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2.
Pathology ; 52(1): 111-127, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767131

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-TNKLPD) are a group of uncommon disorders characterised by EBV infection of T- and NK-cells. As a group, EBV-TNKLPD are more commonly encountered in Asians and Native Americans from Central and South America compared to Western populations. They encompass a spectrum of entities that range from non-neoplastic lesions such as EBV-associated haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) to more chronic conditions with variable outcomes such as chronic active EBV infections (CAEBV) of T- and NK-cell type (cutaneous and systemic forms) and malignant diseases such as systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, and primary EBV-positive nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma. Due to their rarity, broad clinicopathological spectrum and significant morphological and immunophenotypic overlap, the diagnosis and precise classification of EBV-TNKLPD often pose a challenge to clinicians and pathologists. Correct classification of this group of rare diseases relies heavily on the age of onset, disease presentation, duration of symptoms and cell of origin (T- vs NK-cell lineage). In this review, we provide an update on the clinicopathological and molecular features of the various EBV-TNKLPD entities occurring in non-immunocompromised patients and present a practical algorithmic approach for the general pathologist who is confronted with these disorders in routine clinical practice.

3.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(2): 306-316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; nasal type) is an aggressive malignancy with a particularly high prevalence in Asian and Latin American populations. Epstein-Barr virus infection has a role in the pathogenesis of NKTCL, and HLA-DPB1 variants are risk factors for the disease. We aimed to identify additional novel genetic variants affecting risk of NKTCL. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of NKTCL in multiple populations from east Asia. We recruited a discovery cohort of 700 cases with NKTCL and 7752 controls without NKTCL of Han Chinese ancestry from 19 centres in southern, central, and northern regions of China, and four independent replication samples including 717 cases and 12 650 controls. Three of these independent samples (451 cases and 5301 controls) were from eight centres in the same regions of southern, central, and northern China, and the fourth (266 cases and 7349 controls) was from 11 centres in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea. All cases had primary NKTCL that was confirmed histopathologically, and matching with controls was based on geographical region and self-reported ancestry. Logistic regression analysis was done independently by geographical regions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses, to identify susceptibility loci. Bioinformatic approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci, binding motif and transcriptome analyses, and biological experiments were done to fine-map and explore the functional relevance of genome-wide association loci to the development of NKTCL. FINDINGS: Genetic data were gathered between Jan 1, 2008, and Jan 23, 2019. Meta-analysis of all samples (a total of 1417 cases and 20 402 controls) identified two novel loci significantly associated with NKTCL: IL18RAP on 2q12.1 (rs13015714; p=2·83 × 10-16; odds ratio 1·39 [95% CI 1·28-1·50]) and HLA-DRB1 on 6p21.3 (rs9271588; 9·35 × 10-26 1·53 [1·41-1·65]). Fine-mapping and experimental analyses showed that rs1420106 at the promoter of IL18RAP was highly correlated with rs13015714, and the rs1420106-A risk variant had an upregulatory effect on IL18RAP expression. Cell growth assays in two NKTCL cell lines (YT and SNK-6 cells) showed that knockdown of IL18RAP inhibited cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in NKTCL cells. Haplotype association analysis showed that haplotype 47F-67I was associated with reduced risk of NKTCL, whereas 47Y-67L was associated with increased risk of NKTCL. These two positions are component parts of the peptide-binding pocket 7 (P7) of the HLA-DR heterodimer, suggesting that these alterations might account for the association at HLA-DRB1, independent of the previously reported HLA-DPB1 variants. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the development of NKTCL by showing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation through the IL18-IL18RAP axis and antigen presentation involving HLA-DRB1, which might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Taken in combination with additional genetic and other risk factors, our results could potentially be used to stratify people at high risk of NKTCL for targeted prevention. FUNDING: Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program for Support of Top-Notch Young Professionals, Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, Tanoto Foundation, National Research Foundation Singapore, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Recruitment Program for Young Professionals of China, First Affiliated Hospital and Army Medical University, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Cancer Institute.

4.
Histopathology ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854007

RESUMO

AIMS: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a self-limited disease characterized by destruction of lymph node parenchyma. Few reports have assessed the immunohistologic features of KFD, and most reports employed limited antibody panels that lacked many of novel immunohistochemistry markers currently available. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reappraised the microanatomic distribution of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), follicular helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells, B-cells, follicular dendritic cell (FDC) meshworks, and histiocytes in lymph nodes involved by KFD using immunohistochemistry. The study group consisted of 138 KFD patients (89 women; 64.5%) with a median age of 27 years (range, 3-50 years). Cervical lymph nodes were most commonly involved, in 108 (78.3%) patients. The number of pDCs was increased, located predominantly around and within apoptotic areas and the paracortex, and tapering off within xanthomatous areas. pDCs formed sizeable tight clusters most notably around apoptotic/necrotic areas. T-cells consisted mostly of CD8-positive cells with predominant expression of T-cell receptor beta. There was a notable increase in CD8-positive T-cells within lymphoid follicles, and their numbers correlated with alterations in FDC meshworks (p<0.001). Follicular helper T-cells were decreased within distorted FDC meshworks. CD21 highlighted frequent distortion of FDC meshworks, even in lymph node tissue that was distant from apoptotic/necrotic areas. Distorted FDC meshworks spanned all morphologic patterns, and FDC meshwork characteristics (intact; distorted; remnant/nearly absent) correlated with morphologic patterns (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistologic landscape of KFD is complex and characterized by increased numbers of pDCs that frequently cluster around apoptotic/necrotic foci, increased cytotoxic T-cells, and substantial distortion of FDC meshworks.

5.
Blood ; 134(23): 2046-2058, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434700

RESUMO

Oncogenic EZH2 is overexpressed and extensively involved in the pathophysiology of different cancers including extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL). However, the mechanisms regarding EZH2 upregulation is poorly understood, and it still remains untargetable in NKTL. In this study, we examine EZH2 protein turnover in NKTL and identify MELK kinase as a regulator of EZH2 ubiquitination and turnover. Using quantitative mass spectrometry analysis, we observed a MELK-mediated increase of EZH2 S220 phosphorylation along with a concomitant loss of EZH2 K222 ubiquitination, suggesting a phosphorylation-dependent regulation of EZH2 ubiquitination. MELK inhibition through both chemical and genetic means led to ubiquitination and destabilization of EZH2 protein. Importantly, we determine that MELK is upregulated in NKTL, and its expression correlates with EZH2 protein expression as determined by tissue microarray derived from NKTL patients. FOXM1, which connected MELK to EZH2 signaling in glioma, was not involved in mediating EZH2 ubiquitination. Furthermore, we identify USP36 as the deubiquitinating enzyme that deubiquitinates EZH2 at K222. These findings uncover an important role of MELK and USP36 in mediating EZH2 stability in NKTL. Moreover, MELK overexpression led to decreased sensitivity to bortezomib treatment in NKTL based on deprivation of EZH2 ubiquitination. Therefore, modulation of EZH2 ubiquitination status by targeting MELK may be a new therapeutic strategy for NKTL patients with poor bortezomib response.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(13): 3214-3224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259656

RESUMO

Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) regulates the MYC-dependent kinome in aggressive B-cell lymphoma. However, the role of PLK1 and MYC toward proliferation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. We use multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry (fIHC) to evaluate the co-localization of MYC, PLK1 and Ki67 to study their association with proliferation in DLBCL. The majority (98%, 95% CI 95-100%) of MYC/PLK1-double positive tumor cells expressed Ki67, underscoring the key role of the MYC/PLK1 circuit in proliferation. However, only 38% (95% CI 23-40%) and 51% (95% CI 46-51%) of Ki67-positive cells expressed MYC and PLK1, respectively. Notably, 40% (95% CI 26-43%) of Ki67-positive cells are MYC- and PLK-negative. A stronger correlation exists between PLK1 and Ki67 expression (R = 0.74, p < .001) than with MYC and Ki67 expression (R = 0.52, p < .001). Overall, the results indicate that PLK1 has a higher association than MYC in DLBCL proliferation and there are mechanisms besides MYC and PLK1 influencing DLBCL proliferation.

7.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 33, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935402

RESUMO

Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Although L-asparaginase-based chemotherapy has resulted in improved response rates, relapse occurs in up to 50% of patients with disseminated disease. There is hence an urgent need for effective targeted therapy, especially for patients with relapsed or refractory disease. Novel insights gleaned from high-throughput molecular and genomic profiling studies in recent years have contributed significantly to the understanding of the molecular biology of ENKTL, which exemplifies many of the hallmarks of cancer. Deregulated pro-proliferative signaling pathways, such as the Janus-associated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), Aurora kinase, MYC, and NF-κB, have been identified as potential therapeutic targets. The discovery of the non-canonical function of EZH2 as a pro-proliferative transcriptional co-activator has shed further light on the pathogenesis of ENKTL. Loss of key tumor suppressor genes located on chromosome 6q21 also plays an important role. The best-studied examples include PR domain zinc finger protein 1(PRDM1), protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK), and FOXO3. Promoter hypermethylation has been shown to result in the downregulation of other tumor suppressor genes in ENKTL, which may be potentially targeted through hypomethylating agents. Deregulation of apoptosis through p53 mutations and upregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, survivin, may provide a further growth advantage to this tumor. A deranged DNA damage response as a result of the aberration of ataxia telangiectasia-related (ATR) kinases can lead to significant genomic instability and may contribute to chemoresistance of ENKTL. Recently, immune evasion has emerged as a critical pathway for survival in ENKTL and may be a consequence of HLA dysregulation or STAT3-driven upregulation of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Immunotherapy via inhibition of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 checkpoint signaling holds great promise as a novel therapeutic option. In this review, we present an overview of the key molecular and pathogenic pathways in ENKTL, organized using the framework of the "hallmarks of cancer" as described by Hanahan and Weinberg, with a focus on those with the greatest translational potential.

8.
J Vis Exp ; (143)2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688307

RESUMO

Immunohistochemical (IHC) methods for the in-situ analysis of protein expression by light microscopy are a powerful tool for both research and diagnostic purposes. However, the visualization and quantification of multiple antigens in a single tissue section using conventional chromogenic IHC is challenging. Multiplexed imaging is especially relevant in lymphoma research and diagnostics, where markers have to be interpreted in the context of a complex tumor microenvironment. Here we describe a protocol for multiplexed fluorescent IHC staining to enable the quantitative assessment of multiple targets in specific cell types of interest in lymphoma.The method covers aspects of antibody validation, antibody optimization, the multiplex optimization with markers of lymphoma subtypes, the staining of tissue microarray (TMA) slides, and the scanning of the slides, followed by data analysis, with specific reference to lymphoma. Using this method, scores for both the mean intensity of a marker of interest and the percentage positivity are generated to facilitate further quantitative analysis. Multiplexing minimizes sample utilization and provides spatial information for each marker of interest.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfoma/fisiopatologia , Microscopia/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Humanos
9.
Blood Cancer J ; 8(11): 98, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341277

RESUMO

Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) limits the efficacy of cytarabine (ara-C) used in AML by hydrolyzing its active metabolite ara-CTP and thus represents a promising therapeutic target. SAMHD1 has also been implicated in DNA damage repair that may impact DNA damage-inducing therapies such as anthracyclines, during induction therapy. To determine whether SAMHD1 limits ara-C efficacy during induction or consolidation therapy, SAMHD1 protein levels were assessed in two patient cohorts of de novo AML from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (USA) and the National University Hospital (Singapore), respectively, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays. SAMHD1 was expressed at a variable level by AML blasts but not in a broad range of normal hematopoietic cells in reactive bone marrows. A sizeable patient subset with low SAMHD1 expression (<25% of positive blasts) was identified, which was significantly associated with longer event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival in patients receiving high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) during consolidation. Therefore, evaluation of SAMHD1 expression level in AML blasts at diagnosis, may stratify patient groups for future clinical trials combining HDAC with novel SAMHD1 inhibitors as consolidation therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Proteína 1 com Domínio SAM e Domínio HD/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Medula Óssea/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteína 1 com Domínio SAM e Domínio HD/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Blood ; 132(12): 1304-1317, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061158

RESUMO

DNA alterations have been extensively reported in multiple myeloma (MM); however, they cannot yet fully explain all the biological and molecular abnormalities in MM, which remains to this day an incurable disease with eventual emergence of refractory disease. Recent years have seen abnormalities at the RNA levels being reported to possess potential biological relevance in cancers. ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing is an important posttranscriptional mechanism in human physiology, and the biological implication of its abnormality, especially at the global level, is underexplored in MM. In this study, we define the biological implications of A-to-I editing and how it contributes to MM pathogenesis. Here, we identified that the MM transcriptome is aberrantly hyperedited because of the overexpression of ADAR1. These events were associated with patients' survival independent of 1q21 amplifications and could affect patients' responsiveness to different treatment regimes. Our functional assays established ADAR1 to be oncogenic, driving cellular growth and proliferation in an editing-dependent manner. In addition, we identified NEIL1 (base-excision repair gene) as an essential and a ubiquitously edited ADAR1 target in MM. The recoded NEIL1 protein showed defective oxidative damage repair capacity and loss-of-function properties. Collectively, our data demonstrated that ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing is both clinically and biologically relevant in MM. These data unraveled novel insights into MM molecular pathogenesis at the global RNA level.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Prognóstico , Edição de RNA
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966370

RESUMO

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. While the introduction of L-asparaginase in the treatment of this disease has significantly improved the prognosis, the outcome of patients relapsing after asparaginase-based chemotherapy, which occurs in up to 50% of patients with disseminated disease, remains dismal. There is hence an urgent need for effective targeted therapy especially in the relapsed/refractory setting. Gene expression profiling studies have provided new perspectives on the molecular biology, ontogeny and classification of ENKTL and further identified dysregulated signaling pathways such as Janus associated kinase (/Signal Transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT), Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), Aurora Kinase and NF-κB, which are under evaluation as therapeutic targets. Copy number analyses have highlighted potential tumor suppressor genes such as PR Domain Zinc Finger Protein 1 (PRDM1) and protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK) while next generation sequencing studies have identified recurrently mutated genes in pro-survival and anti-apoptotic pathways. The discovery of epigenetic dysregulation and aberrant microRNA activity has broadened our understanding of the biology of ENKTL. Importantly, immunotherapy via Programmed Cell Death -1 (PD-1) and Programmed Cell Death Ligand1 (PD-L1) checkpoint signaling inhibition is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in ENKTL. Herein, we present an overview of the molecular biology and genomic landscape of ENKTL with a focus on the most promising translational opportunities.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/metabolismo , Animais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo
12.
Blood ; 132(11): 1146-1158, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054295

RESUMO

Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in STAT3 and TP53 (15%), followed by JAK3 and JAK1 (6%) and SOCS1 (4%). A high prevalence of STAT3 mutation (21%) was observed specifically in NKTL. Novel STAT3 mutations (p.D427H, E616G, p.E616K, and p.E696K) were shown to increase STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in the absence of cytokine, in which p.E616K induced programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by robust binding of activated STAT3 to the PD-L1 gene promoter. Consistent with these findings, PD-L1 was overexpressed in NKTL cell lines harboring hotspot STAT3 mutations, and similar findings were observed by the overexpression of p.E616K and p.E616G in the STAT3 wild-type NKTL cell line. Conversely, STAT3 silencing and inhibition decreased PD-L1 expression in STAT3 mutant NKTL cell lines. In NKTL tumors, STAT3 activation correlated significantly with PD-L1 expression. We demonstrated that STAT3 activation confers high PD-L1 expression, which may promote tumor immune evasion. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and STAT3 inhibitors might be a promising therapeutic approach for NKTL, and possibly PTCL.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
14.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 405, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705877

RESUMO

Epstein Barr virus positive T/NK lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-TNKLPD) comprise a spectrum of neoplasms ranging from cutaneous lymphoid proliferations to aggressive lymphomas. The spectrum includes extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia, and a group of EBV-TNKLPDs affecting children which are poorly characterized in terms of their molecular biology. Gene and miRNA expression profiling has elucidated RNA abnormalities which impact on disease biology, classification, and treatment of EBV-TNKLPD. Pathways promoting proliferation, such as Janus associated kinase/ Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) and nuclear factor kB, are upregulated in ENKTL while upregulation of survivin and deregulation of p53 inhibit apoptosis in both ENKTL and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). Importantly, immune evasion via the programmed cell death-1 and its ligand, PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint pathway, has been demonstrated to play an important role in ENKTL. Other pathogenic mechanisms involve EBV genes, microRNA deregulation, and a variety of other oncogenic signaling pathways. The identification of EBV-positive Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) as a tumor with a distinct molecular signature and clinical characteristics highlights the important contribution of the knowledge derived from gene and miRNA expression profiling in disease classification. Novel therapeutic targets identified through the study of RNA abnormalities provide hope for patients with EBV-TNKLPD, which often has a poor prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibition and JAK inhibition in particular have shown promise and are being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the key transcriptomic aberrancies in EBV-TNKLPD and discuss their translational potential.

15.
Haematologica ; 103(2): 278-287, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097495

RESUMO

The molecular biology of primary nodal T- and NK-cell lymphoma and its relationship with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the relationship between nodal and extranodal Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphomas using gene expression profiling and copy number aberration analyses. We performed gene expression profiling and copy number aberration analysis on 66 cases of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK-cell lymphoma from nodal and extranodal sites, and correlated the molecular signatures with clinicopathological features. Three distinct molecular clusters were identified with one enriched for nodal presentation and loss of 14q11.2 (TCRA loci). T/NK-cell lymphomas with a nodal presentation (nodal-group) were significantly associated with older age, lack of nasal involvement, and T-cell lineage compared to those with an extranodal presentation (extranodal-group). On multivariate analysis, nodal presentation was an independent factor associated with short survival. Comparing the molecular signatures of the nodal and extranodal groups it was seen that the former was characterized by upregulation of PD-L1 and T-cell-related genes, including CD2 and CD8, and downregulation of CD56, consistent with the CD8+/CD56-immunophenotype. PD-L1 and CD2 protein expression levels were validated using multiplexed immunofluorescence. Interestingly, nodal group lymphomas were associated with 14q11.2 loss which correlated with loss of TCR loci and T-cell origin. Overall, our results suggest that T/NK-cell lymphoma with nodal presentation is distinct and deserves to be classified separately from T/NK-cell lymphoma with extranodal presentation. Upregulation of PD-L1 indicates that it may be possible to use anti-PD1 immunotherapy in this distinctive entity. In addition, loss of 14q11.2 may be a potentially useful diagnostic marker of T-cell lineage.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem da Célula , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/classificação , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/virologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/classificação , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deleção de Sequência/genética
16.
SLAS Technol ; 23(3): 252-258, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241019

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides clinically useful information on protein expression in cancer cells. However, quantification of colocalizing signals using conventional IHC and visual scores is challenging. Here we describe the application of quantitative immunofluorescence in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma characterized by cellular heterogeneity that impedes IHC interpretation and quantification. A multiplexed immunofluorescence (IF) panel comprising T- and B-lymphocyte markers along with T-follicular helper (TFH) markers was validated for appropriate cellular localization in sections of benign tonsillar tissue and tested in two samples of AITL, using a Vectra microscope for spectral imaging and InForm software for analysis. We measured the percentage positivity of the TFH markers, BCL6 and PD1, in AITL CD4-positive cells to be approximately 26% and 45%, with 12% coexpressing both markers. The pattern is similar to CD4 cells within the germinal center of normal tonsils and clearly distinct from extragerminal CD4 cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of automated and quantitative imaging of a multiplexed panel of cellular markers in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of a cellularly heterogenous lymphoma. Multiplexed IF allows the simultaneous scoring of markers in malignant and immune cell populations and could potentially increase accuracy for establishment of diagnostic thresholds.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfoma de Células T/diagnóstico , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Tonsila Palatina/metabolismo , Inclusão em Parafina
17.
Case Rep Med ; 2017: 1251950, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757874

RESUMO

Lymphoma may involve the adrenal glands, but primary lymphoma is rare. Only a few cases have been reported in medical literature. Primary adrenal lymphoma is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We here present a case of a middle-aged female who presented with persistent fever for three weeks. She also reported significant weight loss of more than 10 kgs over the duration of three months. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen and pelvis demonstrated bilateral adrenal masses. She underwent short Synacthen test which showed evidence of adrenal insufficiency. She underwent CT-guided adrenal gland biopsy. Histology of adrenal gland biopsy showed features consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She was started on R-CHOP chemotherapy and had a good clinical response and remained in complete remission for five months after chemotherapy.

19.
Mol Cancer Res ; 15(3): 294-303, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011885

RESUMO

PRL-3 (PTP4A3), a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is also upregulated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is associated with poor prognosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, constitutive expression of PRL-3 in human AML cells sustains leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, PRL-3 phosphatase activity dependently upregulates LIN28B, a stem cell reprogramming factor, which in turn represses the let-7 mRNA family, inducing a stem cell-like transcriptional program. Notably, elevated levels of LIN28B protein independently associate with worse survival in AML patients. Thus, these results establish a novel signaling axis involving PRL-3/LIN28B/let-7, which confers stem cell-like properties to leukemia cells that is important for leukemogenesis.Implications: The current study offers a rationale for targeting PRL-3 as a therapeutic approach for a subset of AML patients with poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res; 15(3); 294-303. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/genética , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
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