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1.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 40(1): 11-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436323
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors reviewed 3-dimensional electroanatomic maps of perimitral flutter to identify scar-related isthmuses and determine their effectiveness as ablation sites. BACKGROUND: Perimitral flutter is usually treated by linear ablation between the left lower pulmonary vein and mitral annulus. Conduction block can be difficult to achieve, and recurrences are common. METHODS: Patients undergoing atrial tachycardia ablation using CARTO3 (Biosense Webster Inc., Irvine, California) were screened from 4 centers. Patients with confirmed perimitral flutter were reviewed for the presence of scar-related isthmuses by using CARTO3 with the ConfiDense and Ripple Mapping modules. RESULTS: Confirmed perimitral flutter was identified in 28 patients (age 65.2 ± 8.1 years), of whom 26 patients had prior atrial fibrillation ablation. Scar-related isthmus ablation was performed in 12 of 28 patients. Perimitral flutter was terminated in all following correct identification of a scar-related isthmus using ripple mapping. The mean scar voltage threshold was 0.11 ± 0.05 mV. The mean width of scar-related isthmuses was 8.9 ± 3.5 mm with a conduction speed of 31.8 ± 5.5 cm/s compared to that of normal left atrium of 71.2 ± 21.5 cm/s (p < 0.0001). Empirical, anatomic ablation was performed in 16 of 28, with termination in 10 of 16 (63%; p = 0.027). Significantly less ablation was required for critical isthmus ablation compared to empirical linear lesions (11.4 ± 5.3 vs. 26.2 ± 17.1 min; p = 0.0004). All 16 cases of anatomic ablation were reviewed with ripple mapping, and 63% had scar-related isthmus. CONCLUSIONS: Perimitral flutter is usually easy to diagnose but can be difficult to ablate. Ripple mapping is highly effective at locating the critical isthmus maintaining the tachycardia and avoiding anatomic ablation lines. This approach has a higher termination rate with less radiofrequency ablation required.

3.
Circulation ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297741

RESUMO

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of heart failure and despite advanced therapeutic options, morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Although acute inflammation in response to myocardial cell death has been extensively studied, subsequent adaptive immune activity and anti-heart autoimmunity may also contribute to the development of HF. After ischemic injury to the myocardium, dendritic cells (DC) respond to cardiomyocyte necrosis, present cardiac antigen to T cells and potentially initiate a persistent autoimmune response against the heart. Cross-priming DC have the ability to activate both CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in response to necrotic cells and may thus be crucial players in exacerbating autoimmunity targeting the heart. This study investigates a role for cross-priming DC in post-MI myocardial impairment through presentation of self-antigen from necrotic cardiomyocytes to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Methods: We induced type-2 myocardial infarction (MI)-like ischemic injury in the heart by treatment with a single high dose of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. We characterized the DC population in the heart and mediastinal lymph nodes and analyzed long-term cardiac immunopathology and functional decline in wild type and Clec9a-depleted mice lacking DC cross-priming function. Results: A diverse DC population, including cross-priming DC, is present in the heart and activated after ischemic injury. Clec9a-/- mice deficient in DC cross-priming are protected from long-term immune-mediated myocardial damage and decline of cardiac function, likely due to dampened activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Conclusions: Activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells by cross-priming DC contributes to exacerbation of post-ischemic inflammatory damage of the myocardium and corresponding decline in cardiac function. Importantly, this provides novel therapeutic targets to prevent immune-mediated worsening of post-ischemic HF.

4.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249764

RESUMO

Heart failure is the common final pathway of several cardiovascular conditions and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Aberrant activation of the adaptive immune system in response to myocardial necrosis has recently been implicated in the development of heart failure. The ß-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol hydrochloride is used for its cardiac effects in a variety of different dosing regimens with high doses causing acute cardiomyocyte necrosis. To assess whether isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte necrosis triggers an adaptive immune response against the heart, we treated C57BL/6J mice with a single intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. We confirmed tissue damage reminiscent of human type 2 myocardial infarction. This is followed by an adaptive immune response targeting the heart as demonstrated by the activation of T cells, the presence of anti-heart auto-antibodies in the serum as late as 12 weeks after initial challenge and IgG deposition in the myocardium. All of these are hallmark signs of an established autoimmune response. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from isoproterenol-treated mice induces left ventricular dilation and impairs cardiac function in healthy recipients. In summary, a single administration of a high dose of isoproterenol is a suitable high-throughput model for future studies of the pathological mechanisms of anti-heart autoimmunity and to test potential immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches.

5.
Europace ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083839

RESUMO

AIMS : Rate adaptation of the action potential ensures spatial heterogeneities in conduction across the myocardium are minimized at different heart rates providing a protective mechanism against ventricular fibrillation (VF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD), which can be quantified by the ventricular conduction stability (V-CoS) test previously described. We tested the hypothesis that patients with a history of aborted SCD due to an underlying channelopathy or cardiomyopathy have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS : Sixty individuals, with (n = 28) and without (n = 32) previous aborted-SCD event underwent electro-cardiographic imaging recordings following exercise treadmill test. These included 25 Brugada syndrome, 13 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 12 idiopathic VF, and 10 healthy controls. Data were inputted into the V-CoS programme to calculate a V-CoS score that indicate the percentage of ventricle that showed no significant change in ventricular activation, with a lower score indicating the development of greater conduction heterogeneity. The SCD group, compared to those without, had a lower median (interquartile range) V-CoS score at peak exertion [92.8% (89.8-96.3%) vs. 97.3% (94.9-99.1%); P < 0.01] and 2 min into recovery [95.2% (91.1-97.2%) vs. 98.9% (96.9-99.5%); P < 0.01]. No significant difference was observable later into recovery at 5 or 10 min. Using the lowest median V-CoS scores obtained during the entire recovery period post-exertion, SCD survivors had a significantly lower score than those without for each of the different underlying aetiologies. CONCLUSION : Data from this pilot study demonstrate the potential use of this technique in risk stratification for the inherited cardiac conditions.

6.
Front Physiol ; 11: 987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013435

RESUMO

Current treatment approaches for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) have a ceiling of success of around 50%. This is despite 15 years of developing adjunctive ablation strategies in addition to pulmonary vein isolation to target the underlying arrhythmogenic substrate in AF. A major shortcoming of our current approach to AF treatment is its predominantly empirical nature. This has in part been due to a lack of consensus on the mechanisms that sustain human AF. In this article, we review evidence suggesting that the previous debates on AF being either an organized arrhythmia with a focal driver or a disorganized rhythm sustained by multiple wavelets, may prove to be a false dichotomy. Instead, a range of fibrillation electrophenotypes exists along a continuous spectrum, and the predominant mechanism in an individual case is determined by the nature and extent of remodeling of the underlying substrate. We propose moving beyond the current empirical approach to AF treatment, highlight the need to prescribe AF treatments based on the underlying AF electrophenotype, and review several possible novel mapping algorithms that may be useful in discerning the AF electrophenotype to guide tailored treatments, including Granger Causality mapping.

7.
Pflugers Arch ; 472(10): 1435-1446, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870378

RESUMO

We describe a human and large animal Langendorff experimental apparatus for live electrophysiological studies and measure the electrophysiological changes due to gap junction uncoupling in human and porcine hearts. The resultant ex vivo intact human and porcine model can bridge the translational gap between smaller simple laboratory models and clinical research. In particular, electrophysiological models would benefit from the greater myocardial mass of a large heart due to its effects on far-field signal, electrode contact issues and motion artefacts, consequently more closely mimicking the clinical setting. Porcine (n = 9) and human (n = 4) donor hearts were perfused on a custom-designed Langendorff apparatus. Epicardial electrograms were collected at 16 sites across the left atrium and left ventricle. A total of 1 mM of carbenoxolone was administered at 5 ml/min to induce cellular uncoupling, and then recordings were repeated at the same sites. Changes in electrogram characteristics were analysed. We demonstrate the viability of a controlled ex vivo model of intact porcine and human hearts for electrophysiology with pharmacological modulation. Carbenoxolone reduces cellular coupling and changes contact electrogram features. The time from stimulus artefact to (-dV/dt)max increased between baseline and carbenoxolone (47.9 ± 4.1-67.2 ± 2.7 ms) indicating conduction slowing. The features with the largest percentage change between baseline and carbenoxolone were fractionation + 185.3%, endpoint amplitude - 106.9%, S-endpoint gradient + 54.9%, S point - 39.4%, RS ratio + 38.6% and (-dV/dt)max - 20.9%. The physiological relevance of this methodological tool is that it provides a model to further investigate pharmacologically induced pro-arrhythmic substrates.

8.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(11): 2964-2974, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976636

RESUMO

AIMS: A prolonged PR interval may adversely affect ventricular filling and, therefore, cardiac function. AV delay can be corrected using right ventricular pacing (RVP), but this induces ventricular dyssynchrony, itself harmful. Therefore, in intermittent heart block, pacing avoidance algorithms are often implemented. We tested His-bundle pacing (HBP) as an alternative. METHODS: Outpatients with a long PR interval (>200 ms) and intermittent need for ventricular pacing were recruited. We measured within-patient differences in high-precision hemodynamics between AV-optimized RVP and HBP, as well as a pacing avoidance algorithm (Managed Ventricular Pacing [MVP]). RESULTS: We recruited 18 patients. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 44.3 ± 9%. Mean intrinsic PR interval was 266 ± 42 ms and QRS duration was 123 ± 29 ms. RVP lengthened QRS duration (+54 ms, 95% CI 42-67 ms, p < .0001) while HBP delivered a shorter QRS duration than RVP (-56 ms, 95% CI -67 to -46 ms, p < .0001). HBP did not increase QRS duration (-2 ms, 95% CI -8 to 13 ms, p = .6). HBP improved acute systolic blood pressure by mean of 5.0 mmHg (95% CI 2.8-7.1 mmHg, p < .0001) compared to RVP and by 3.5 mmHg (95% CI 1.9-5.0 mmHg, p = .0002) compared to the pacing avoidance algorithm. There was no significant difference in hemodynamics between RVP and ventricular pacing avoidance (p = .055). CONCLUSIONS: HBP provides better acute cardiac function than pacing avoidance algorithms and RVP, in patients with prolonged PR intervals. HBP allows normalization of prolonged AV delays (unlike pacing avoidance) and does not cause ventricular dyssynchrony (unlike RVP). Clinical trials may be justified to assess whether these acute improvements translate into longer term clinical benefits in patients with bradycardia indications for pacing.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15284, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943714

RESUMO

Acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I-R) are major causes of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with a history of coronary artery disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has previously been shown to be antiarrhythmic in fetal hearts. This study was performed to investigate if UDCA protects against ischaemia-induced and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in the adult myocardium, and compares the effect of acute (perfusion only) versus prolonged (2 weeks pre-treatment plus perfusion) UDCA administration. Langendorff-perfused adult Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were subjected to acute regional ischaemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (10 min), followed by reperfusion (2 min), and arrhythmia incidence quantified. Prolonged UDCA administration reduced the incidence of acute ischaemia-induced arrhythmias (p = 0.028), with a reduction in number of ventricular ectopic beats during the ischaemic phase compared with acute treatment (10 ± 3 vs 58 ± 15, p = 0.036). No antiarrhythmic effect was observed in the acute UDCA administration group. Neither acute nor prolonged UDCA treatment altered the incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias. The antiarrhythmic effect of UDCA may be partially mediated by an increase in cardiac wavelength, due to the attenuation of conduction velocity slowing (p = 0.03), and the preservation of Connexin43 phosphorylation during acute ischaemia (p = 0.0027). The potential antiarrhythmic effects of prolonged UDCA administration merit further investigation.

10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(5): H1008-H1020, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946265

RESUMO

Chronic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are associated with a twofold increase in the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) compared with the healthy population. Although this is partly explained by an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, growing evidence suggests that ischemia alone cannot completely account for the increased risk. The present review explores the mechanisms of cardiac electrophysiological remodeling in response to chronic inflammation in RA. In particular, it focuses on the roles of nonischemic structural remodeling, altered cardiac ionic currents, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in ventricular arrhythmogenesis and SCD. It also explores whether common genetic elements predispose to both RA and SCD. Finally, it evaluates the potential dual effects of disease-modifying therapy in both diminishing and promoting the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and SCD.

11.
Cardiovasc Digit Health J ; 1(1): 11-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954375

RESUMO

Background: His-bundle pacing (HBP) has emerged as an alternative to conventional ventricular pacing because of its ability to deliver physiological ventricular activation. Pacing at the His bundle produces different electrocardiographic (ECG) responses: selective His-bundle pacing (S-HBP), non-selective His bundle pacing (NS-HBP), and myocardium-only capture (MOC). These 3 capture types must be distinguished from each other, which can be challenging and time-consuming even for experts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to use artificial intelligence (AI) in the form of supervised machine learning using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to automate HBP ECG interpretation. Methods: We identified patients who had undergone HBP and extracted raw 12-lead ECG data during S-HBP, NS-HBP, and MOC. A CNN was trained, using 3-fold cross-validation, on 75% of the segmented QRS complexes labeled with their capture type. The remaining 25% was kept aside as a testing dataset. Results: The CNN was trained with 1297 QRS complexes from 59 patients. Cohen kappa for the neural network's performance on the 17-patient testing set was 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.88; P <.0001), with an overall accuracy of 75%. The CNN's accuracy in the 17-patient testing set was 67% for S-HBP, 71% for NS-HBP, and 84% for MOC. Conclusion: We demonstrated proof of concept that a neural network can be trained to automate discrimination between HBP ECG responses. When a larger dataset is trained to higher accuracy, automated AI ECG analysis could facilitate HBP implantation and follow-up and prevent complications resulting from incorrect HBP ECG analysis.

13.
Auton Neurosci ; 228: 102699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epicardial ganglionated plexuses (GP) have an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The relationship between anatomical, histological and functional effects of GP is not well known. We previously described atrioventricular (AV) dissociating GP (AVD-GP) locations. In this study, we hypothesised that ectopy triggering GP (ET-GP) are upstream triggers of atrial ectopy/AF and have different anatomical distribution to AVD-GP. OBJECTIVES: We mapped and characterised ET-GP to understand their neural mechanism in AF and anatomical distribution in the left atrium (LA). METHODS: 26 patients with paroxysmal AF were recruited. All were paced in the LA with an ablation catheter. High frequency stimulation (HFS) was synchronised to each paced stimulus for delivery within the local atrial refractory period. HFS responses were tagged onto CARTO™ 3D LA geometry. All geometries were transformed onto one reference LA shell. A probability distribution atlas of ET-GP was created. This identified high/low ET-GP probability regions. RESULTS: 2302 sites were tested with HFS, identifying 579 (25%) ET-GP. 464 ET-GP were characterised, where 74 (16%) triggered ≥30s AF/AT. Median 97 (IQR 55) sites were tested, identifying 19 (20%) ET-GP per patient. >30% of ET-GP were in the roof, mid-anterior wall, around all PV ostia except in the right inferior PV (RIPV) in the posterior wall. CONCLUSION: ET-GP can be identified by endocardial stimulation and their anatomical distribution, in contrast to AVD-GP, would be more likely to be affected by wide antral circumferential ablation. This may contribute to AF ablation outcomes.

14.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320942338, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787456

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the ability of a machine learning algorithm to identify patients at high risk of atrial fibrillation in primary care. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using the DISCOVER registry to validate an algorithm developed using a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) dataset. The validation dataset included primary care patients in London, England aged ≥30 years from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013, without a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in the prior 5 years. Algorithm performance metrics were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and number needed to screen (NNS). Subgroup analysis of patients aged ≥65 years was also performed. RESULTS: Of 2,542,732 patients in DISCOVER, the algorithm identified 604,135 patients suitable for risk assessment. Of these, 3.0% (17,880 patients) had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation recorded before study end. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.87, compared with 0.83 in algorithm development. The NNS was nine patients, matching the CPRD cohort. In patients aged ≥30 years, the algorithm correctly identified 99.1% of patients who did not have atrial fibrillation (NPV) and 75.0% of true atrial fibrillation cases (sensitivity). Among patients aged ≥65 years (n = 117,965), the NPV was 96.7% with 91.8% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This atrial fibrillation risk prediction algorithm, based on machine learning methods, identified patients at highest risk of atrial fibrillation. It performed comparably in a large, real-world population-based cohort and the developmental registry cohort. If implemented in primary care, the algorithm could be an effective tool for narrowing the population who would benefit from atrial fibrillation screening in the United Kingdom.

16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402067

RESUMO

AIMS: Conflicting data exist supporting differing mechanisms for sustaining ventricular fibrillation (VF), ranging from disorganised multiple-wavelet activation to organised rotational activities (RAs). Abnormal gap junction (GJ) coupling and fibrosis are important in initiation and maintenance of VF. We investigated whether differing ventricular fibrosis patterns and the degree of GJ coupling affected the underlying VF mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Optical mapping of 65 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts was performed to study VF mechanisms in control hearts with acute GJ modulation, and separately in three differing chronic ventricular fibrosis models; compact (CF), diffuse (DiF) and patchy (PF). VF dynamics were quantified with phase mapping and frequency dominance index (FDI) analysis, a power ratio of the highest amplitude dominant frequency in the cardiac frequency spectrum.Enhanced GJ coupling with rotigaptide (n = 10) progressively organised fibrillation in a concentration-dependent manner; increasing FDI (0nM: 0.53±0.04, 80nM: 0.78±0.03, p < 0.001), increasing RA sustained VF time (0nM:44±6%, 80nM: 94±2%, p < 0.001) and stabilised RAs (maximum rotations for a RA; 0nM:5.4±0.5, 80nM: 48.2±12.3, p < 0.001). GJ uncoupling with carbenoxolone progressively disorganised VF; the FDI decreased (0µM: 0.60±0.05, 50µM: 0.17±0.03, p < 0.001) and RA-sustained VF time decreased (0µM: 61±9%, 50µM: 3±2%, p < 0.001).In CF, VF activity was disorganised and the RA-sustained VF time was the lowest (CF: 27±7% versus PF: 75±5%, p < 0.001). Global fibrillatory organisation measured by FDI was highest in PF (PF: 0.67±0.05 versus CF: 0.33±0.03, p < 0.001). PF harboured the longest duration and most spatially stable RAs (patchy: 1411±266ms versus compact: 354±38ms, p < 0.001). DiF (n = 11) exhibited an intermediately organised VF pattern, sustained by a combination of multiple-wavelets and short-lived RAs. CONCLUSION: The degree of GJ coupling and pattern of fibrosis influences the mechanism sustaining VF. There is a continuous spectrum of organisation in VF, ranging between globally organised fibrillation sustained by stable RAs and disorganised, possibly multiple-wavelet driven fibrillation with no RAs. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Multiple competing mechanisms have been proposed for sustaining VF. We reframed conflicting mechanisms reported in sustaining fibrillation and defined them as part of a continuum of varying global organisation, with some sustained by stable rotationalactivities. The underlying cardiac electroarchitecture, namely gap junction coupling and fibrosis, were important determinants of the VF mechanism. Characterising the VF mechanism and its relationship to the cardiac electroarchitecture may facilitate a patient-tailored treatment approach towards VF prevention in VF survivors. Organised fibrillation sustained by stable rotational activities could be considered for targeted ablation. Disorganised fibrillation dynamics may be better suited for conventional pharmacotherapy.

17.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(3): e008237, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms sustaining myocardial fibrillation remain disputed, partly due to a lack of mapping tools that can accurately identify the mechanism with low spatial resolution clinical recordings. Granger causality (GC) analysis, an econometric tool for quantifying causal relationships between complex time-series, was developed as a novel fibrillation mapping tool and adapted to low spatial resolution sequentially acquired data. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) optical mapping was performed in Langendorff-perfused Sprague-Dawley rat hearts (n=18), where novel algorithms were developed using GC-based analysis to (1) quantify causal dependence of neighboring signals and plot GC vectors, (2) quantify global organization with the causality pairing index, a measure of neighboring causal signal pairs, and (3) localize rotational drivers (RDs) by quantifying the circular interdependence of neighboring signals with the circular interdependence value. GC-based mapping tools were optimized for low spatial resolution from downsampled optical mapping data, validated against high-resolution phase analysis and further tested in previous VF optical mapping recordings of coronary perfused donor heart left ventricular wedge preparations (n=12), and adapted for sequentially acquired intracardiac electrograms during human persistent atrial fibrillation mapping (n=16). RESULTS: Global VF organization quantified by causality pairing index showed a negative correlation at progressively lower resolutions (50% resolution: P=0.006, R2=0.38, 12.5% resolution, P=0.004, R2=0.41) with a phase analysis derived measure of disorganization, locations occupied by phase singularities. In organized VF with high causality pairing index values, GC vector mapping characterized dominant propagating patterns and localized stable RDs, with the circular interdependence value showing a significant difference in driver versus nondriver regions (0.91±0.05 versus 0.35±0.06, P=0.0002). These findings were further confirmed in human VF. In persistent atrial fibrillation, a positive correlation was found between the causality pairing index and presence of stable RDs (P=0.0005,R2=0.56). Fifty percent of patients had RDs, with a low incidence of 0.9±0.3 RDs per patient. CONCLUSIONS: GC-based fibrillation analysis can measure global fibrillation organization, characterize dominant propagating patterns, and map RDs using low spatial resolution sequentially acquired data.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16671, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723154

RESUMO

The analysis of complex mechanisms underlying ventricular fibrillation (VF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) requires sophisticated tools for studying spatio-temporal action potential (AP) propagation dynamics. However, fibrillation analysis tools are often custom-made or proprietary, and vary between research groups. With no optimal standardised framework for analysis, results from different studies have led to disparate findings. Given the technical gap, here we present a comprehensive framework and set of principles for quantifying properties of wavefront dynamics in phase-processed data recorded during myocardial fibrillation with potentiometric dyes. Phase transformation of the fibrillatory data is particularly useful for identifying self-perpetuating spiral waves or rotational drivers (RDs) rotating around a phase singularity (PS). RDs have been implicated in sustaining fibrillation, and thus accurate localisation and quantification of RDs is crucial for understanding specific fibrillatory mechanisms. In this work, we assess how variation of analysis parameters and thresholds in the tracking of PSs and quantification of RDs could result in different interpretations of the underlying fibrillation mechanism. These techniques have been described and applied to experimental AF and VF data, and AF simulations, and examples are provided from each of these data sets to demonstrate the range of fibrillatory behaviours and adaptability of these tools. The presented methodologies are available as an open source software and offer an off-the-shelf research toolkit for quantifying and analysing fibrillatory mechanisms.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
19.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(9): 1357-1367, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar electrogram voltage during sinus rhythm (VSR) has been used as a surrogate for atrial fibrosis in guiding catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), but the fixed rate and wavefront characteristics present during sinus rhythm may not accurately reflect underlying functional vulnerabilities responsible for AF maintenance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was determine whether, given adequate temporal sampling, the spatial distribution of mean AF voltage (VmAF) better correlates with delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-DE)-detected atrial fibrosis than VSR. METHODS: AF was mapped (8 seconds) during index ablation for persistent AF (20 patients) using a 20-pole catheter (660 ± 28 points/map). After cardioversion, VSR was mapped (557 ± 326 points/map). Electroanatomic and MRI-DE maps were co-registered in 14 patients. RESULTS: The time course of VmAF was assessed from 1-40 AF cycles (∼8 seconds) at 1113 locations. VmAF stabilized with sampling >4 seconds (mean voltage error 0.05 mV). Paired point analysis of VmAF from segments acquired 30 seconds apart (3667 sites; 15 patients) showed strong correlation (r = 0.95; P <.001). Delayed enhancement (DE) was assessed across the posterior left atrial (LA) wall, occupying 33% ± 13%. VmAF distributions were (median [IQR]) 0.21 [0.14-0.35] mV in DE vs 0.52 [0.34-0.77] mV in non-DE regions. VSR distributions were 1.34 [0.65-2.48] mV in DE vs 2.37 [1.27-3.97] mV in non-DE. VmAF threshold of 0.35 mV yielded sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 79% in detecting MRI-DE compared with 63% and 67%, respectively, for VSR (1.8-mV threshold). CONCLUSION: The correlation between low-voltage and posterior LA MRI-DE is significantly improved when acquired during AF vs sinus rhythm. With adequate sampling, mean AF voltage is a reproducible marker reflecting the functional response to the underlying persistent AF substrate.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas/métodos , Átrios do Coração , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Fibrose/complicações , Fibrose/diagnóstico , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(6): 705-715, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test specialized processing of laser Doppler signals for discriminating ventricular fibrillation (VF) from common causes of inappropriate therapies. BACKGROUND: Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies remain a clinically important problem associated with morbidity and mortality. Tissue perfusion biomarkers, implemented to assist automated diagnosis of VF, sometimes mistake artifacts and random noise for perfusion, which could lead to shocks being inappropriately withheld. METHODS: The study tested a novel processing algorithm that combines electrogram data and laser Doppler perfusion monitoring as a method for assessing circulatory status. Fifty patients undergoing VF induction during ICD implantation were recruited. Noninvasive laser Doppler and continuous electrograms were recorded during both sinus rhythm and VF. Two additional scenarios that might have led to inappropriate shocks were simulated for each patient: ventricular lead fracture and T-wave oversensing. The laser Doppler was analyzed using 3 methods for reducing noise: 1) running mean; 2) oscillatory height; and 3) a novel quantification of electromechanical coupling which gates laser Doppler relative to electrograms. In addition, the algorithm was tested during exercise-induced sinus tachycardia. RESULTS: Only the electromechanical coupling algorithm found a clear perfusion cut off between sinus rhythm and VF (sensitivity and specificity of 100%). Sensitivity and specificity remained at 100% during simulated lead fracture and electrogram oversensing. (Area under the curve running mean: 0.91; oscillatory height: 0.86; electromechanical coupling: 1.00). Sinus tachycardia did not cause false positive results. CONCLUSIONS: Quantifying the coupling between electrical and perfusion signals increases reliability of discrimination between VF and artifacts that ICDs may interpret as VF. Incorporating such methods into future ICDs may safely permit reductions of inappropriate shocks.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia , Falha de Equipamento , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Fibrilação Ventricular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Algoritmos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Taquicardia Sinusal
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