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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111815, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352231

RESUMO

Due to the development in science field which gives not only benefit but also introducesundesirable pollution to the environment. This pollution is due to poor discharge activities of industrial effluents into the soil and water bodies, surface run off from fields of agricultural lands, dumping of untreated wastes by municipalities, and mining activites, which deteriorates the cardinal virtue of our environment and causes menace to human health and life. Heavy metal(s), a natural constituent on earth's crust and economic important mineral, due to its recalcitrant effects creates heavy metal pollution which affects food chain and also reduces the quality of water. For this, many researchers have performed studies to find efficient methods for wastewater remediation. One of the most promising methods from economic point of view is adsorption, which is simple in design, but leads to use of a wide range of adsorbents and ease of operations. Due to advances in nanotechnology, many nanomaterials were used as adsorbents for wastewater remediation, because of their efficiency. Many researchers have reported that nanoadsorbents are unmitigatedly a fruitful solution to address this world's problem. This review presents a potent view on various classes of nanoadsorbents and their application to wastewater treatment. It provides a bird's eye view of the suitability of different types of nanomaterials for remediation of wastewater and Backspace gives up-to-date information about polymer based and silica-based nanoadsorbents.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150326, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543795

RESUMO

This study investigated the degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on zerovalent iron-laden biochar (BC-ZVI) prepared by carbothermal reduction. Results show that over 99% PFOA can be removed by BC-ZVI in hydrothermal conditions under 240 °C within 6 h. The maximum defluorination rate of 63.2% was achieved after 192 h, and this outcome was significantly better than biochar (BC) and zero-valent iron (ZVI) alone. The short-chain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and perfluoroheptanal were detected in the liquid phase after degradation, suggesting that the degradation of PFOAs by BC-ZVI followed the Kobel decarboxylation process. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses strongly suggested that carbothermal reduction could avoid the agglomeration of ZVI loaded onto biochar, which helped make the PFOA degradation more efficient. The frontier molecular orbital theory calculated by density functional theory revealed there were two possibilities for ZVI loading on BC (edged or internal loading), while the edge loaded ZVI had a greater tendency to provide electrons for the defluorination of PFOA than internally loaded ZVI.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127081, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523481

RESUMO

Finding a low-cost and suitable adsorbent is still in urgent need for efficient decontamination of As(III) and As(V) elements from the polluted waters. A novel zirconium hydroxide nanoparticle encapsulated magnetic biochar composite (ZBC) derived from rice residue was synthesized for the adsorptive capture of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. The results revealed that ZBC showed an acceptable magnet separation ability and its surface was encapsulated with lots of hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Compared to As(III), the adsorption of As(V) onto ZBC was mainly dependent on the pH of the solution. The intraparticle diffusion model described the adsorption process. ZBC showed satisfactory adsorption performances to As(III) and As(V) with the highest adsorption quantity of 107.6 mg/g and 40.8 mg/g at pH 6.5 and 8.5, respectively. The adsorption of As(III) and As(V) on ZBC was almost impervious with the ionic strength while the presence of coexisting ions, especially phosphate, significantly affected the adsorption process. The processes of complexation reaction and electrostatic attraction contributed to the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) onto ZBC. ZBC prepared from kitchen rice residue was found to be a low cost environmentally friendly promising adsorbent with high removal capacity for As(III) and As(V) and could be recycled easily from contaminated waters.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150187, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517328

RESUMO

Monitoring agricultural soil organic carbon (SOC) has played an essential role in sustainable agricultural management. Precise and robust prediction of SOC greatly contributes to carbon neutrality in the agricultural industry. To create more knowledge regarding the ability of remote sensing to monitor carbon soil, this research devises a state-of-the-art low cost machine learning model for quantifying agricultural soil carbon using active and ensemble-based decision tree learning combined with multi-sensor data fusion at a national and world scale. This work explores the use of Sentinel-1 (S1) C-band dual polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Sentinel-2 (S2) multispectral data, and an innovative machine learning (ML) approach using an integration of active learning for land-use mapping and advanced Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) for robustness of the SOC estimates. The collected soil samples from a field survey in Western Australia were used for the model validation. The indicators including the coefficient of determination (R2) and root - mean - square - error (RMSE) were applied to evaluate the model's performance. A numerous features computed from optical and SAR data fusion were employed to build and test the proposed model performance. The effectiveness of the proposed machine learning model was assessed by comparing with the two well-known algorithms such as Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict agricultural SOC. Results suggest that a combination of S1 and S2 sensors could effectively estimate SOC in farming areas by using ML techniques. Satisfactory accuracy of the proposed XGBoost with optimal features was achieved the highest performance (R2 = 0.870; RMSE = 1.818 tonC/ha) which outperformed RF and SVM. Thus, multi-sensor data fusion combined with the XGBoost lead to the best prediction results for agricultural SOC at 10 m spatial resolution. In short, this new approach could significantly contribute to various agricultural SOC retrieval studies globally.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Radar
5.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131622, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303903

RESUMO

The widespread use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)-related products such as aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) has led to increasing contamination of groundwater systems. The concentration of PFASs in AFFF-impacted groundwater can be several orders of magnitude higher than the drinking water standard. There is a need for a sustainable and effective sorbent to remove PFASs from groundwater. This work aims to investigate the sorption of PFASs in groundwater by biochar column. The specific objectives are to understand the influences of PFASs properties and groundwater chemistry to PFASs sorption by biochar. The PFASs-spiked Milli-Q water (including 19 PFASs) and four aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF)-impacted groundwater were used. The partitioning coefficients (log Kd) of long chain PFASs ranged from 0.77 to 4.63 while for short chain PFASs they remained below 0.68. For long chain PFASs (C ≥ 7), log Kd increased by 0.5 and 0.8 for each CF2 moiety of PFCAs and PFSAs, respectively. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was the most influential factor in PFASs sorption over pH, salinity, and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA). DOM contained hydrophobic compounds and metal ions which can form DOM-PFASs complexes to provide more sorption sites for PFASs. The finding is useful for executing PFASs remediation by biochar filtration column, especially legacy long chain PFASs, for groundwater remediation.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151646, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774632

RESUMO

This study innovatively combines energy uncoupling and chemical re-flocculation helped to accelerate residual sludge dewatering. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) and 3, 3', 4', 5-tetrachlor-osalicylanilide (TCS) were employed as the flocculant and uncoupler, respectively. The results showed that the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and the water content of sludge filtered cake fell dramatically from 11 × 1012 m/kg and 80.2% to 1.1 × 1012 m/kg and 77.1% respectively, when the addition of TCS ranged from 0 to 0.12 g/g VSS with flocculation conditioning. The distribution of sludge extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) was altered radically after adding TCS, leading to the collapse and fragmentation of EPS, causing the reduction and formation of fragmentized sludge flocs. Meanwhile, the stretching and deformation vibrations of CO and NH bonds suggested the strong attack between TCS and EPS proteins, while variations of the main secondary structures of protein (i.e. α-helix, ß-sheet and random coil) indicated the loose structure of proteins and enhanced hydrophobicity. Consequently, the cracked and loose structure of residual sludge resulted in the release of bound water. After TCS addition combined with chemical re-flocculation, the channels of sludge water discharge were widened, guaranteeing the discharge of sludge water. Therefore, the sludge dewaterability was elevated under the energy uncoupling combined with chemical re-flocculation. As well, the application of TCS would not destroy sludge cells, in which bioenergy (sludge carbon source) could be retained and effectively utilized in the subsequent disposal process. The findings reported here not only widen our perception of the energy uncoupling technology, but also encourage researchers to explore both effective and economic methods on the basis of energy uncoupling, aiming to achieve high-efficiency of reduction and dewatering in the future.

7.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132459, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619254

RESUMO

The demand for ultrapure water (UPW) in the semiconductor industry has increased in recent years, while the idea to use reclaimed water instead of tap water for UPW production has also attracted more attention. However, since urea concentration in reclaimed water is higher than that in tap water, UPW production has not been efficient. To resolve this problem, this study aims to develop a new spent coffee grounds based biochar (SCG-BC)/persulfate catalytic system as a pretreatment unit. The objective is to enhance urea removal from reclaimed water so that UPW production is more effective. In this study, the biochar used was prepared from spent coffee grounds with detailed characterization. Results strongly suggested that the urea removed by SCG-BC/persulfate catalytic system was very encouraging (up to 73%). The best possible dosages for SCG-BC and persulfate for urea removal were 0.2 and 2.0 g L-1, respectively. Furthermore, this system could remove urea effectively in a wide range of pH (3-10). Moreover, the characterizations of SCG-BC (graphite C, defective edges and functional groups, i.e. -OH, CO, carboxyl C-O) helped to activate persulfate in the catalytic process. OH• and SO4• - were all involved in this process, while the SO4• - was the main radical for urea degradation.

8.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132473, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624348

RESUMO

Residual sludge is a by-product with a large volume and complex composition from wastewater treatment plants. It is significant to reduce sludge volume to decrease the negative effects of sludge on environmental pollution and needless land use. We investigated the effects of uncoupler 3, 3', 4', 5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) on the properties of sludge. After adding 0.12 g TCS/g VSS with 24 h mixing, the sludge concentration and total ATP content decreased by 51.1% and 60.8%, respectively. At the same time, the microbial community also changed significantly, leading to the decrease of richness and diversity. Additionally, the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) reduced approximately 43% under the addition of 0.12 g/g VSS compared with the control. The decrement of EPS may be explained by the decreased relative abundance of functional bacteria (i.e. Chloroflexi reduced about 60% and Nitrospirota reduced about 31%). Notably, the addition of TCS before coagulation conditioning (FeCl3) promoted the adhesion of sludge flocs according to the theory of Extended Derjaguin Landau Verwey Overbee (XDLVO), leading to the increased hydrophobicity of the residual sludge. Therefore, energy uncoupling has the potential of improving sludge dewaterability.

10.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 7297-7313, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569893

RESUMO

Increase in anthropogenic activities due to rapid industrialization had caused an elevation in heavy metal contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These pollutants have detrimental effects on human and environmental health. The majority of these pollutants are carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and are very poisonous even at very low concentrations. Contamination caused by heavy metals has become a global concern for which the traditional treatment approaches lack in providing a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution. Therefore, the use of microorganisms and plants to reduce the free available heavy metal present in the environment has become the most acceptable method by researchers. Also, in microbial- and phyto-remediation the redox reaction shifts the valence which makes these metals less toxic. In addition to this, the use of biochar as a remediation tool has provided a sustainable solution that needs further investigations toward its implementation on a larger scale. Enzymes secreted by microbes and whole microbial cell are considered an eco-efficient biocatalyst for mitigation of heavy metals from contaminated sites. To the best of our knowledge there is very less literature available covering remediation of heavy metals aspect along with the sensors used for detection of heavy metals. Systematic management should be implemented to overcome the technical and practical limitations in the use of these bioremediation techniques. The knowledge gaps have been identified in terms of its limitation and possible future directions have been discussed.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149676, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419905

RESUMO

This study measured the environmental impacts from three same-size wastewater treatment systems, specifically activated sludge, a constructed wetland, and a high rate algal pond. Detailed data inventories were employed using SimaPro 9 software to calculate the entire consequences by ReCiPe 2016 and Greenhouse Gas Protocol method. The environmental outcomes caused by substance emissions and resource extraction are presented in several impact categories at the endpoint level. For a better comparison, the single score tool was applied to aggregate all factors into three areas of protection: human health, ecosystem, and resource shortage. Results showed that concrete and steel are the main contributors to the construction phase, while electricity is responsible for the operation stage. The single score calculation indicates that the proportion of construction activities could be equal to or even higher than the operation stage for a small capacity plant. The total environmental impact of the conventional system was 2.3-fold and 3-fold higher than that of constructed wetland and high rate algal pond, respectively. High rate algal pond has the best environmental performance when generating the least burdens and greenhouse gas emissions of 0.72 kg CO2 equivalent per m3. Constructed wetland produces 5.69 kg CO2, higher than an algal pond but much lower than activated sludge plant, emitting 11.42 kg CO2 per m3.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Purificação da Água , Ecossistema , Efeito Estufa , Humanos , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149415, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364273

RESUMO

Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is a promising alternative for decentralized water supply, while its widespread application was hindered by the poor removals of organics and ammonia during long-term operation. In this study, powered activated carbon (PAC) and granular zeolite were selected as typical adsorbents to investigate the impacts of pre-deposited adsorbent layers on contaminant removal and membrane fouling. Results showed that the pre-deposited PAC layers exhibited higher removal of organics than the control, while the zeolites deposited layers exhibited low removal of organics. The presence of PAC only enhanced the NH4+ removal at subsequent stable stage, while zeolites were effective in deal with sudden high NH4+ concentration due to ion exchange. The presence of mixed adsorbents layers had similar organic removal with PAC and NH4+ removal with zeolite. The pre-deposited PAC layers could effectively alleviate membrane fouling in short-term UF tests, while the stable fluxes (5.88-6.54 L/(m2·h)) in long-term GDM operation were slightly lower than the control (6.63 L/(m2·h)). The zeolites deposited layer aggravated membrane fouling in both short-term ultrafiltration and long-term GDM (5.03-3.84 L/(m2·h)), but a higher stable flux (6.10 L/(m2·h)) was observed for GDM using the mixed adsorbents. The pre-deposited adsorbent layers resulted in increased concentrations of biomass, tri-phosphate (ATP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), forming cake layers with a denser structure than the control. Finally, the fouling mechanism for GDM using different adsorbent layers was proposed based on fouling analysis and characteristics of biological fouling layer. The results and conclusion in this study could provide helpful information for the application of GDM with pre-deposited adsorbent layer in treating raw water with organics and/or sudden high ammonia concentration to produce potable water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Zeolitas , Amônia , Carvão Vegetal , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Pós , Ultrafiltração
13.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4697-4718, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334104

RESUMO

In the last two decades, water use has increased at twice the rate of population growth. The freshwater resources are getting polluted by contaminants like heavy metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons, organic waste, pathogens, fertilizers, and emerging pollutants. Globally more than 80% of the wastewater is released into the environment without proper treatment. Rapid industrialization has a dramatic effect on developing countries leading to significant losses to economic and health well-being in terms of toxicological impacts on humans and the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove wastewater contaminants. A physical and/or chemical technique alone appears ineffective for recovering useful resources from wastewater containing complex components. There is a requirement for more processes or processes combined with membrane and biological processes to enhance operational efficiency and quality. More processes or those that are combined with biological and membrane-based processes are required to enhance operational efficiencies and quality. This paper intends to provide an exhaustive review of electrochemical technologies including microbial electrochemical technologies. It provides comprehensive information for the recovery of metals, nutrients, sulfur, hydrogen, and heat from industrial effluents. This article aims to give detailed information into the advancements in electrochemical processes to energy use, improve restoration performance, and achieve commercialization. It also covers bottlenecks and perspectives of this research area.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 420: 126636, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280722

RESUMO

The quest for finding an effective photocatalyst for environmental remediation and treatment strategies is attracting considerable attentions from scientists. In this study, a new hybrid material, Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4-TiO2, was designed and fabricated using coprecipitation and sol-gel approaches for degrading organic dyes in wastewater. The prepared hybrid materials were fully characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that the Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4-TiO2 hybrid material was successfully synthesized with average particle sizes of 40.09 nm for TiO2 and 27.9 nm for Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4. As the calculated bandgap energy of the hybrid material was approximately 2.86 eV, it could harvest photon energy in the visible region. Results indicate that the Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4-TiO2 also had reasonable magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization value of 11.2 emu/g, which is a level of making easy separation from the solution by an external magnet. The resultant Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4-TiO2 hybrid material revealed better photocatalytic performance for rhodamine B dye (consistent removal rate in the 13.96 × 10-3 min-1) compared with free-standing Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4 and TiO2 materials. The recyclability and photocatalytic mechanism of Cu0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4-TiO2 are also well discussed.


Assuntos
Titânio , Águas Residuárias , Óxido de Alumínio , Catálise , Compostos Férricos , Óxido de Magnésio , Rodaminas
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148755, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246151

RESUMO

This study investigates the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) for on-line monitoring ammonium (NH4+-N) in municipal wastewater. A double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was established in a continuous mode under different influent ammonium concentrations ranging from 5 to 40 mg L-1. Results indicated that excess ammonium would inhibit the activity of electrogenic bacteria in the anode chamber and consequently affect electricity production. An inversely linear relationship between concentration and voltage generation was obtained with coefficient R2 0.99 and the MFC could detect up to 40 mg L-1 of NH4+-N. Notably, no further decline was observed in voltage output and there was in fact a further increase in ammonia concentration (>40 mg L-1). The stability and high accuracy of ammonium-based MFC biosensors exposed competitive results compared to traditional analytical tools, confirming the biosensor's reliability. Furthermore, pH 7.0; R 1000 Ω and HRT of 24 h are the best possible conditions for the MFC biosensor for monitoring ammonium. The simplicity in design and operation makes the biosensor more realistic for practical application.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Nitrogênio , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Águas Residuárias
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148598, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328983

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of CaO2 pretreatment on sulfonamide antibiotics (SMs) remediation by Chlorella sp. Results showed that a CaO2 dose ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 g/g biomass was the best and led to higher SMs removal efficacy 5-10% higher than the control. The contributions made by cometabolism and CaO2 in SMs remediation were very similar. Bioassimilation could remove 24% of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), and accounted for 38% of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) remediation. Pretreatment by CaO2 wielded a positive effect on microalgae. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) level of the CaO2 pretreatment microalgae was three times higher when subjected to non-pretreatment. For the long-term, pretreatment microalgae removed SMs 10-20% more than the non-pretreatment microalgae. Protein fractions of EPS in continuous operation produced up to 90 mg/L for cometabolism. For bioassimilation, SMX intensity of the pretreatment samples was 160-fold less than the non-treatment one. It indicated the CaO2 pretreatment has enhanced the biochemical function of the intracellular environment of microalgae. Peroxidase enzyme involved positively in the cometabolism and degradation of SMs to several metabolites including ring cleavage, hydroxylation and pterin-related conjugation.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Antibacterianos , Peróxidos , Sulfonamidas
17.
Microb Cell Fact ; 20(1): 120, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174898

RESUMO

The quest for a chemical surfactant substitute has been fuelled by increased environmental awareness. The benefits that biosurfactants present like biodegradability, and biocompatibility over their chemical and synthetic counterparts has contributed immensely to their popularity and use in various industries such as petrochemicals, mining, metallurgy, agrochemicals, fertilizers, beverages, cosmetics, etc. With the growing demand for biosurfactants, researchers are looking for low-cost waste materials to use them as substrates, which will lower the manufacturing costs while providing waste management services as an add-on benefit. The use of low-cost substrates will significantly reduce the cost of producing biosurfactants. This paper discusses the use of various feedstocks in the production of biosurfactants, which not only reduces the cost of waste treatment but also provides an opportunity to profit from the sale of the biosurfactant. Furthermore, it includes state-of-the-art information about employing municipal solid waste as a sustainable feedstock for biosurfactant production, which has not been simultaneously covered in many published literatures on biosurfactant production from different feedstocks. It also addresses the myriad of other issues associated with the processing of biosurfactants, as well as the methods used to address these issues and perspectives, which will move society towards cleaner production.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Microbiologia Industrial , Tensoativos/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produtos Biológicos/química , Química Verde , Tensoativos/química
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145041, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940712

RESUMO

This study aims to offer insights into how ciprofloxacin (CIP) impact bacterial community structures in the Sponge-MBR process when CIP is spiked into hospital wastewater. We found that the CIP toxicity decreased richness critical phylotypes such as phylum class ẟ-, ß-, É£-proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria that co-respond to suppress denitrification and cake fouling to 37% and 28% respectively. Cluster analysis shows that the different community structures were formed under the influence of CIP toxicity. CIP decreased attached growth biomass by 2.3 times while increasing the concentration of permeate nitrate by 3.8 times, greatly affecting TN removal by up to 26%. Ammonia removal was kept stable by inflating the ammonia removal rate (p < 0.003), with the wealthy Nitrospira genus guaranteeing the nitrification activity. In addition, we observed an increasing richness of Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes, which may play a role in fouling reduction in the Sponge-MBR. Therefore, if the amount of antibiotics in hospital wastewater continues to increase, it is so important to extend biomass retention for denitrification recovery.


Assuntos
Ciprofloxacina , Microbiota , Reatores Biológicos , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Nitrificação , Águas Residuárias
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147254, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933770

RESUMO

The recent and vigorous developments in semiconductor technology strictly request better quality and large quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) for their production. It is crucial to secure a large amount of raw water for the future development of UPW production. Using reclaimed water as alternative raw water source to produce UPW is therefore considered the feasible trend and solution for sustainable use of water resources towards a common future practice in UPW production. The challenge of using reclaimed water is due to its higher content of organic pollutants, especially small molecule organic pollutants such as urea, which are difficult to remove through traditional UPW production process. Consequently, improving the existing UPW production process to meet the water standard desired in the semiconductor industry is essential. This paper reviewed the current traditional processes for removing organic matters in UPW production, including ion-exchange (IX) adsorption, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The potential problems in the actual UPW production process were identified when using reclaimed water as raw water source. A new strategy of applying the advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to UPW production as a supplementary unit to guarantee UPW quality was proposed. Its feasibility and research focus were then analyzed and discussed in obtaining a new solution for a future development of the UPW production process.

20.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112485, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813298

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and natural ecosystems in coastal dunes provide considerable benefits to human well-being. However, to date, we still lack a good understanding of how ecosystem services (ES) supply varies from young dunes (e.g., embryo and fore dunes) to mature dunes (e.g., brown and red dunes). This study proposed a novel modelling methodology by integrating an expert-based matrix, a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), a structural equation model, and a scenario development method. It aims at evaluating dune ecosystem services for the sustainable development of coastal areas. The model was tested using data collected from dunes in Vietnam. An expert-based matrix to assess the supply capacity of 18 ES in different types of dunes was generated with the participation of 21 interdisciplinary scientists. It was found that red dune ecosystems could supply the most regulation and cultural ecosystem services, while gray dunes provided the least amount. Results from a scenario analysis recommended that decision-making is able to optimize multiple ES by: (i) keeping embryo/fore dunes in their natural state instead of using them for mineral mining and urbanization; (ii) enlarging certified and protected forests areas in gray and yellow dunes; and (iii) optimizing cultural ES supply in red dunes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Areia , Teorema de Bayes , Florestas , Humanos , Vietnã
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