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1.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 106118, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738305

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly advancing across the globe despite drastic public and personal health measures. Antivirals and nutritional supplements have been proposed as potentially useful against SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19), but few have been clinically established. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that is orally available as a nutritional supplement and has established in vitro anti-viral efficacy against a wide range of virus including SARS-CoV, a closely related corona virus to SARS-CoV-2 (virus that causes COVID-19). Furthermore, Lf possesses unique immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects that may be especially relevant to the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19 cases. We review the underlying biological mechanisms of Lf as an antiviral and immune regulator, and propose its unique potential as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. We hope that further research and development of Lf nutritional supplementation would establish its role for COVID-19.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727016

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a known toxic human carcinogen and can be detoxified by laccases, which are multicopper oxidases that convert several environmental pollutants and toxins. In this study, a new laccase that could catalyze AFB1 degradation was purified and identified from the white-rot fungus Cerrena unicolor 6884. The laccase was purified using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and anion exchange chromatography, and then identified as Lac 2 through zymogram and UHPLC-MS/MS based on the Illumina transcriptome analysis of C. unicolor 6884. Six putative laccase protein sequences were obtained via functional annotation. The lac 2 cDNA encoding a full-length protein of 512 amino acids was cloned and sequenced to expand the fungus laccase gene library for AFB1 detoxification. AFB1 degradation by Lac 2 was conducted in vitro at pH 7.0 and 45 °C for 24 h. The half-life of AFB1 degradation catalyzed by Lac 2 was 5.16 h. Acetosyringone (AS), Syrinagaldehyde (SA) and [2,2' -azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS) at 1 mM concentration seemed to be similar mediators for strongly enhancing AFB1 degradation by Lac 2. The product of AFB1 degradation catalyzed by Lac 2 was traced and identified to be Aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1) based on mass spectrometry data. These findings are promising for a possible application of Lac 2 as a new aflatoxin oxidase in degrading AFB1 present in food and feeds.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 158: 1125-1134, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360969

RESUMO

Chitinases play an important role in the process of chitin bioavailability. In this study, we cloned a new chitinase gene and characterized its recombinant protein. The new 1251 bp gene of chitinase (ChiT-7) was cloned from the metagenome of the mangrove tidal flat soil in the city of Zhangzhou in Fujian Province (China) by genome walking. The gene encoded a mature protein with 381 amino acids, which manifested certain sequence similarity (59% identity) to characterized GH18 chitinases. The mature protein of ChiT-7 was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). After purification, the specific activity of the recombinant enzyme was 0.63 U/mg at the optimal pH of 6.0 and the optimal temperature of 45 °C. The rChiT-7 was active over a wide pH range, and the residual enzyme activity reached 80% or higher at 30 °C-50 °C. rChiT-7 hydrolyzed colloidal chitin with (GlcNAc)2 and GlcNAc as the main final products. Structural analysis of ChiT-7 indicated that ChiT-7 could be a processive chitinase. rChiT-7 manifested characteristics analogous to those of fungi and actinomycetes and exhibited sequence homology.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(11): 4675-4703, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274562

RESUMO

This article reviews mushrooms with anti-breast cancer activity. The mushrooms covered which are better known include the following: button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, Brazilian mushroom Agaricus blazei, Amauroderma rugosum, stout camphor fungus Antrodia camphorata, Jew's ear (black) fungus or black wood ear fungus Auricularia auricula-judae, reishi mushroom or Lingzhi Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma sinense, maitake mushroom or sheep's head mushroom Grifola frondosa, lion's mane mushroom or monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum, brown beech mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus, sulfur polypore mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus, Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom), Phellinus linteus (Japanese "meshimakobu," Chinese "song gen," Korean "sanghwang," American "black hoof mushroom"), abalone mushroom Pleurotus abalonus, king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii, oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, tuckahoe or Fu Ling Poria cocos, and split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Antineoplastic effectiveness in human clinical trials and mechanism of anticancer action have been reported for Antrodia camphorata, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, and Lentinula edodes.

5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(10): 4211-4226, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193575

RESUMO

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) consist of three varieties. Type 1 RIPs are single-chained and approximately 30-kDa in molecular weight. Type 2 RIPs are double-chained and composed of a type 1 RIP chain and a lectin chain. Type III RIPs, such as maize b-32 barley and JIP60 which are produced as single-domain proenzymes, possess an N-terminal domain corresponding to the A domain of RIPs and fused to a C-terminal domain. In addition to the aforementioned three types of RIPs originating from flowering plants, there are recently discovered proteins and peptides with ribosome-inactivating and protein synthesis inhibitory activities but which are endowed with characteristics such as molecular weights distinctive from those of the regular RIPs. These new/unusual RIPs discussed in the present review encompass metazoan RIPs from Anopheles and Culex mosquitos, antimicrobial peptides derived from RIP of the pokeweed Phytolacca dioica, maize RIP (a type III RIP derived from a precursor form), RIPs from the garden pea and the kelp. In addition, RIPs with a molecular weight smaller than those of regular type 1 RIPs are produced by plants in the Cucurbitaceae family including the bitter gourd, bottle gourd, sponge gourd, ridge gourd, wax gourd, hairy gourd, pumpkin, and Chinese cucumber. A small type II RIP from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seeds and a snake gourd type II RIP with its catalytic chain cleaved into two have been reported. RIPs produced from mushrooms including the golden needle mushroom, king tuber mushroom, straw mushroom, and puffball mushroom are also discussed in addition to a type II RIP from the mushroom Polyporus umbellatus. Bacterial (Spiroplasma) RIPs associated with the fruitfly, Shiga toxin, and Streptomyces coelicolor RIP are also dealt with. The aforementioned proteins display a diversity of molecular weights, amino acid sequences, and mechanisms of action. Some of them are endowed with exploitable antipathogenic activities.

6.
AMB Express ; 9(1): 194, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797089

RESUMO

In this study, a single component paclitaxel was obtained from fermentation broth by molecular imprinting technique, and its antiviral, antitumor and immunomodulatory activities were studied. The results showed that paclitaxel had a good inhibitory activity on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and showed a concentration- dependent relationship with an IC50 of about 15 µg/mL in the sulforhodamine B assay. At the same time, paclitaxel exerted a weak inhibitory activity on cervical cancer Hela cells. In addition, paclitaxel not only inhibited the invasion of HIV-1 pseudovirus into cells, but also exhibited inhibitory activity to a certain extent after viral invasion of the cells. At a paclitaxel concentration of 20 µg/mL, the inhibition of HIV-1 pseudovirus reached about 66%. The inhibition of HIV-1 protease activity was concentration-dependent. At a concentration of 20 µg/mL, the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on HIV-1 protease was similar to that of the positive control pepstatin A, being 15.8%. The HIV-1 integrase inhibiting activity of paclitaxel was relatively weak. Paclitaxel significantly up-regulated the expression of interleukin-6.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17128, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748652

RESUMO

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex three-dimensional structural deformity of the spine with unknown etiology. Although leptin has been postulated as one of the etiologic factors in AIS, its effects on osteoblastic activity remain unknown. Herein, we conducted this study to investigate whether there are abnormal functional responses to leptin and abnormal expression of leptin receptor in AIS osteoblasts. In vitro assays were performed with osteoblasts isolated from 12 severe AIS girls and 6 non-AIS controls. The osteoblasts were exposed to different concentrations of leptin (0, 10, 100, 1000 ng/mL). The effects of leptin on cell proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were determined. Protein expressions of leptin receptor (LEP-R) under basal and osteogenic conditions were also evaluated by Western blot. Our results showed that leptin significantly stimulated osteoblasts from non-AIS subjects to proliferate, differentiate and mineralized. However, in the AIS group, the stimulatory effects of leptin on cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization were not observed. In addition, no statistically significant difference in the expression of leptin receptor under both basal and osteogenic conditions was found between AIS and control group. In conclusion, these findings might help to explain the low bone mass and deranged bone quality that is clinically associated with AIS girls.

8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(12): 4649-4677, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062053

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNAi molecule composed of hundreds to thousands of nucleotides. There are several major types of functional lncRNAs which participate in some important cellular pathways. LncRNA-RNA interaction controls mRNA translation and degradation or serves as a microRNA (miRNA) sponge for silencing. LncRNA-protein interaction regulates protein activity in transcriptional activation and silencing. LncRNA guide, decoy, and scaffold regulate transcription regulators of enhancer or repressor region of the coding genes for alteration of expression. LncRNA plays a role in cellular responses including the following activities: regulation of chromatin structural modification and gene expression for epigenetic and cell function control, promotion of hematopoiesis and maturation of immunity, cell programming in stem cell and somatic cell development, modulation of pathogen infection, switching glycolysis and lipid metabolism, and initiation of autoimmune diseases. LncRNA, together with miRNA, are considered the critical elements in cancer development. It has been demonstrated that tumorigenesis could be driven by homeostatic imbalance of lncRNA/miRNA/cancer regulatory factors resulting in biochemical and physiological alterations inside the cells. Cancer-driven lncRNAs with other cellular RNAs, epigenetic modulators, or protein effectors may change gene expression level and affect the viability, immortality, and motility of the cells that facilitate cancer cell cycle rearrangement, angiogenesis, proliferation, and metastasis. Molecular medicine will be the future trend for development. LncRNA/miRNA could be one of the potential candidates in this category. Continuous studies in lncRNA functional discrepancy between cancer cells and normal cells and regional and rational genetic differences of lncRNA profiles are critical for clinical research which is beneficial for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Transcriptoma
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6202, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996275

RESUMO

It is well-documented that melatonin deficiency has been linked to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. In this study, we intended to apply melatonin in melatonin-deficient mice to ascertain whether melatonin could reduce the incidence/severity of scoliosis, and investigate the role of melatonin on bone mineral density in scoliosis. A total of 80 mice were divided into 4 groups: 20 quadrupedal mice and 20 bipedal mice served as controls; 20 quadrupedal and 20 bipedal mice received oral melatonin (8 mg/kg BW) daily. After 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th weeks of treatment, radiographs and in vivo micro-CT were used to determine the incidence of scoliosis and bone qualities, respectively. Upon sacrifice, the levels of melatonin were measured in each group. At 20th week, the occurrence of scoliosis was 80%, 30%, 22% and 5% in bipedal, quadrupedal, bipedal + melatonin and quadrupedal + melatonin group, respectively. The trabecular bone quality of the vertebral body was significantly ameliorated in the melatonin-treated bipedal models. Likewise, the number of osteoclasts was significantly less in those treated with melatonin. Our results indicated that melatonin deficiency may be crucial for scoliotic development, and restoration of melatonin levels can prevent scoliotic development with the improvement in bone density.

10.
Peptides ; 117: 170079, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959143

RESUMO

Eight new peptide conjugates composed of modified bovine lactoferricin truncated analogues (LFcinB) and one of the three antimicrobials - ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVX), and fluconazole (FLC) - were synthesized. Four different linkers were applied to connect a peptide and an antimicrobial agent. The FLC-containing peptidic conjugates were synthesized using the "click chemistry" method. This novel approach is reported here for the first time. Unlike their components, CIP- and LVX-based conjugates exerted activity against Candida yeast. Similarly to the constituent peptides, synthesized conjugates showed activity against Gram-positive bacteria, especially S. epidermidis. The most active were the conjugates containing CIP linked to the peptide by the redox-sensitive disulfide bridge. Our results show a significant role of a linker between antimicrobial agent and a peptide. This was also confirmed by the lack of synergistic effects on the antimicrobial activity of the constituent compounds. Moreover, cytotoxicity assays revealed that the proposed conjugates cause a comparatively low cytotoxic effect in reference to antibiotics widely used in therapies. Therefore, they can be deliberated as attractive leading structures for the development of drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactoferrina , Peptídeos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células A549 , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lactoferrina/química , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia
11.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(3): 409-418, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diversity of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanase genes in the sediment of soda lake Dabusu by using high-throughput amplicon sequencing based on the Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. RESULTS: A total of 227,420 clean reads, representing approximately 49.5 M bp, were obtained. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) classification, with a 95% sequence identity cut-off, resulted in 467 OTUs with 392 annotated as GH10 xylanase, exhibiting 35-99% protein sequence identity with their closest-related xylanases in GenBank. Above 75% of the total OTUs demonstrated less than 80% identity with known xylanases. In addition, xylanases derived from the sediment were found to be affiliated to 12 different phyla, with Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Basidiomycota being the dominant phyla. Moreover, barcode sequence had a major effect on abundance with only a minor effect on diversity. CONCLUSIONS: High-throughput amplicon sequencing offers insight into xylanase gene diversity at a substantially higher resolution and lesser cost than library cloning and Sanger sequencing, facilitating a more thorough understanding of xylanase distribution and ecology.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lagos/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Xilosidases/genética , Bactérias/enzimologia , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Fungos/enzimologia , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência
12.
Phytomedicine ; 53: 18-27, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for lung cancer, but chemoresistance and adverse effects especially cardiotoxicity limit its efficacy. PURPOSE: The efficacy of combination treatment of dendrobine, a plant alkaloid isolated from Dendrobium nobile, with cisplatin was examined as a possible anti-non-small cell lung cancer strategy. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of dendrobine and cisplatin against A549 lung cancer cells was analyzed by MTT and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V/PI double staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were assessed by western blotting and qPCR analysis. In vivo efficacy was determined using A549 xenograft in nude mice. JNK and Bim inhibition were achieved by siRNA knockdown and/or chemical inhibition. Cardiotoxicity was assessed by serum creatine phosphokinase activity assay. RESULTS: Dendrobine induced apoptotic cell death through mitochondrial-mediated pathway. Combination treatment of dendrobine with cisplatin showed enhanced cytotoxicity through stimulation of JNK/p38 stress signaling pathways and, consequently, the induction of apoptosis involving pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bim. In addition, dendrobine attenuated the body weight reduction and cardiotoxicity induced by cisplatin in nude mice. CONCLUSION: The combination treatment showed enhanced anticancer activity toward non-small cell lung cancer cells without aggravating the cardiotoxic effects of cisplatin suggesting that the combination strategy deserves further investigation for human lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Alcaloides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(2): 335-359, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714133

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one type of neurodegenerative diseases, which is prevalent in the elderly. Beta-amyloid (Aß) plaques and phosphorylated tau-induced neurofibrillary tangles are two pathological hallmarks of this disease and the corresponding pathological pathways of these hallmarks are considered as the therapeutic targets. There are many drugs scheduled for pre-clinical and clinical trial that target to inhibit the initiators of pathological Aß and tau aggregates as well as critical Aß secretases and kinases in tau hyperphosphorylation. In addition, studies in disease gene variations, and detection of key prognostic effectors in early development are also important for AD control. The discovery of potential drug targets contributed to targeted therapy in a stage-dependent manner, However, there are still some issues that cause concern such as the low bioavailability and low efficacy of candidate drugs from clinical trial reports. Therefore, modification of drug candidates and development of delivery agents are essential and critical. With other medical advancements like cell replacement therapy, there is hope for the cure of Alzheimer's disease in the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Amiloide/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/imunologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Fosforilação , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas tau/imunologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
14.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 231-239, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895241

RESUMO

The genus Panax consists of a group of prized medicinal herbs. Major members of the Panax genus include P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. vietnamensis. They possess various bioactive constituents such as ginsenosides, saponins, polysaccharides and proteins. Many of them were reported to show beneficial effects on human health. Ginsenosides and saponins of ginsengs caught the sight of most researchers. Precise investigations revealed their roles on improvement of the functioning of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, and other functions. In contrast, our knowledge of the bioactive Panax proteins is relatively limited. A number of proteins from P. ginseng, the most valuable member of Panax species, have been investigated and proved to be beneficial to our body. Meanwhile, a few bioactive P. notoginseng proteins, such as ribonucleases and antifungal proteins, have been characterized and reported. We summarize herein the proteins present in P. notoginseng that have been identified, and try to compare them with those from other Panax species with a similar structure or bioactivity, and conclude whether the proteins in P. notoginseng have any distinctive features.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng/química , Proteínas de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia
15.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 220-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895242

RESUMO

Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins of non-immune origin which have at least one noncatalytic domain that bind reversibly to specific mono or oligosaccharides. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of medicinal practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than thousands of years. Plant materials which are commonly used in TCM as a complementary or alternative for Western medical treatments contain a considerable number of important lectins. These lectins have been reported to have various applications and uses such as cancer treatment, glycoconjugate research, biomarker development, and others. Here, we summarize the available literature related to lectins from TCM and recent trends in their potential biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Lectinas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Animais , Glicoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Lectinas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
16.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 265-276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895244

RESUMO

A variety of fungi, plants, and their different tissues are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to improve health, and some of them are recommended for dietary therapy. Many of these plants and fungi contain antifungal proteins and peptides which suppress spore germination and hyphal growth in phytopathogenic fungi. The aim of this article is to review antifungal proteins produced by medicinal plants and fungi used in Chinese medicine which also possess anticancer and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enzyme inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Antifúngicos , Antineoplásicos , Proteínas Fúngicas , Proteínas de Plantas , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia
17.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 196-219, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895245

RESUMO

For centuries, mushrooms have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine in Asia. Apart from polysaccharides and some small-molecule components, such as flavones, polyphenols and terpenes, mushrooms produce a large number of pharmaceutically active proteins, which have become popular sources of natural antitumor, antimicrobial, immunoenhancing agents. These bioactive proteins include lectins, laccases, Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs), nucleases, and Fungal Immunomodulatory Proteins (FIPs). The review is to summarize the characterstics of structure and bioactivities involved in antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and immunoenhancing activities of proteins from edible mushrooms, to better understand their mechanisms, and to direct research.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Proteínas Fúngicas , Agaricales/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Humanos , Fitoterapia
18.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 277-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932033

RESUMO

We discuss the diverse biological activities, therapeutic potential, and clinical applications of peptides and proteins isolated from various yams species including Dioscorea opposita Thunb (Chinese yam), D alata, D japonica (Japanese yam), D pseudojaponica, D batatas (Korea yam), and D cayenensis. Yam peptides and proteins have many pharmacological activities including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, estrogen-stimulating, osteogenic, angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibiting, carbonic anhydrase and trypsin inhibiting, chitinase, anti-insect, anti-dust mite, lectin, and anti-proliferative activities. Yam peptides and proteins have therapeutic potential for treating cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, cancers, aging disorders, menopause, and osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Peptídeos , Fitoterapia , Proteínas de Plantas , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia
19.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(3): 296-301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932035

RESUMO

Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a common vegetable in Asia and it is distinctive for its bitter taste. As an ingredient in folk medicine, research from different laboratories in recent years supports its potential medicinal applications with anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV activities in both in vitro and animal studies. In this short review, we summarize herein the recent progress in the antitumor aspect of bitter melon with a focus on the underlying molecular mechanisms. Further mechanistic studies as well as clinical trials are necessary to further verify its medicinal applications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Momordica charantia/química , Plantas Medicinais , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Fitoterapia
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17630, 2018 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514871

RESUMO

Mercury is considered to be "a global pollutant" and raises concern worldwide. Once mercury enters the body, it will be distributed all over the body but will accumulate in the brain, kidney and liver. To date, no substance originating from edible fungi capable of adsorbing mercury has been reported. We found that the mushroom Grifola frondosa exhibited mercury adsorption capacity. A polysaccharide-peptide (GFPP), displaying the unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of APPGMHQKQQ and 7 partial sequences with high reliability obtained by LC-MS/MS, was isolated by hot-water extraction of its fruiting bodies followed by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Two rat models were employed to determine the dose and the duration of HgCl2 treatment (given by acute administration or continuous treatment) to test if G. frondosa could promote mercury elimination. For rats subjected to acute treatment with HgCl2, both GFPP and G. frondosa fruiting bodies (GFFF) could accelerate the decline of blood mercury level, which fell precipitously by 50% on the second day. GFPP and GFFF also promoted elimination of the burden of mercury in the liver and kidneys. For rats receiving continuous HgCl2 treatment, G. frondosa prevented the progressive increase of blood mercury level, and kept the blood mercury level within a relatively stable range.


Assuntos
Grifola/química , Cloreto de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Carpóforos/química , Cloreto de Mercúrio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Mercúrio/sangue , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Ligação Proteica , Proteoglicanas/administração & dosagem , Proteoglicanas/genética , Proteoglicanas/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resultado do Tratamento
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