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1.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125452, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821925

RESUMO

Absence of sludge deflocculation under prolonged (24 h or longer) conditions with dissolved oxygen (DO) less than 0.5 mg L⁻1 was recently reported. The reduced aerobic microbial activity, was speculated, had been compensated by the activity of other bacterial (i.e. facultative) communities. To assess such a compensation mechanism and to better evaluate impact of overall microbial activity on the flocculation process, SBR sludge samples were inhibited by using sodium azide under various DO conditions. Sludge deflocculated only in the presence of sodium azide, regardless of DO conditions. This was linked to sodium azide's inhibitory effects on the microbes as indicated by the reduced ammonium and DOC removals. Extracellular potassium level in the mixed liquor of azide spiked samples also indicated simultaneous cell lysis. Fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM) analysis of the extracted bound EPS and fluorescence quenching based interaction studies indicated sodium azide had interacted with the EPS components, and especially with the bound EPS proteins. The impact of such interactions on reduced floc stability needs consideration. This study confirmed the importance of overall microbial activity in the biological flocculation process and the role of bacterial communities, other than the aerobes, in mitigating deflocculation under low DO conditions.


Assuntos
Esgotos/microbiologia , Azida Sódica , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Floculação , Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
J Fluoresc ; 29(6): 1291-1300, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707509

RESUMO

Development of metallic and nonmetallic heteroatom doped carbon dots have gained attention due to their enhanced physicochemical and photoluminescence properties. In this study, a facile one pot hydrothermal carbonisation approach was taken to synthesise nitrogen, aluminum co-doped carbon dots (N/Al-CDs) with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 28.7%. Durian shell, a cellulose biomass waste, was used as the primary carbon source and compared to previously reported cellulose based carbon dots, this study presents one of the highest quantum yields. The structural and fluorescent properties of the synthesised N/Al-CDs were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The maximum emission was at 415 nm upon excitation at 345 nm. The synthesised N/Al-CDs were resistant to photobleaching and highly photostable within the pH, ionic strength and temperature variations investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed particles were quasi-spherical and well dispersed with an average diameter of 10.0 nm. Further, the N/Al-CDs was developed as a fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of Mn (VII) ions. A linear relationship was developed over a concentration range of 0-100 µM while the limit of detection was 46.8 nM. Application of the sensor for detection of Manganese (VII) to two real water samples showed relative standard deviation was less than 3.9% and 1.3%, respectively.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Manganês/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Alumínio/química , Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Nitrogênio/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(17): 16974-16997, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041714

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates bottom ash, fly ash (FA), and air pollution control (APC) residues as by-products. FA and APC residues are considered hazardous due to the presence of soluble salts and a high concentration of heavy metals, and they should be appropriately treated before disposal. Physicochemical characterization using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have shown that FA and APC have potential for reuse after treatment as these contain CaO, SiO2, and Al2O3. Studies conducted on treatment of FA and APC are categorized into three groups: (i) separation processes, (ii) solidification/stabilization (S/S) processes, and (iii) thermal processes. Separation processes such as washing, leaching, and electrochemical treatment improve the quality and homogeneity of the ash. S/S processes such as chemical stabilization, accelerate carbonation, and cement solidification modify hazardous species into less toxic constituents. Thermal processes such as sintering, vitrification, and melting are effective at reducing volume and producing a more stable product. In this review paper, the treatment processes are analyzed in relation to ash characteristics. Issues concerning mixing FA and APC residues before treatment, true treatment costs, and challenges are also discussed to provide further insights on the implications and possibilities of utilizing FA and APC as secondary materials.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cinza de Carvão/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Incineração/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 227: 533-540, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004820

RESUMO

The introduction of glyphosate, found in herbicides, to waterbodies is of concern due to its toxicity and hence potential threat to public health and ecological systems. The present study has compared glyphosate removal from aqueous solution with activated carbon and biochar. Box-Behnken design, and percent contribution with Pareto analysis techniques were used in surface response and efficiency calculations modelled the process conditions and their effects. The adsorption data better fitted the Freundlich isotherm model than the Langmuir model. The rate of glyphosate adsorption was found to follow a pseudo-second-order model. pH of the solutions was regulated by buffering during the adsorption process. Higher efficacy of glyphosate removal was obtained by optimising parameters such as operating pH, initial glyphosate concentration, temperature, adsorbent dose, and contact time. The conditions yielding the best removals were pH 8.0, 0.2 mg/L, 50.0 °C, 11.4 g/L, 1.7 h for activated carbon and pH 5.0, 0.7 mg/L, 50.0 °C, 12.3 g/L, 1.9 h for biochar, for the aforementioned parameters respectively. The maximum removal capacity and efficiency were 0.0173 mg/g and 98.45% for activated carbon, and 0.0569 mg/g and 100.00% for biochar. The test results indicated biochar could be important from the perspective of performance and affordability.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Adsorção/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/isolamento & purificação , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 660: 11-17, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639708

RESUMO

This study investigated the initiation and maintenance of nitritation in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with long solids retention time (SRT) of 43.8 days. Nitritation was initiated within 65 days in the MBR via dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation (<0.5 mg/L). However, nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (Nitrospira and Nitrobacter) acclimated to the low DO environment and proliferated from day 81, leading to nitrate accumulation. Thereafter, the combined strategy of DO limitation and in-situ generated free nitrous acid (FNA) shock successfully restored and maintained stable nitritation for >70 days. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that cell abundances of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter decreased by between 50.0 to 68.9% and 60.6 to 96.4%, respectively following the FNA shocks. The maximum ammonium loading rate achieved was 1.81 kg N/(m3 day) with ammonium removal ratio and nitrite accumulation ratio of over 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. Average emission rate of N2O from the MBR was 2.1 ±â€¯0.72% of ammonium removed. FNA shock on day 195 reduced the N2O emission by 13.6%. The strategy developed in this study verified that spiked FNA shock together with DO limitation can be used for maintaining nitritation in MBRs with long SRTs. This method can potentially allow for maintaining nitritation at relatively low capital and operating expenditure when treating high concentration ammonium wastewater.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrobacter/metabolismo , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Águas Residuárias/análise
6.
J Fluoresc ; 29(1): 221-229, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565002

RESUMO

Photoluminescent carbon dots have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their unique optical properties. Herein, a facile one-pot hydrothermal process is used to develop nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) with durian shell waste as the precursor and Tris base as the doping agent. The synthesized NCDs showed a quantum yield of 12.93% with a blue fluorescence under UV-light irradiation and maximum emission at 414 nm at an excitation wavelength of 340 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of nitrogen and oxygen functional groups on the NCD surface. The particles were quasi-spherical with an average particle diameter of 6.5 nm. The synthesized NCDs were resistant to photobleaching and stable under a wide range of pH but were negatively affected by increasing temperature. NCDs showed high selectivity to Tetracycline as the fluorescence of NCDs was quenched significantly by Tetracycline as a result of the inner filter effect. Based on sensitivity experiments, a linear relationship (R2 = 0.989) was developed over a concentration range of 0-30 µM with a detection limit of 75 nM (S/N = 3). The linear model was validated with two water samples (lake water and tap water) with relative recoveries of 98.6-108.5% and an RSD of <3.5%.

7.
ACS Omega ; 3(11): 14650-14664, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555984

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are promising molecules in uprising consequences of drug-resistant bacteria. The prodomain of furin, a serine protease, expressed in all vertebrates including humans, is known to be important for physiological functions. Here, potent antimicrobial peptides were mapped by extensive analyses of overlapping peptide fragments of the prodomain of human furin. Two peptides, YR26 and YR23, were active against bacterial cells including MRSA-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis 51625. Peptides were largely devoid of hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Bacterial cell killing occurred as a result of the disruption of the permeability barrier of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-outer membrane and fragmentation of LPS into small micelles. Furthermore, antibacterial peptides specifically interacted with the negatively charged lipids causing membrane leakage and fusion. The YR26 peptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles demonstrated a long-helix-turn-short-helix structure exhibiting restricted backbone motions. The cell-selective activity of the furin peptides and their unique mode of action on membranes have a significant potential for the development of therapeutics.

8.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 48: 432-440, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080570

RESUMO

Ultrasound (ULS), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and combined ultrasound/NaOH pre-treatment were applied to pre-treat waste activated sludge and improve the subsequent anaerobic digestion. Synergistic effect was observed when NaOH treatment was coupled with ultrasound treatment. The highest synergistic Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization was observed when 0.02M NaOH was combined with five minutes ultrasonication: an extra 3000 mg/L was achieved on top of the NaOH (1975 mg/L) and ultrasonication (2900 mg/L) treatment alone. Further increase of NaOH dosage increased Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD), but did not increase the synergistic effect. Nine and 18 minutes ultrasonication led to 20% and 24% increase of methane production, respectively; Whereas, 0.05M NaOH pre-treatment did not improve the sludge biodegradability. Combined ultrasound/NaOH (9 min+0.05 M) showed 31% increase of methane production. A stepwise NaOH addition/ultrasound pre-treatment (0.02M+ULS for 5 min+0.02M+ULS for 4 min) was tested and resulted in 40% increase of methane production using 20% less chemicals.

9.
Chemosphere ; 210: 401-416, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015131

RESUMO

In the operation of biological wastewater treatment processes, fast sludge settling during liquid-solids disengagement is preferred as it affects effluent quality, treatment efficiency and plant operation economy. An important property of fast settling biological sludge is the ability to spontaneously form big and dense flocs (flocculation) that readily separates from water. Therefore, there had been much research to study the conditions that promote biological sludge flocculation. However, reported findings have often been inconsistent and this has possibly been due to the complex nature of the biological flocculation process. Thus, it has been challenging for wastewater treatment plant operators to extract practical information from the literature. The aim of this review is to summarize the current state of understanding of the factors that affect sludge flocculation so that evaluation of such information can be facilitated and strategize for intervention in the sludge flocculation and deflocculation process.


Assuntos
Floculação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Esgotos/química , Esgotos/microbiologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17795, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259246

RESUMO

Host defense cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can kill microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi using various modes of action. The negatively charged bacterial membranes serve as a key target for many AMPs. Bacterial cell death by membrane permeabilization has been well perceived. A number of cationic AMPs kill bacteria by cell agglutination which is a distinctly different mode of action compared to membrane pore formation. However, mechanism of cell agglutinating AMPs is poorly understood. The outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the cell-wall peptidoglycans are targeted by AMPs as a key step in agglutination process. Here, we report the first atomic-resolution structure of thanatin, a cell agglutinating AMP, in complex with LPS micelle by solution NMR. The structure of thanatin in complex with LPS, revealed four stranded antiparallel ß-sheet in a 'head-tail' dimeric topology. By contrast, thanatin in free solution assumed an antiparallel ß-hairpin conformation. Dimeric structure of thanatin displayed higher hydrophobicity and cationicity with sites of LPS interactions. MD simulations and biophysical interactions analyses provided mode of LPS recognition and perturbation of LPS micelle structures. Mechanistic insights of bacterial cell agglutination obtained in this study can be utilized to develop antibiotics of alternative mode of action.


Assuntos
Aglutinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micelas
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 18006, 2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269771

RESUMO

The anaerobic digestion process is a multi - step reaction dependent on concerted activities such as exchange of metabolites among physiologically different microbial communities. This study investigated the impact of iron oxide nanoparticles on the anaerobic sludge microbiota. It was shown there were three distinct microbial phases following addition of the nanoparticles: microbial stress and cell death of approximately one log order of magnitude, followed by microbial rewiring, and recovery. Furthermore, it was noted that cellular stress led to the establishment of intercellular nanotubes within the microbial biomass. Intercellular nanotube - mediated communication among genetically engineered microorganisms and ad hoc assembled co - cultures have been previously reported. This study presents evidence of intercellular nanotube formation within an environmental sample - i.e., anaerobic sludge microbiota subjected to stress. Our observations suggested a mode of microbial communication in the anaerobic digestion process not previously explored and which may have implications on bioreactor design and microbial functions.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Celulose/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Consórcios Microbianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Anaerobiose/fisiologia , Reatores Biológicos , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841359

RESUMO

Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO4). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH4+ N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P < 0.05) increased from 11.9 mg/L (control) to 15.3, 20.9 and 28.5 mg/L, respectively. Under equal Zn concentration, zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Óxido de Zinco/análise , Zinco/análise , Adsorção , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Esgotos/microbiologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade
13.
Chemosphere ; 184: 1286-1297, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28672727

RESUMO

The formation, composition and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMPs) were investigated in a novel system which coupled a sequencing batch reactor with a cake filtration system. Both suspended solids (SS) and turbidity were significantly removed, resulting in effluent SS of 0.12 mg L-1 and turbidity of 0.72 NTU after cake filtration. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates decreased respectively from 4.0 ± 0.4 and 7.1 ± 0.6 mg/L in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) mixed liquor, to 0.85 ± 0.21 and 1.39 ± 0.29 mg/L in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis of the molecular weight (MW) distribution of SMPs revealed a substantial reduction in the intensity of high-MW peaks (503 and 22.71 kDa) after cake filtration, which implied the sludge cake layer and the underlying gel layer may play a role in the effectiveness of cake filtration beyond the physical phenomenon. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that polycarboxylate- and polyaromatic humic acids were the dominant compounds and a noticeable decrease in the fraction of these compounds was observed in the cake filtration effluent. Analysis with GC-MS set for detecting low-MW SMPs identified aromatics, alcohols, alkanes and esters as the dominant compounds. SMPs exhibited both biodegradable and recalcitrant characteristics. More SMPs (total number of 91) were accumulated during the SBR start-up stage. A noticeable increase in the aromatic fractions was seen in the SBR effluent accoutring for 39% of total compounds, compared to the SBR mixed liquor (28%). Fewer compounds (total number of 66) were identified in cake filtration effluent compared to the SBR effluent (total number of 75).


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração/métodos , Substâncias Húmicas , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(14): 13012-13024, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378314

RESUMO

Recycled paper mill effluent (RPME) contains high levels of organic and solid compounds, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. In this study, a unique modified anaerobic inclining-baffled reactor (MAI-BR) has been developed to treat RPME at various initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (1000-4000 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (3 and 1 day). The COD removal efficiency was decreased from 96 to 83% when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased from 0.33 to 4 g/L day. Throughout the study, a maximum methane yield of 0.25 L CH4/g COD was obtained, while the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.8 to 7.8. The reactor performance was influenced by the development and distribution of the microbial communities. Based on the next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis, the microbial community represented a variety of bacterial phyla with significant homology to Euryarchaeota (43.06%), Planctomycetes (24.68%), Proteobacteria (21.58%), Acidobacteria (4.12%), Chloroflexi (3.14%), Firmicutes (1.12%), Bacteroidetes (1.02%), and others (1.28%). The NGS analysis showed that the microbial community was dominated by Methanosaeta concilii and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. This can be supported by the presence of filamentous and spherical microbes of different sizes. Additionally, methanogenic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) microorganisms coexisted in all compartments, and these contributed to the overall degradation of substances in the RPME. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Reciclagem , Anaerobiose , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Metano/química , Papel , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276890

RESUMO

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Copper Oxide NPs at concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/L and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (CuSO4). It was found that 0.1 mg/L of CuO NPs had negligible effects on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia removal. However, the presence of 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of CuO NPs decreased COD removal from 78.7% to 77%, 52.1% and 39.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). The corresponding effluent ammonium (NH4-N) concentration increased from 14.9 mg/L to 18, 25.1 and 30.8 mg/L, respectively. Under equal Cu concentration, copper ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to CuO NPs. CuO NPs were removed effectively (72-93.2%) from wastewater due to a greater biosorption capacity of CuO NPs onto activated sludge, compared to the copper ions (55.1-83.4%). The SEM images clearly showed the accumulation and adsorption of CuO NPs onto activated sludge. The decrease in Live/dead ratio after 5 h of exposure of CuO NPs and Cu2+ indicated the loss of cell viability in sludge flocs.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Nanopartículas/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Cobre/química , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 75(1-2): 228-238, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067663

RESUMO

A biosorption column and a settling tank were operated for 6 months with combined municipal and industrial wastewaters (1 m3/hr) to study the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and Fe3+ dosage on removal efficiency of dissolved and suspended organics prior to biological treatment. High DO (>0.4 mg/L) were found to be detrimental for soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals and iron dosing (up to 20 ppm) did not improve the overall performance. The system performed significantly better at high loading rate (>20 kg COD.m-3.d-1) where suspended solids and COD removals were greater than 80% and 60%, respectively. This is a significant improvement compared to the conventional primary sedimentation tank, and the process is a promising alternative for the pre-treatment of industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Cidades , Resíduos Industriais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos , Oxigênio
17.
Adv Mater ; 29(11)2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067957

RESUMO

The first triboelectric-nanogenerator (TENG)-based self-powered implantable drug-delivery system is presented. Pumping flow rates from 5.3 to 40 µL min-1 under different rotating speeds of the TENG are realized. The implantable drug-delivery system can be powered with a TENG device rotated by human hand motion. Ex vivo trans-sclera drug delivery in porcine eyes is demonstrated by utilizing the biokinetic energies of human hands.

18.
Water Sci Technol ; 74(7): 1716-1725, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763352

RESUMO

In light of global warming mitigation efforts, increasing sludge disposal costs, and need for reduction in the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants, innovation in treatment technology has been tailored towards energy self-sufficiency. The AB process is a promising technology for achieving maximal energy recovery from wastewaters with minimum energy expenditure and therefore inherently reducing excess sludge production. Characterization of this novel sludge and its comparison with the more conventional B-stage sludge are necessary for a deeper understanding of AB treatment process design. This paper presents a case study of a pilot-scale AB system treating municipal wastewaters as well as a bio- (biochemical methane potential and adenosine tri-phosphate analysis) and physico-chemical properties (chemical oxygen demand, sludge volume index, dewaterability, calorific value, zeta potential and particle size distribution) comparison of the organic-rich A-stage against the B-stage activated sludge. Compared to the B-sludge, the A-sludge yielded 1.4 to 4.9 times more methane throughout the 62-week operation.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Membranas Artificiais , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Cidades , Metano/análise , Projetos Piloto , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
19.
Water Res ; 102: 594-606, 2016 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479293

RESUMO

This study investigated the behaviour and characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) in two anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs): MBRcontrol and MBRpharma, for treating municipal wastewater. Both protein and polysaccharides measured exhibited higher concentrations in the MBRpharma than the MBRcontrol. Molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis revealed that the presence of pharmaceuticals enhanced the accumulation of SMPs with macro- (13,091 kDa and 1587 kDa) and intermediate-MW (189 kDa) compounds in the anoxic MBRpharma, while a substantial decrease was observed in both MBR effluents. Excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence contours indicated that the exposure to pharmaceuticals seemed to stimulate the production of aromatic proteins containing tyrosine (10.1-32.6%) and tryptophan (14.7-43.1%), compared to MBRcontrol (9.9-29.1% for tyrosine; 11.8-42.5% for tryptophan). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed aromatics, long-chain alkanes and esters were the predominant SMPs in the MBRs. More peaks were present in the aerobic MBRpharma (196) than anoxic MBRpharma (133). The SMPs identified exhibited both biodegradability and recalcitrance in the MBR treatment processes. Only 8 compounds in the MBRpharma were the same as in the MBRcontrol. Alkanes were the most dominant SMPs (51%) in the MBRcontrol, while aromatics were dominant (40%) in the MBRpharma. A significant decrease in aromatics (from 16 to 7) in the MBRpharma permeate was observed, compared to the aerobic MBRpharma. Approximately 21% of compounds in the aerobic MBRcontrol were rejected by membrane filtration, while this increased to 28% in the MBRpharma.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Reatores Biológicos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Membranas Artificiais
20.
Water Res ; 104: 44-52, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508973

RESUMO

On-line chemical cleaning of membranes with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) has been commonly employed for maintaining a constant permeability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) due to its simple and efficient operation. However, activated sludge is inevitably exposed to NaClO during this cleaning process. In spite of the broad applications of on-line chemical cleaning in MBR such as chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) and chemical enhanced backwash (CEB), little information is currently available for the release of emerging dissolved organic matter (DOM) and byproducts from this prevalent practice. Therefore, in this study, activated sludge suspended in a phosphate buffered saline solution was exposed to different doses of NaClO in order to determine the generation of potential DOM and byproducts. The results showed the occurrence of significant DOM release (up to 24.7 mg/L as dissolved organic carbon) after exposure to NaClO for 30 min. The dominant components of the released DOM were characterized to be humic acid-like as well as protein-like substances by using an excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectrophotometer. Furthermore, after the contact of activated sludge with NaClO, 19 kinds of chlorinated and brominated byproducts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, eight of which were confirmed and characterized with standard compounds. Many byproducts were found to be halogenated aromatic compounds, including halopyrroles and halo(hydro)benzoquinones, which had been reported to be significantly more toxic than the halogenated aliphatic ones. Consequently, this study offers new insights into the practice of on-line chemical cleaning, and opens up a window to re-examine the current operation of MBR by looking into the generation of micropollutants.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/química , Reatores Biológicos , Compostos Orgânicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
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