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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(2): 363-372, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(8): 1030-1045, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502714

RESUMO

Experimental, observational, and clinical trials support a critical role of folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. In this report, we focus on understanding the relationship between common genetic variants and metabolites of FOCM. We conducted a genome-wide association study of FOCM biomarkers among 1,788 unaffected (without CRC) individuals of European ancestry from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Twelve metabolites, including 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, vitamin B2 (flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin), vitamin B6 (4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), total homocysteine, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, cystathionine, and creatinine were measured from plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS. For each individual biomarker, we estimated genotype array-specific associations followed by a fixed-effect meta-analysis. We identified the variant rs35976024 (at 2p11.2 and intronic of ATOH8) associated with total homocysteine (p = 4.9 × 10-8 ). We found a group of six highly correlated variants on chromosome 15q14 associated with cystathionine (all p < 5 × 10-8 ), with the most significant variant rs28391580 (p = 2.8 × 10-8 ). Two variants (rs139435405 and rs149119426) on chromosome 14q13 showed significant (p < 5 × 10-8 ) associations with S-adenosylhomocysteine. These three biomarkers with significant associations are closely involved in homocysteine metabolism. Furthermore, when assessing the principal components (PCs) derived from seven individual biomarkers, we identified the variant rs12665366 (at 6p25.3 and intronic of EXOC2) associated with the first PC (p = 2.3 × 10-8 ). Our data suggest that common genetic variants may play an important role in FOCM, particularly in homocysteine metabolism.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS:  Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.

5.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(4): e117-e124, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current U.S. recommendations state that newborns weighing ≥2,000 grams should receive a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine, yet approximately one quarter do not receive this first dose as scheduled. The relationship between timely receipt of the first hepatitis B vaccine and other early childhood vaccines remains unclear. METHODS: Washington State newborns (birth weight ≥2,000 grams) who received birth hospitalization care at an urban academic medical center between 2008 and 2013 were included. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess whether hepatitis B vaccine receipt during the birth hospitalization was associated with completing the seven-vaccine series by 19 months, adjusting for select sociodemographic, clinical, and birth hospitalization characteristics. Analyses were conducted in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Of the 9,080 study participants, 75.5% received hepatitis B vaccine during the birth hospitalization, and 53.6% completed the seven-vaccine series by 19 months. Overall, 60.0% of infants vaccinated against hepatitis B during the birth hospitalization completed the seven-vaccine series by 19 months compared with 33.8% of those who were unvaccinated at discharge (p<0.001). The odds of series completion were nearly 3 times higher among infants who received versus did not receive hepatitis B vaccine during the birth hospitalization (AOR=2.92, 95% CI=2.61, 3.26). CONCLUSIONS: Infants who received hepatitis B vaccine during their birth hospitalization had higher odds of receiving all recommended vaccines by 19 months independent of other factors associated with vaccine receipt. Understanding the factors that influence this first parental vaccine decision and how hepatitis B vaccine delay or declination may affect subsequent vaccination requires further research.

6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 979-987, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines recommend increased surveillance of individuals with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), but there is uncertainty about the risk associated with SSA/Ps. We aimed to determine the association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: This case-control study included Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA) members who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007, and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps but no conventional adenomas according to study pathologist histologic review. Subsequent pathology reports and biopsies through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We linked to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry to identify additional CRC cases. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing those with SSA/Ps to those with HPs. RESULTS: There were 161 individuals with index SSA/Ps, 548 with HPs, and 918 subsequent endoscopies included in analyses. Of those with index SSA/Ps, 19 had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia; 39 with HPs had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Compared to those with HPs, those with SSA/Ps were not statistically significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia (adjusted OR 1.79; CI 0.98-3.28). Polyp size ≥ 10 mm, right colon location, and the presence of multiple serrated polyps were also not associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is not a strong association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia during the 5 years following SSA/P removal.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
7.
Fam Cancer ; 18(4): 389-397, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209717

RESUMO

Before SNP-based risk can be incorporated in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, the ability of these SNPs to estimate CRC risk for persons with and without a family history of CRC, and the screening implications need to be determined. We estimated the association with CRC of a 45 SNP-based risk using 1181 cases and 999 controls, and its correlation with CRC risk predicted from detailed family history. We estimated the predicted change in the distribution across predefined risk categories, and implications for recommended screening commencement age, from adding SNP-based risk to family history. The inter-quintile risk ratio for colorectal cancer risk of the SNP-based risk was 3.28 (95% CI 2.54-4.22). SNP-based and family history-based risks were not correlated (r = 0.02). For persons with no first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 4 years earlier for women (5 years for men) in the highest quintile of SNP-based risk. For persons with two first-degree relatives with CRC, screening could commence 16 years earlier for men and women in the highest quintile, and 7 years earlier for the lowest quintile. This 45 SNP panel in conjunction with family history, can identify people who could benefit from earlier screening. Risk reclassification by 45 SNPs could inform targeted screening for CRC prevention, particularly in clinical genetics settings when mutations in high-risk genes cannot be identified. Yet to be determined is cost-effectiveness, resources requirements, community, patient and clinician acceptance, and feasibility with potentially ethical, legal and insurance implications.

9.
Vaccine ; 37(38): 5738-5744, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine is recommended at birth; however, national coverage estimates fall far below target levels. Studies describing the factors associated with infant HepB vaccination are lacking. This study aimed to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and birth hospitalization factors associated with timely receipt of the first HepB vaccine dose. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included Washington State infants born weighing ≥2000 g who received birth hospitalization care at an urban academic medical center between January 2008-December 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between maternal and infant characteristics and HepB vaccine receipt during the birth hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 9080 study infants, 75.5% received HepB vaccine during the birth hospitalization. Infants had higher odds of being vaccinated during the birth hospitalization if they were Hispanic (AOR 2.08; CI: 1.63, 2.65), non-Hispanic black (AOR 2.34; CI: 1.93, 2.84) or Asian (AOR 2.70; CI: 2.22, 3.28) compared to non-Hispanic white. Infants with a Spanish- vs. English-speaking mother (AOR 1.97; CI: 1.46, 2.68), public vs. private insurance (AOR 2.01; CI: 1.78, 2.29), and those hospitalized ≥96 h vs. 24 to <48 h (AOR 1.67; CI: 1.34, 2.09) also had higher odds of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Populations that are typically underserved (e.g., publicly insured, racial/ethnic minorities) had higher odds of receiving HepB vaccine during the birth hospitalization. These findings may aid in identifying high-risk infants who could benefit from targeted interventions to increase initial HepB vaccination.

10.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 307-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820706

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10- 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10- 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10- 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analyzed 6,246 CRC cases and 7,714 population-based controls from 11 studies within the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations of each variant with obesity or CRC were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, a study variable, and the first three principal components of genetic ancestry. Gene-specific False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p-values <0.05 denoted statistical significance. RESULTS: Two variants in the leptin gene showed statistically significant associations with CRC among women: LEP rs2167270 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and LEP rs4731426 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that leptin SNPs may influence CRC risk independent of obesity. We observed statistically significant interactions of the leptin variants with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for CRC risk; these variant associations were strengthened when analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women with low estrogen exposure, as estimated by 'never use' of HRT and/or non-obese BMI. No variants were associated with CRC among men. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin gene variants may exhibit sex-specific associations with CRC risk. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure may modify the association between these variants, leptin levels, and CRC risk.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380125

RESUMO

Background: The risk of cancers is well characterized in Lynch syndrome (LS) families but has been less studied in familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) families. Methods: In this article, we compare the risk estimates of first and second colorectal cancers (CRCs) in 168 FCTTX and 780 LS families recruited through the Colon Cancer Family Registry as well as the risk of cancer-related deaths and disease-free survival (DFS) after a first CRC. Our methodology is based on a survival analysis approach, developed specifically to model the occurrence of successive cancers (ie, first and second CRCs) in the presence of competing risk events (ie, death from any causes). Results: We found an excess risk of first and second CRC in individuals with LS compared to FCCTX family members. However, for an average age at first CRC of 60 years in FCCTX families and 50 years in LS families, the DFS rates were comparable in men but lower in women from FCCTX vs LS families, eg , 75.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 69.0% to 80.9%) vs 78.9% (95% CI = 76.3% to 81.3%) for the 10-year DFS. The 10-year risk of cancer-related death was higher in FCCTX families vs LS families, eg, 15.4% in men (95% CI = 10.9% to 19.8%) and 19.3% in women (95% CI = 13.6% to 24.7%) vs 8.9% (95% CI = 7.5% to 11.4%) and 8.7% (95% CI = 7.1% to 10.8%), respectively. Conclusions: Individuals with CRCs arising in the context of FCCTX do not experience the same improved DFS and overall survival of those with LS, and that difference may be relevant in management decisions.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476131

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) is also moderately associated with CRC risk. However, observational studies are susceptible to unmeasured confounding or reverse causality. Using genetic risk variants as instrumental variables, we investigated the causal relationship between genetically elevated CRP concentration and CRC risk, using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: Individual-level data from 30 480 CRC cases and 22 844 controls from 33 participating studies in three international consortia were used: the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT) and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). As instrumental variables, we included 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with CRP concentration. The SNP-CRC associations were estimated using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, principal components and genotyping phases. An inverse-variance weighted method was applied to estimate the causal effect of CRP on CRC risk. Results: Among the 19 CRP-associated SNPs, rs1260326 and rs6734238 were significantly associated with CRC risk (P = 7.5 × 10-4, and P = 0.003, respectively). A genetically predicted one-unit increase in the log-transformed CRP concentrations (mg/l) was not associated with increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.12; P = 0.256). No evidence of association was observed in subgroup analyses stratified by other risk factors. Conclusions: In spite of adequate statistical power to detect moderate association, we found genetically elevated CRP concentration was not associated with increased risk of CRC among individuals of European ancestry. Our findings suggested that circulating CRP is unlikely to be a causal factor in CRC development.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis METHODS: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of intake of red and processed meat before diagnosis with overall and CRC-specific survival. RESULTS: Among 7627 patients with CRC, 2338 died, including 1576 from CRC, over a median follow-up time of 5.1 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher intake of red or processed meat was not associated with overall survival of patients with stage I-III CRC: Q4 vs Q1 red meat hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 (95% CI, 0.93-1.26) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.93-1.32) or with CRC-specific survival: Q4 vs Q1 red meat HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.42). Results were similar for patients with stage IV CRC. However, patients with stage I-III CRC who reported an intake of processed meat above the study-specific medians had a higher risk of death from any cause (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) than patients who reported eating at or less than the median. CONCLUSION: In this large consortium of CRC patient cohorts, intake of red and processed meat before a diagnosis of CRC was not associated with shorter survival time after diagnosis, although a possible weak adverse association cannot be excluded. Studies that evaluate dietary data from several time points before and after cancer diagnosis are required to confirm these findings.

15.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291105

RESUMO

Many normal tissues undergo age-related drift in DNA methylation, providing a quantitative measure of tissue age. Here we identify and validate 781 CpG-islands (CGI) that undergo significant methylomic drift in 232 normal colorectal tissues and show that these CGI continue to drift in neoplasia while retaining significant correlations across samples. However, compared with normal colon, this drift advanced (~3-4 fold) faster in neoplasia, consistent with increased cell proliferation during neoplastic progression. The observed drift patterns were broadly consistent with modeled adenoma-carcinoma sojourn time distributions from colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence data. These results support the hypothesis that, beginning with the founder premalignant cell, cancer precursors frequently sojourn for decades before turning into cancer, implying that the founder cell typically arises early in life. At least 77-89% of the observed drift variance in distal and rectal tumors was explained by stochastic variability associated with neoplastic progression, while only 55% of the variance was explained for proximal tumors. However, gene-CGI pairs in the proximal colon that underwent drift were significantly and primarily negatively correlated with cancer gene expression, suggesting that methylomic drift participates in the clonal evolution of CRC. Methylomic drift advanced in colorectal neoplasia consistent with extended sojourn time distributions, which accounts for a significant fraction of epigenetic heterogeneity in CRC. Importantly, these estimated long-duration premalignant sojourn times suggest that early dietary and lifestyle interventions may be more effective than later changes in reducing CRC incidence.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1234-1235, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279201
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 143(9): 2250-2260, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904935

RESUMO

Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n = 807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49 and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-hr/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure) and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. <3.5 MET-hr/week, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96). The strength and direction of associations were similar for long-term physical activity, although the associations were not nominally significant. Our results suggest that physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer for people with Lynch syndrome; however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk.

19.
Cancer Res ; 78(16): 4790-4799, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921691

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs' (NSAID) use has consistently been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer; however, studies showed inconsistent results on which cohort of individuals may benefit most. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to systematically test for the interaction between regular use of NSAIDs and other lifestyle and dietary factors on colorectal cancer risk among 11,894 cases and 15,999 controls. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were used for stratified analyses across studies for each risk factor and to summarize the estimates from interactions. Regular use of any NSAID, aspirin, or nonaspirin NSAIDs was significantly associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer within almost all subgroups. However, smoking status and BMI were found to modify the NSAID-colorectal cancer association. Aspirin use was associated with a 29% lower colorectal cancer risk among never-smokers [odds ratios (OR) = 0.71; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.64-0.79], compared with 19% and 17% lower colorectal cancer risk among smokers of pack-years below median (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) and above median (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94), respectively (P interaction = 0.048). The association between any NSAID use and colorectal cancer risk was also attenuated with increasing BMI (P interaction = 0.075). Collectively, these results suggest that obese individuals and heavy smokers are unlikely to benefit as much as other groups from the prophylactic effect of aspirin against colorectal cancer.Significance: Obesity and heavy smoking attenuate the benefit of aspirin use for colorectal cancer prevention. Cancer Res; 78(16); 4790-9. ©2018 AACR.

20.
Br J Cancer ; 118(12): 1639-1647, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial evidence supports an association between use of menopausal hormone therapy and decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, indicating a role of exogenous sex hormones in CRC development. However, findings on endogenous oestrogen exposure and CRC are inconsistent. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation approach to test for a causal effect of age at menarche and age at menopause as surrogates for endogenous oestrogen exposure on CRC risk. Weighted genetic risk scores based on 358 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menarche and 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with age at menopause were used to estimate the association with CRC risk using logistic regression in 12,944 women diagnosed with CRC and 10,741 women without CRC from three consortia. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy and possible confounding by body mass index. RESULTS: Genetic risk scores for age at menarche (odds ratio per year 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.02) and age at menopause (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-1.01) were not significantly associated with CRC risk. The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not support a causal relationship between genetic risk scores for age at menarche and age at menopause and CRC risk.

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