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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin-use reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but there is limited evidence regarding associations of aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with CRC-specific survival. METHODS: This prospective analysis includes women and men from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer-free at baseline (1992 or 1993) and diagnosed with CRC during incidence follow-up through 2015. Detailed information on aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID-use was self-reported on questionnaires at baseline, in 1997, and every 2 years thereafter. Pre- and post-diagnosis data were available for 2,686 and 1,931 participants without distant-metastases, respectively, among whom 512 and 251 died from CRC during mortality follow-up through 2016. Secondary analyses examined associations between pre-diagnosis aspirin-use and stage at diagnosis (distant-metastatic versus localized or regional). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Long-term regular use of aspirin (>15 times per month) before diagnosis was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR)= 0.69; 95% CI = 0.52-0.92). Post-diagnosis regular aspirin use was not statistically significantly associated with risk of CRC-specific mortality overall (HR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.62-1.09), although participants who began regular aspirin use only after their diagnosis were at lower risk than participants who did not use aspirin at both the pre-and post-diagnosis periods (HR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.36-0.98). Long-term aspirin use before diagnosis was also associated with lower odds of diagnosis with distant metastases (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that long-term aspirin use before a diagnosis of non-metastatic colorectal cancer may be associated with lower CRC-specific mortality after diagnosis, consistent with possible inhibition of micro-metastases before diagnosis.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2680-2685, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests the association between body mass index (BMI) and pancreatic cancer risk is weaker among current smokers than among never smokers. METHODS: We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among adults who reported smoking status at enrollment into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982, including 420,543 never smokers, 282,244 former cigarette smokers, and 219,885 current cigarette smokers. After excluding the first 3 years of follow-up to reduce reverse causation, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: During the full follow-up period from 1985 to 2014, 7,904 participants died of pancreatic cancer. The HR per 5 BMI units was lower among current smokers [HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.20] than never smokers (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). BMI was significantly less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers reporting ≥20 cigarettes/day (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18) than among never smokers. During follow-up within 10 years of enrollment, when current smokers at enrollment were the most likely to have still been smoking, BMI was not associated with pancreatic cancer mortality among current smokers (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.16, P = 0.03 for difference between current and never smokers). BMI HRs were similar among former and never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a weaker association between BMI and pancreatic cancer among current smokers than among never smokers. IMPACT: In populations with low smoking prevalence, the pancreatic cancer burden due to BMI is likely to be higher than that predicted by risk estimates from studies including substantial numbers of smokers.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg·m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with colorectal cancer risk among 14,059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14,416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included two-step (i.e., Cocktail method) and single-step (i.e., case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.14; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.11-1.18; p-value: 9.75 x 10-17) than for men (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20-1.32; p-value: 2.13 x 10-24). The two-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; p-observed: 0.0009; p-threshold: 0.005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint p-value: 2.43 x 10-10). Each 5 kg·m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.16-1.32; p-value: 2.60 x 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.19; p-value: 1.04 x 10-8) or TT (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.14; p-value: 0.02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(2): 108-115, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602476

RESUMO

Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in epidemiologic studies. However, BMI has usually been assessed at older ages, potentially underestimating the full impact of excess weight. We examined the association between BMI and pancreatic cancer mortality among 963,317 adults who were aged 30-89 years at their enrollment in Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. During follow-up through 2014, a total of 8,354 participants died of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios per 5 BMI units, calculated using proportional hazards regression, declined steadily with age at BMI assessment, from 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.33) in persons aged 30-49 years at enrollment to 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.26) in those aged 70-89 years at enrollment (P for trend = 0.005). On the basis of a hazard ratio of 1.25 per 5 BMI units at age 45 years, we estimated that 28% of US pancreatic cancer deaths among persons born in 1970-1974 will be attributable to BMI ≥25.0-nearly twice the equivalent proportion of those born in the 1930s, a birth cohort with much lower BMI in middle age. These results suggest that BMI before age 50 years is more strongly associated with pancreatic cancer risk than BMI at older ages, and they underscore the importance of avoiding excess weight gain before middle age for preventing this highly fatal cancer.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 861-873, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 675-685, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677159

RESUMO

Obesity is known to be associated with primary liver cancer (PLC), but the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size are unclear. Thus, we examined the association between waist and hip circumference with risk of PLC overall and by histologic type-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The Liver Cancer Pooling Project is a consortium of prospective cohort studies that include data from 1,167,244 individuals (PLC n = 2,208, HCC n = 1,154, ICC n = 335). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Waist circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with an 11% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.09-1.14), including when adjusted for hip circumference (HR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17) and also when restricted to individuals in a normal body mass index (BMI) range (18.5 to <25 kg/m2 ; HR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21). Hip circumference, per 5 cm increase, was associated with a 9% increased PLC risk (HR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.06-1.12), but no association remained after adjustment for waist circumference (HR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.94-1.03). HCC and ICC results were similar. These findings suggest that excess abdominal size is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, even among individuals considered to have a normal BMI. However, excess gluteofemoral size alone confers no increased risk. Our findings extend prior analyses, which found an association between excess adiposity and risk of liver cancer, by disentangling the separate effects of excess abdominal and gluteofemoral size through utilization of both waist and hip circumference measurements.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(10): 1494-1505, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and diabetes are associated with an increased liver cancer risk. However, most studies have examined all primary liver cancers or hepatocellular carcinoma, with few studies evaluating intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Thus, we examined the association between obesity and diabetes and ICC risk in a pooled analysis and conducted a systematic review/meta-analysis of the literature. DESIGN: For the pooled analysis, we utilized the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of 13 US-based, prospective cohort studies with data from 1,541,143 individuals (ICC cases n = 414). In our systematic review, we identified 14 additional studies. We then conducted a meta-analysis, combining the results from LCPP with results from the 5 prospective studies identified through September 2017. RESULTS: In the LCPP, obesity and diabetes were associated with a 62% [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.62, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24-2.12] and an 81% (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) increased ICC risk, respectively. In the meta-analysis of prospectively ascertained cohorts and nested case-control studies, obesity was associated with a 49% increased ICC risk [Relative Risk (RR) = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.32-1.70; n = 4 studies; I2 = 0%]. Diabetes was associated with a 53% increased ICC risk (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.31-1.78; n = 6 studies). While we noted heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 67%) for diabetes, results were consistent in subgroup analyses. Results from hospital-based case-control studies (n = 9) were mostly consistent, but these studies are potentially subject to reverse causation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that obesity and diabetes are associated with increased ICC risk, highlighting similar etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. However, additional prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Incidência , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(10): 691-696.e3, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many cohort studies in the United States link with the National Death Index to detect deaths. Although linkage with National Death Index is relatively sensitive, some participant deaths will be missed. These participants continue to contribute person-time to the data set after their death, resulting in bias, which we refer to as ghost-time bias. We sought to evaluate the influence of ghost-time bias on mortality relative risk (RR) estimates. METHODS: Simulations were performed to determine the magnitude of ghost-time bias under a variety of plausible conditions. RESULTS: Our simulations demonstrate that ghost-time bias can be substantial, particularly among the elderly, where it can reverse the direction of the RR. For example, we conducted a simulation of a cohort of men beginning follow-up at age of 70 years, assuming 5% missed deaths and a true RR of 2.0. In this simulation, observed RRs were 1.89 during the year the cohort was aged 85 years, 1.60 during the year the cohort was aged 90 years, and 0.61 during the year the cohort was aged 95 years. We also provide results from actual cohort data that are consistent with ghost-time bias. CONCLUSIONS: Ghost-time bias may meaningfully affect mortality RR estimates under conditions that can plausibly occur in aging cohorts.


Assuntos
Viés , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(6): 665-672, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700008

RESUMO

Background: Prior studies of prostate cancer survivors suggest that smoking might be associated with higher prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after diagnosis with prostate cancer. However, most of these studies were small, and questions remain regarding this association's strength and whether it persists after adjustment for stage and Gleason score.Methods: This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992-1993 and June 2013. Cigarette smoking was self-reported at enrollment and updated in 1997 and every 2 years thereafter. Analyses of pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis smoking included 9,781 and 9,111 prostate cancer cases, respectively, with vital status follow-up through 2014.Results: There were 672 deaths from prostate cancer in analyses of pre-diagnosis smoking and 554 in analyses of post-diagnosis smoking. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models including stage and Gleason score, both current smoking before diagnosis [HR = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-2.13] and current smoking after diagnosis (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.09-2.67) were associated with higher PCSM compared to never smoking. Prostate cancer survivors who quit smoking <20 years before diagnosis were also at significantly higher risk of PCSM (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.61).Conclusions: This large prospective study suggests that current smoking both before and after diagnosis of prostate cancer is associated with higher PCSM, even after accounting for stage and Gleason score.Impact: Our results provide evidence that smoking is a relevant prognostic factor for prostate cancer patients and that prostate cancer may be among the causes of death attributable to smoking. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 665-72. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(3): 389-397, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Use of glucosamine supplements has been associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in previous studies; however, information on this association remains limited. METHODS: We examined the association between glucosamine use and CRC risk among 113,067 men and women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Glucosamine use was first reported in 2001 and updated every 2 years thereafter. Participants were followed from 2001 through June of 2011, during which time 1440 cases of CRC occurred. RESULTS: As has been observed in prior studies, current use of glucosamine, modeled using a time-varying exposure, was associated with lower risk of CRC (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.97) compared to never use. However, for reasons that are unclear, this reduction in risk was observed for shorter-duration use (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.52-0.87 for current users with ≤ 2 years use) rather than longer-duration use (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.72-1.13 for current users with 3 to < 6 years of use; HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.76-1.29 for current users with ≥ 6 years of use). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to better understand the association between glucosamine use and risk of CRC, and how this association may vary by duration of use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucosamina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 186(7): 876-884, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520845

RESUMO

All states in the United States now have a well-established cancer registry. Linkage with these registries may be a cost-effective method of follow-up for cancer incidence in multistate cohort studies. However, the sensitivity of linkage with the current network of state registries for detecting incident cancer diagnoses within cohort studies is not well-documented. We examined the sensitivity of registry linkage among 39,368 men and women from 23 states who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 cohort during 2006-2009 and had the opportunity to self-report cancer diagnoses on a questionnaire in 2011. All participants provided name and birthdate, and 94% provided a complete social security number. Of 378 cancer diagnoses between enrollment and 2010 identified through self-report and verified with medical records, 338 were also detected by linkage with the 23 state cancer registries (sensitivity of 89%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 86, 92). Sensitivity was lower for hematologic cancers (69%, 95% CI: 41, 89) and melanoma (70%, 95% CI: 57, 81). After excluding hematologic cancers and melanoma, sensitivity was 94% (95% CI: 91, 97). Our results indicate that linkage with multiple cancer registries can be a sensitive method for ascertaining incident cancers, other than hematologic cancers and melanoma, in multistate cohort studies.


Assuntos
Registro Médico Coordenado , Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(4): 597-606, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28314823

RESUMO

Background: There are few established risk factors for gallbladder cancer beyond gallstones. Recent studies suggest a higher risk with high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of general heaviness, but evidence from other body size measures is lacking.Methods: Associations of adult BMI, young adult BMI, height, adult weight gain, waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with gallbladder cancer risk were evaluated. Individual-level data from 1,878,801 participants in 19 prospective cohort studies (14 studies had circumference measures) were harmonized and included in this analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: After enrollment, 567 gallbladder cancer cases were identified during 20.1 million person-years of observation, including 361 cases with WC measures. Higher adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35), young adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26), adult weight gain (per 5 kg, HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), height (per 5 cm, HR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), WC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17), WHtR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54), and HC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22), but not WHR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22), were associated with higher risks of gallbladder cancer, and results did not differ meaningfully by sex or other demographic/lifestyle factors.Conclusions: These findings indicate that measures of overall and central excess body weight are associated with higher gallbladder cancer risks.Impact: Excess body weight is an important, and potentially preventable, gallbladder cancer risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 597-606. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/classificação , Obesidade/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Razão Cintura-Estatura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(6): 914-922, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28096201

RESUMO

Background: Studies examining associations between circulating concentrations of C-peptide and total adiponectin, two biomarkers related to obesity and insulin secretion and sensitivity and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) risk have shown inconsistent results and included limited numbers of smokers.Methods: We examined associations of these biomarkers and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with PDA, overall, and by smoking status. We conducted a pooled nested case-control analysis in 3 cohorts (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Trial, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and Cancer Prevention Study-II), with 758 cases (435 current smokers) and 1,052 controls (531 smokers) matched by cohort, age, sex, race, blood draw date and follow-up time. We used conditional logistic regression adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, and body mass index to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results: Circulating C-peptide concentration was not associated with PDA in never or former smokers, but was inversely associated with PDA in current smokers (per SD OR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54-0.84; Pinteraction = 0.005). HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with PDA in never smokers (OR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.81), not associated in former smokers, and positively associated in smokers (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04-1.45; Pinteraction = 0.009). Total adiponectin was not associated with PDA in nonsmokers or current smokers.Conclusions: Associations of biomarkers of insulin secretion and sensitivity with PDA differ by smoking status. Smoking-induced pancreatic damage may explain the associations in smokers while mechanisms related to insulin resistance associations in nonsmokers.Impact: Future studies of these biomarkers and PDA should examine results by smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 914-22. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Peptídeo C/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
14.
Cancer ; 123(11): 2006-2013, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. METHODS: The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. RESULTS: Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of <2 drinks per day and a slightly lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of <2 drinks/day and RR, 1.44 [95% CI, 0.80-2.60] for current drinking of ≥2 drinks/day). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study do not support an association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Cancer Res ; 76(20): 6076-6083, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742674

RESUMO

Incidence rates for liver cancer have increased 3-fold since the mid-1970s in the United States in parallel with increasing trends for obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. We conducted an analysis of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and type II diabetes mellitus with risk of liver cancer. The Liver Cancer Pooling Project maintains harmonized data from 1.57 million adults enrolled in 14 U.S.-based prospective studies. Cox regression estimated HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, study center, alcohol, smoking, race, and BMI (for WC and type II diabetes mellitus). Stratified analyses assessed whether the BMI-liver cancer associations differed by hepatitis sera-positivity in nested analyses for a subset of cases (n = 220) and controls (n = 547). After enrollment, 2,162 incident liver cancer diagnoses were identified. BMI, per 5 kg/m2, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, more so for men (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.30-1.46) than women (HR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.17-1.35; Pinteraction = 0.02). WC, per 5 cm, was associated with higher risks of liver cancer, approximately equally by sex (overall, HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13). Type II diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of liver cancer (HR = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.34-2.91). In stratified analyses, there was a null association between BMI and liver cancer risk for participants who were sera-positive for hepatitis. This study suggests that high BMI, high WC, and type II diabetes mellitus are associated with higher risks of liver cancer and that the association may differ by status of viral hepatitis infection. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6076-83. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(32): 3880-3885, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27646949

RESUMO

Purpose In a recent large prospective study, vasectomy was associated with modestly higher risk of prostate cancer, especially high-grade and lethal prostate cancer. However, evidence from prospective studies remains limited. Therefore, we assessed the associations of vasectomy with prostate cancer incidence and mortality in a large cohort in the United States. Patients and Methods We examined the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer mortality among 363,726 men in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort, of whom 7,451 died as a result of prostate cancer during follow-up from 1982 to 2012. We also examined the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer incidence among 66,542 men in the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, a subgroup of the CPS-II cohort, of whom 9,133 were diagnosed with prostate cancer during follow-up from 1992 to 2011. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results In the CPS-II cohort, vasectomy was not associated with prostate cancer mortality (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10). In the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, vasectomy was not associated with either overall prostate cancer incidence (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.08) or high-grade prostate cancer incidence (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.07 for cancers with Gleason score ≥ 8). Conclusion Results from these large prospective cohorts do not support associations of vasectomy with either prostate cancer incidence or prostate cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Vasectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Cancer ; 138(12): 2846-55, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26830232

RESUMO

While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake < median. Future studies are needed to confirm the potential inverse association of consistently high lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta , Humanos , Licopeno , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 182(3): 187-97, 2015 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26085045

RESUMO

Adiposity is associated with pancreatic cancer; however, the underlying mechanism(s) is uncertain. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic regulation, and obese individuals have higher concentrations. We conducted a pooled, nested case-control study of cohort participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, and the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort to investigate whether prediagnostic serum leptin was associated with pancreatic cancer. A total of 731 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases that occurred between 1986 and 2010 were included (maximum follow-up, 23 years). Incidence density-selected controls (n = 909) were matched to cases by cohort, age, sex, race, and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Sex-specific quintiles were based on the distribution of the controls. Overall, serum leptin was not associated with pancreatic cancer (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.71; Ptrend = 0.38). There was a significant interaction by follow-up time (P = 0.003), such that elevated risk was apparent only during follow-up of more than 10 years after blood draw (quintile 5 vs. quintile 1: odds ratio = 2.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 5.27; Ptrend = 0.004). Our results support an association between increasing leptin concentration and pancreatic cancer; however, long follow-up is necessary to observe the relationship. Subclinical disease may explain the lack of association during early follow-up.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência à Insulina , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(8): 1229-38, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26038390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF mutation status are associated with colorectal cancer survival, whereas the role of body mass index (BMI) is less clear. We evaluated the association between BMI and colorectal cancer survival, overall and by strata of MSI, BRAF mutation, sex, and other factors. METHODS: This study included 5,615 men and women diagnosed with invasive colorectal cancer who were followed for mortality (maximum: 14.7 years; mean: 5.9 years). Prediagnosis BMI was derived from self-reported weight approximately one year before diagnosis and height. Tumor MSI and BRAF mutation status were available for 4,131 and 4,414 persons, respectively. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from delayed-entry Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: In multivariable models, high prediagnosis BMI was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (per 5-kg/m(2); HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15), with similar associations stratified by sex (Pinteraction: 0.41), colon versus rectum (Pinteraction: 0.86), MSI status (Pinteraction: 0.84), and BRAF mutation status (Pinteraction: 0.28). In joint models, with MS-stable/MSI-low and normal BMI as the reference group, risk of death was higher for MS-stable/MSI-low and obese BMI (HR, 1.32; P value: 0.0002), not statistically significantly lower for MSI-high and normal BMI (HR, 0.86; P value: 0.29), and approximately the same for MSI-high and obese BMI (HR, 1.00; P value: 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: High prediagnosis BMI was associated with increased mortality; this association was consistent across participant subgroups, including strata of tumor molecular phenotype. IMPACT: High BMI may attenuate the survival benefit otherwise observed with MSI-high tumors.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 44(2): 673-81, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26050257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between anthropometry and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk are inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate these associations while minimizing biases found in previous studies. METHODS: We pooled data from 1,941,300 participants, including 3760 cases, in 20 cohort studies and used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of anthropometric measures with HNC risk overall and stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: Greater waist circumference (per 5 cm: HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, P-value for trend = <0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (per 0.1 unit: HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.05-1.09, P-value for trend = <0.0001), adjusted for body mass index (BMI), were associated with higher risk and did not vary by smoking status (P-value for heterogeneity = 0.85 and 0.44, respectively). Associations with BMI (P-value for interaction = <0.0001) varied by smoking status. Larger BMI was associated with higher HNC risk in never smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.24, P-value for trend = 0.0006), but not in former smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.06, P-value for trend = 0.79) or current smokers (per 5 kg/m(2): HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.82, P-value for trend = <0.0001). Larger hip circumference was not associated with a higher HNC risk. Greater height (per 5 cm) was associated with higher risk of HNC in never and former smokers, but not in current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were associated positively with HNC risk regardless of smoking status, whereas a positive association with BMI was only found in never smokers.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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