistent in men and women and across all age groups, although the proportion of patients identified as lowrisk fell with increasing age. Compared to patients with cardiac troponin I concentrations ≥5ng/L but <99th centile, the risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 12 months was 77% lower in those <5 ng/L (5.3% versus 0.7%; adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.23, 95% CI 0.19-0.28), and 80% lower in those <2 ng/L (5.3% versus 0.3%; aOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.29). CONCLUSIONS: Use of risk stratification thresholds for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I identify patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome and at least 2 hours of symptoms as low-risk at presentation irrespective of age and sex. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01852123.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary inflammation induces dynamic changes in the balance between water and lipid content in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), as captured by perivascular Fat Attenuation Index (FAI) in standard coronary CT angiography (CCTA). However, inflammation is not the only process involved in atherogenesis and we hypothesized that additional radiomic signatures of adverse fibrotic and microvascular PVAT remodelling, may further improve cardiac risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a new artificial intelligence-powered method to predict cardiac risk by analysing the radiomic profile of coronary PVAT, developed and validated in patient cohorts acquired in three different studies. In Study 1, adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from 167 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and the expression of genes representing inflammation, fibrosis and vascularity was linked with the radiomic features extracted from tissue CT images. Adipose tissue wavelet-transformed mean attenuation (captured by FAI) was the most sensitive radiomic feature in describing tissue inflammation (TNFA expression), while features of radiomic texture were related to adipose tissue fibrosis (COL1A1 expression) and vascularity (CD31 expression). In Study 2, we analysed 1391 coronary PVAT radiomic features in 101 patients who experienced major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 5 years of having a CCTA and 101 matched controls, training and validating a machine learning (random forest) algorithm (fat radiomic profile, FRP) to discriminate cases from controls (C-statistic 0.77 [95%CI: 0.62-0.93] in the external validation set). The coronary FRP signature was then tested in 1575 consecutive eligible participants in the SCOT-HEART trial, where it significantly improved MACE prediction beyond traditional risk stratification that included risk factors, coronary calcium score, coronary stenosis, and high-risk plaque features on CCTA (Δ[C-statistic] = 0.126, P < 0.001). In Study 3, FRP was significantly higher in 44 patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction compared with 44 matched controls, but unlike FAI, remained unchanged 6 months after the index event, confirming that FRP detects persistent PVAT changes not captured by FAI. CONCLUSION: The CCTA-based radiomic profiling of coronary artery PVAT detects perivascular structural remodelling associated with coronary artery disease, beyond inflammation. A new artificial intelligence (AI)-powered imaging biomarker (FRP) leads to a striking improvement of cardiac risk prediction over and above the current state-of-the-art.

3.
Br J Radiol ; : 20180309, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502858

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic immunomodulated disease that affects multiple vascular beds and results in a significant worldwide disease burden. Conventional imaging modalities focus on the morphological features of atherosclerotic disease such as the degree of stenosis caused by a lesion. Modern CT, MR and positron emission tomography scanners have seen significant improvements in the rapidity of image acquisition and spatial resolution. This has increased the scope for the clinical application of these modalities. Multimodality imaging can improve cardiovascular risk prediction by informing on the constituency and metabolic processes within the vessel wall. Specific disease processes can be targeted using novel biological tracers and "smart" contrast agents. These approaches have the potential to inform clinicians of the metabolic state of atherosclerotic plaque. This review will provide an overview of current imaging techniques for the imaging of atherosclerosis and how various modalities can provide information that enhances the depiction of basic morphology.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(8): e008574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography identifies ruptured and high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The optimal method to identify, to quantify, and to categorize increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake and determine its reproducibility has yet to be established. This study aimed to optimize the identification, quantification, categorization, and scan-rescan reproducibility of increased 18F-fluoride activity in coronary atherosclerotic plaque. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease underwent serial 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography. Coronary 18F-fluoride activity was visually assessed, quantified, and categorized with reference to maximal tissue to background ratios. Levels of agreement for both visual and quantitative methods were determined between scans and observers. RESULTS: Thirty patients (90% male, 20 patients with stable coronary artery disease, and 10 with recent type 1 myocardial infarction) underwent paired serial positron emission tomography-coronary computed tomography angiography imaging within an interval of 12±5 days. A mean of 3.7±1.8 18F-fluoride positive plaques per patient was identified after recent acute coronary syndrome, compared with 2.4±2.3 positive plaques per patient in stable coronary artery disease. The bias in agreement in maximum tissue to background ratio measurements in visually positive plaques was low between observers (mean difference, -0.01; 95% limits of agreement, -0.32 to 0.30) or between scans (mean difference, 0.06; 95% limits of agreement, -0.49 to 0.61). Good agreement in the categorization of focal 18F-fluoride uptake was achieved using visual assessment alone (κ=0.66) and further improved at higher maximum tissue to background ratio values. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary 18F-fluoride activity is a precise and reproducible metric in the coronary vasculature. The analytical performance of 18F-fluoride is sufficient to assess the prognostic utility of this radiotracer as a noninvasive imaging biomarker of plaque vulnerability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02110303 and NCT02278211.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385011

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve the test-retest reproducibility of coronary plaque 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake measurements. METHODS: We recruited 20 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent repeated hybrid PET/CT angiography (CTA) imaging within 3 weeks. All patients had 30-min PET acquisition and CTA during a single imaging session. Five PET image-sets with progressive motion correction were reconstructed: (i) a static dataset (no-MC), (ii) end-diastolic PET (standard), (iii) cardiac motion corrected (MC), (iv) combined cardiac and gross patient motion corrected (2 × MC) and, (v) cardiorespiratory and gross patient motion corrected (3 × MC). In addition to motion correction, all datasets were corrected for variations in the background activities which are introduced by variations in the injection-to-scan delays (background blood pool clearance correction, BC). Test-retest reproducibility of PET target-to-background ratio (TBR) was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of reproducibility. RESULTS: A total of 47 unique coronary lesions were identified on CTA. Motion correction in combination with BC improved the PET TBR test-retest reproducibility for all lesions (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.437, no-MC = 0.345 (27% improvement), standard + BC = 0.365 (20% improvement), no-MC + BC = 0.341 (27% improvement), MC + BC = 0.288 (52% improvement), 2 × MC + BC = 0.278 (57% improvement) and 3 × C + BC = 0.254 (72% improvement), all p < 0.001). Importantly, in a sub-analysis of 18F-NaF-avid lesions with gross patient motion > 10 mm following corrections, reproducibility was improved by 133% (coefficient of reproducibility: standard = 0.745, 3 × MC = 0.320). CONCLUSION: Joint corrections for cardiac, respiratory, and gross patient motion in combination with background blood pool corrections markedly improve test-retest reproducibility of coronary 18F-NaF PET.

6.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 4(10): 794-804, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 70 million people worldwide are estimated to have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Emerging evidence indicates an association between HCV and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the association between HCV and cardiovascular disease, and estimate the national, regional, and global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to HCV. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Ovid Global Health, and Web of Science databases from inception to May 9, 2018, without language restrictions, for longitudinal studies that evaluated the risk ratio (RR) of cardiovascular disease in people with HCV compared with those without HCV. Two investigators independently reviewed and extracted data from published reports. The main outcome was cardiovascular disease, defined as hospital admission with, or mortality from, acute myocardial infarction or stroke. We calculated the pooled RR of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV using a random-effects model. Additionally, we calculated the population attributable fraction and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) from HCV-associated cardiovascular disease at the national, regional, and global level. We also used age-stratified and sex-stratified HCV prevalence estimates and cardiovascular DALYs for 100 countries to estimate country-level burden associated with HCV. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091857. FINDINGS: Our search identified 16 639 records, of which 36 studies were included for analysis, including 341 739 people with HCV. The pooled RR for cardiovascular disease was 1·28 (95% CI 1·18-1·39). Globally, 1·5 million (95% CI 0·9-2·1) DALYs per year were lost due to HCV-associated cardiovascular disease. Low-income and middle-income countries had the highest disease burden with south Asian, eastern European, north African, and Middle Eastern regions accounting for two-thirds of all HCV-associated cardiovascular DALYs. INTERPRETATION: HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The global burden of cardiovascular disease associated with HCV infection was responsible for 1·5 million DALYs, with the highest burden in low-income and middle-income countries. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408105

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiovascular thrombosis is responsible a quarter of deaths annually worldwide. Current imaging methods for cardiovascular thrombosis focus on anatomical identification of thrombus but cannot determine thrombus age or activity. Molecular imaging techniques hold promise for identification and quantification of thrombosis in vivo. Our objective was to assess a novel optical and positron-emitting probe targeting Factor XIIIa (ENC2015) as biomarker of active thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optical and positron-emitting ENC2015 probes were assessed ex vivo using blood drawn from human volunteers and passed through perfusion chambers containing denuded porcine aorta as a model of arterial injury. Specificity of ENC2015 was established with co-infusion of a factor XIIIa inhibitor. In vivo18F-ENC2015 biodistribution, kinetics, radiometabolism, and thrombus binding were characterized in rats. Both Cy5 and fluorine-18 labelled ENC2015 rapidly and specifically bound to thrombi. Thrombus uptake was inhibited by a factor XIIIa inhibitor. 18F-ENC2015 remained unmetabolized over 8 h when incubated in ex vivo human blood. In vivo, 42% of parent radiotracer remained in blood 60 min post-administration. Biodistribution studies demonstrated rapid clearance from tissues with elimination via the urinary system. In vivo,18F-ENC2015 uptake was markedly increased in the thrombosed carotid artery compared to the contralateral patent artery (mean standard uptake value ratio of 2.40 vs. 0.74, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION : ENC2015 rapidly and selectively binds to acute thrombus in both an ex vivo human translational model and an in vivo rodent model of arterial thrombosis. This probe holds promise for the non-invasive identification of thrombus formation in cardiovascular disease.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis as assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported sex-related differences in the left ventricular (LV) remodeling response to pressure overload in AS. However, there are very few data regarding the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis, a key marker of LV decompensation and adverse cardiac events in AS. METHODS: A total of 249 patients (mean age 66 ± 13 years; 30% women) with at least mild AS were recruited from 2 prospective observational cohort studies and underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and CMR examinations. On CMR, T1 mapping was used to quantify extracellular volume (ECV) fraction as a marker of diffuse fibrosis, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was used to assess focal fibrosis. RESULTS: There was no difference in age between women and men (age 66 ± 15 years vs 66 ± 12 years; p = 0.78). However, women presented with a better cardiovascular risk profile than men with less hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (all, p ≤ 0.10). As expected, LV mass index measured by CMR imaging was smaller in women than in men (p < 0.0001). Despite fewer comorbidities, women presented with larger ECV fraction (median: 29.0% [25th-75th percentiles: 27.4% to 30.6%] vs. 26.8% [25th-75th percentiles: 25.1% to 28.7%]; p < 0.0001) and similar LGE (median: 4.5% [25th-75th percentiles: 2.3% to 7.0%] vs. 2.8% [25th-75th percentiles: 0.6% to 6.8%]; p = 0.20) than men. In multivariable analysis, female sex remained an independent determinant of higher ECV fraction and LGE (all, p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Women have greater diffuse and focal myocardial fibrosis independent of the degree of AS severity. These findings further emphasize the sex-related differences in LV remodeling response to pressure overload.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor reduces high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations in patients with established coronary artery disease and high-risk coronary plaque. BACKGROUND: High-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaque is associated with higher plasma troponin concentrations suggesting ongoing myocardial injury that may be a target for dual antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with multivessel coronary artery disease underwent coronary 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography/coronary computed tomography scanning and measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or matched placebo. The primary endpoint was troponin I concentration at 30 days in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake. RESULTS: In total, 202 patients were randomized to treatment, and 191 met the pre-specified criteria for inclusion in the primary analysis. In patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (120 of 191), there was no evidence that ticagrelor had an effect on plasma troponin concentrations at 30 days (ratio of geometric means for ticagrelor vs. placebo: 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 0.90 to 1.36; p = 0.32). Over 1 year, ticagrelor had no effect on troponin concentrations in patients with increased coronary 18F-fluoride uptake (ratio of geometric means: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 1.17; p = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor did not reduce plasma troponin concentrations in patients with high-risk coronary plaque, suggesting that subclinical plaque thrombosis does not contribute to ongoing myocardial injury in this setting. (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy to Reduce Myocardial Injury [DIAMOND]; NCT02110303).

10.
Heart ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intraplaque angiogenesis and inflammation are key promoters of atherosclerosis and are mediated by the alpha-V beta-3 (αvß3) integrin pathway. We investigated the applicability of the αvß3-integrin receptor-selective positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer 18F-fluciclatide in assessing human aortic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Vascular 18F-fluciclatide binding was evaluated using ex vivo analysis of carotid endarterectomy samples with autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, and in vivo kinetic modelling following radiotracer administration. Forty-six subjects with a spectrum of atherosclerotic disease categorised as stable (n=27) or unstable (n=19; recent myocardial infarction) underwent PET and CT imaging of the thorax after administration of 229 (IQR 217-237) MBq 18F-fluciclatide. Thoracic aortic 18F-fluciclatide uptake was quantified on fused PET-CT images and corrected for blood-pool activity using the maximum tissue-to-background ratio (TBRmax). Aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified by CT wall thickness, plaque volume and calcium scoring. RESULTS: 18F-Fluciclatide uptake co-localised with regions of increased αvß3 integrin expression, and markers of inflammation and angiogenesis. 18F-Fluciclatide vascular uptake was confirmed in vivo using kinetic modelling, and on static imaging correlated with measures of aortic atherosclerotic burden: wall thickness (r=0.57, p=0.001), total plaque volume (r=0.56, p=0.001) and aortic CT calcium score (r=0.37, p=0.01). Patients with recent myocardial infarction had greater aortic 18F-fluciclatide uptake than those with stable disease (TBRmax 1.29 vs 1.21, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In vivo expression of αvß3 integrin in human aortic atheroma is associated with plaque burden and is increased in patients with recent myocardial infarction. Quantification of αvß3 integrin expression with 18F-fluciclatide PET has potential to assess plaque vulnerability and disease activity in atherosclerosis.

11.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition (VEGFi) represents a major therapeutic advance in oncology, it is associated with hypertension and adverse vascular thrombotic events. Our objective was to determine whether VEGFi caused direct vascular dysfunction through increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) activity or impaired endothelial vasomotor or fibrinolytic function. METHODS: Using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography, we measured forearm blood flow during intra-arterial infusions of bevacizumab (36-144 µg/dl forearm volume per minute) administered for 15-60 min in healthy volunteers (n = 6-8). On two separate occasions in 10 healthy volunteers, we further measured forearm blood flow and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release during intra-arterial bradykinin infusion (100 and 1000 pmol/min) in the presence and absence of bevacizumab (144 µg/dl forearm volume per minute), and the presence and absence of endothelin A receptor antagonism with BQ-123 (10 nmol/min). Plasma t-PA and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations were measured at baseline and with each dose of bradykinin. RESULTS: Baseline blood flow and plasma ET-1, t-PA and PAI-1 concentrations were unaffected by bevacizumab. Bradykinin caused dose-dependent vasodilatation (P < 0.0001) and t-PA release (P < 0.01) but had no effect on plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Neither bevacizumab nor BQ-123 affected bradykinin-induced vasodilatation and t-PA release. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to bevacizumab does not directly cause endothelial vasomotor or fibrinolytic dysfunction in healthy young volunteers.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prognostic implications of standardized reporting systems for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) in patients with stable chest pain. BACKGROUND: The Coronary Artery Disease Reporting And Data System (CAD-RADS) and Coronary Artery Calcium - Data and Reporting System (CAC-DRS) aim to improve communication of CACS and CCTA results, but its influence on prognostication is unknown. METHODS: Images from 1769 patients who underwent CCTA as part of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) multi-center randomized controlled trial were assessed. CACS were classified as CAC-DRS 0 to 3 based on Agatston scores. CCTA were classified as CAD-RADS 0 to 5 based on the most clinically relevant finding per patient. The primary outcome was the five-year events of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 58 ±â€¯10 years and 56% were male. CAC-DRS 0, 1, 2 and 3 occurred in 642 (36%), 510 (29%), 239 (14%) and 379 (21%) patients respectively. CAD-RADS 0, 1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B and 5 occurred in 622 (35%), 327 (18%), 211 (12%), 165 (9%), 221 (12%), 42 (2%) and 181 (10%) patients respectively. Patients classified as CAC-DRS 3 were at an increased risk of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction compared to CAC-DRS 0 patients (hazard ratio (HR) 9.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.24, 27.31; p < 0.001). Patients with higher CAD-RADS categories were at an increased risk of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, with patients classified as CAD-RADS 4B at the highest risk compared to CAD-RADS 0 patients (HR 19.14; 95% CI 4.28, 85.53; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with higher CAC-DRS and CAD-RADS scores were at increased risk of subsequent fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. This confirms that the classification provides additional prognostic discrimination for future coronary heart disease events.

14.
Med Image Anal ; 58: 101535, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351230

RESUMO

Typically, a medical image offers spatial information on the anatomy (and pathology) modulated by imaging specific characteristics. Many imaging modalities including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) can be interpreted in this way. We can venture further and consider that a medical image naturally factors into some spatial factors depicting anatomy and factors that denote the imaging characteristics. Here, we explicitly learn this decomposed (disentangled) representation of imaging data, focusing in particular on cardiac images. We propose Spatial Decomposition Network (SDNet), which factorises 2D medical images into spatial anatomical factors and non-spatial modality factors. We demonstrate that this high-level representation is ideally suited for several medical image analysis tasks, such as semi-supervised segmentation, multi-task segmentation and regression, and image-to-image synthesis. Specifically, we show that our model can match the performance of fully supervised segmentation models, using only a fraction of the labelled images. Critically, we show that our factorised representation also benefits from supervision obtained either when we use auxiliary tasks to train the model in a multi-task setting (e.g. regressing to known cardiac indices), or when aggregating multimodal data from different sources (e.g. pooling together MRI and CT data). To explore the properties of the learned factorisation, we perform latent-space arithmetic and show that we can synthesise CT from MR and vice versa, by swapping the modality factors. We also demonstrate that the factor holding image specific information can be used to predict the input modality with high accuracy. Code will be made available at https://github.com/agis85/anatomy_modality_decomposition.

15.
Circ Res ; 125(5): 535-551, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339449

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In response to blood vessel wall injury, aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) causes pathological remodeling. However, the controlling mechanisms are not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that the human long noncoding RNA, SMILR, promotes vascular SMCs proliferation by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Here, we assess the therapeutic potential of SMILR inhibition and detail the molecular mechanism of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used deep RNA-sequencing of human saphenous vein SMCs stimulated with IL (interleukin)-1α and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor)-BB with SMILR knockdown (siRNA) or overexpression (lentivirus), to identify SMILR-regulated genes. This revealed a SMILR-dependent network essential for cell cycle progression. In particular, we found using the fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator viral system that SMILR regulates the late mitotic phase of the cell cycle and cytokinesis with SMILR knockdown resulting in ≈10% increase in binucleated cells. SMILR pulldowns further revealed its potential molecular mechanism, which involves an interaction with the mRNA of the late mitotic protein CENPF (centromere protein F) and the regulatory Staufen1 RNA-binding protein. SMILR and this downstream axis were also found to be activated in the human ex vivo vein graft pathological model and in primary human coronary artery SMCs and atherosclerotic plaques obtained at carotid endarterectomy. Finally, to assess the therapeutic potential of SMILR, we used a novel siRNA approach in the ex vivo vein graft model (within the 30 minutes clinical time frame that would occur between harvest and implant) to assess the reduction of proliferation by EdU incorporation. SMILR knockdown led to a marked decrease in proliferation from ≈29% in controls to ≈5% with SMILR depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we demonstrate that SMILR is a critical mediator of vascular SMC proliferation via direct regulation of mitotic progression. Our data further reveal a potential SMILR-targeting intervention to limit atherogenesis and adverse vascular remodeling.

16.
Heart ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing is used in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes but its role during convalescence is unknown. We investigated the long-term prognostic significance of serial convalescent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin concentrations following acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: In a prospective multicentre observational cohort study of 2140 patients with acute coronary syndrome, cardiac troponin I concentrations were measured in 1776 patients at 4 and 12 months following the index event. Patients were stratified into three groups according to the troponin concentration at 4 months using the 99th centile (women>16 ng/L, men>34 ng/L) and median concentration of those within the reference range. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Troponin concentrations at 4 months were measurable in 99.0% (1759/1776) of patients (67±12 years, 72% male), and were ≤5 ng/L (median) and >99th centile in 44.8% (795) and 9.3% (166), respectively. There were 202 (11.4%) cardiovascular deaths after a median of 4.8 years. After adjusting for the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score, troponin remained an independent predictor of cardiovascular death (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.5 per doubling) with the highest risk observed in those with increasing concentrations at 12 months. Patients with 4-month troponin concentrations >99th centile were at increased risk of cardiovascular death compared with those ≤5 ng/L (29.5% (49/166) vs 4.3% (34/795); adjusted HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.8 to 23.7). CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent cardiac troponin concentrations predict long-term cardiovascular death following acute coronary syndrome. Recognising this risk by monitoring troponin may improve targeting of therapeutic interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12605000431628;Results.

17.
Heart ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337670

RESUMO

Gadolinium-based contrast media are widely used in cardiovascular MRI to identify and to highlight the intravascular and extracellular space. After gadolinium, manganese has the second highest paramagnetic moment and was one of the first MRI contrast agents assessed in humans. Over the last 50 years, manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has emerged as a complementary approach enabling intracellular myocardial contrast imaging that can identify functional myocardium through its ability to act as a calcium analogue. Early progress was limited by its potential to cause myocardial depression. To overcome this problem, two clinical formulations of manganese were developed using either chelation (manganese dipyridoxyl diphosphate) or coadministration with a calcium compound (EVP1001-1, Eagle Vision Pharmaceuticals). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MEMRI in quantifying myocardial infarction and detecting myocardial viability as well as tracking altered contractility and calcium handling in cardiomyopathy. Recent clinical data suggest that MEMRI has exciting potential in the quantification of myocardial viability in ischaemic cardiomyopathy, the early detection of abnormalities in myocardial calcium handling, and ultimately, in the development of novel therapies for myocardial infarction or heart failure by actively quantifying viable myocardium. The stage is now set for wider clinical translational study of this novel and promising non-invasive imaging modality.

18.
Heart ; 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk in stable patients. Understanding their determinants and identifying modifiable clinical targets may improve outcomes. We aimed to establish clinical and cardiac determinants of these biomarkers. METHODS: This was a prespecified substudy from the randomised Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart trial, which enrolled patients 18-75 years with suspected stable angina between 2010 and 2014 (NCT01149590). We included patients from six centres in whom high-sensitivity troponin I and BNP were measured (Singulex Erenna). Patients with troponin >99th centile upper reference limit (10.2 ng/L) or BNP ≥400 ng/L were excluded to avoid inclusion of patients with myocardial injury or heart failure. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed with troponin and BNP as dependent variables. RESULTS: In total, 885 patients were included; 881 (99%) and 847 (96%) had troponin and BNP concentrations above the limit of detection, respectively. Participants had a slight male preponderance (n=513; 56.1%), and the median age was 59.0 (IQR 51.0-65.0) years. The median troponin and BNP concentrations were 1.4 (IQR 0.90-2.1) ng/L and 29.1 (IQR 14.0-54.0) ng/L, respectively. Age and atherosclerotic burden were independent predictors of both biomarkers. Male sex, left ventricular mass and systolic blood pressure were independent predictors of increased troponin. In contrast, female sex and left ventricular volume were independent predictors of increased BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP are associated with coronary atherosclerosis but have important sex differences and distinct and contrasting associations with CT-determined left ventricular mass and volume. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01149590; Post-results.

19.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233100

RESUMO

Rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques leading to an atherothrombotic event is the primary driver of myocardial infarction and stroke. The ability to detect non-invasively the presence and evolution of vulnerable plaques could have a huge impact on the future identification and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Positron imaging tomography (PET) imaging with an appropriate radiotracer has the potential to achieve this goal. This review will discuss the biological hallmarks of plaque vulnerability before going on to evaluate and to present PET imaging approaches which target these processes. The focus of this review will be on techniques beyond [18F]FDG imaging, some of which are clinically advanced, and others which are on the horizon. As inflammation is the primary driving force behind atherosclerotic plaque development, we will predominantly focus on approaches which either directly, or in directly, target this process.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217515, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging with selective 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) radiotracers has contributed to our understanding on the role of inflammation in disease development and progression. With an increasing number of rodent models of human disease and expansion of the preclinical PET imaging base worldwide, accurate quantification of longitudinal rodent TSPO PET datasets is necessary. This is particularly relevant as TSPO PET quantification relies on invasive blood sampling due to lack of a suitable tissue reference region. Here we investigate the kinetics and quantification bias of a novel TSPO radiotracer [18F]AB5186 in rats using automatic, manual and image derived input functions. METHODS: [18F]AB5186 was administered intravenously and dynamic PET imaging was acquired over 2 hours. Arterial blood was collected manually to derive a population based input function or using an automatic blood sampler to derive a plasma input function. Manually sampled blood was also used to analyze the [18F]AB5186 radiometabolite profile in plasma and applied to all groups as a population based dataset. Kinetic models were used to estimate distribution volumes (VT) and [18F]AB5186 outcome measure bias was determined. RESULTS: [18F]AB5186 distribution in rats was consistent with TSPO expression and at 2 h post-injection 50% of parent compound was still present in plasma. Population based manual sampling methods and image derived input function (IDIF) underestimated VT by ~50% and 88% compared with automatic blood sampling, respectively. The VT variability was lower when using IDIF versus arterial blood sampling methods and analysis of the Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between methods of analysis. CONCLUSION: Quantification of TSPO PET rodent data using image-derived methods, which are more amenable for longitudinal scanning of small animals, yields outcome measures with reduced variability and good agreement, albeit biased, compared with invasive blood sampling methods.

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