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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 95, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite free diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis (TB), the costs during treatment impose a significant financial burden on patients and their households. The study sought to identify the determinants for catastrophic costs among patients with drug-sensitive TB (DSTB) and their households in Kenya. METHODS: The data was collected during the 2017 Kenya national patient cost survey from a nationally representative sample (n = 1071). Treatment related costs and productivity losses were estimated. Total costs exceeding 20% of household income were defined as catastrophic and used as the outcome. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was performed to measure the association between selected individual, household and disease characteristics and occurrence of catastrophic costs. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was carried using different thresholds and the significant predictors were explored. RESULTS: The proportion of catastrophic costs among DSTB patients was 27% (n = 294). Patients with catastrophic costs had higher median productivity losses, 39 h [interquartile range (IQR): 20-104], and total median costs of USD 567 (IQR: 299-1144). The incidence of catastrophic costs had a dose response with household expenditure. The poorest quintile was 6.2 times [95% confidence intervals (CI): 4.0-9.7] more likely to incur catastrophic costs compared to the richest. The prevalence of catastrophic costs decreased with increasing household expenditure quintiles (proportion of catastrophic costs: 59.7%, 32.9%, 23.6%, 15.9%, and 9.5%) from the lowest quintile (Q1) to the highest quintile (Q5). Other determinants included hospitalization: prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8-4.5) and delayed treatment: PR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7). Protective factors included receiving care at a public health facility: PR = 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6-1.0), and a higher body mass index (BMI): PR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98). Pre TB expenditure, hospitalization and BMI were significant predictors in all sensitivity analysis scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant inequities in the occurrence of catastrophic costs. Social protection interventions in addition to existing medical and public health interventions are important to implement for patients most at risk of incurring catastrophic costs.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tuberculose , Doença Catastrófica , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Quênia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(10): 1248-1255, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and major drivers of catastrophic costs among TB-affected households in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative health facility-based survey with random cluster sampling among consecutively enrolled drug-susceptible (DS-TB) and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) patients. Costs incurred and income lost due to TB illness were captured using an interviewer-administered standardised questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the risk factors for experiencing catastrophic costs. RESULTS: A total of 841 patients were enrolled and were weighted to 900 during data analysis. There were 500 (56%) males and 46 (6%) DR-TB patients. Thirty-five (72%) DR-TB patients were HIV co-infected. Overall, 80% (95% CI: 77-82) of TB patients and their households experienced catastrophic costs. The major cost driver pre-TB diagnosis was direct medical costs. Nutritional supplements were the major cost driver post-TB diagnosis, with a median cost of US$360 (IQR: 240-600). Post-TB median diagnosis costs were three times higher among DR-TB (US$1,659 [653-2,787]) than drug DS-TB-affected households (US$537 [204-1,134]). Income loss was five times higher among DR-TB than DS-TB patients. In multivariable analysis, household wealth was the only covariate that remained significantly associated with catastrophic costs: The poorest households had 16 times the odds of incurring catastrophic costs versus the wealthiest households (adjusted odds ratio [aOR: 15.7 95% CI: 7.5-33.1]). CONCLUSION: The majority of TB-affected households, especially those affected by DR-TB, experienced catastrophic costs. Since the major cost drivers fall outside the healthcare system, multi-sectoral approaches to TB control and linking TB patients to social protection may reduce catastrophic costs.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low/middle-income countries (LMICs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are increasingly turning to public contributory health insurance as a mechanism for removing financial barriers to access and extending financial risk protection to the population. Against this backdrop, we assessed the level and inequality of population coverage of existing health insurance schemes in 36 SSA countries. METHODS: Using secondary data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys, we computed mean population coverage for any type of health insurance, and for specific forms of health insurance schemes, by country. We developed concentration curves, computed concentration indices, and rich-poor differences and ratios to examine inequality in health insurance coverage. We decomposed the concentration index using a generalised linear model to examine the contribution of household and individual-level factors to the inequality in health insurance coverage. RESULTS: Only four countries had coverage levels with any type of health insurance of above 20% (Rwanda-78.7% (95% CI 77.5% to 79.9%), Ghana-58.2% (95% CI 56.2% to 60.1%), Gabon-40.8% (95% CI 38.2% to 43.5%), and Burundi 22.0% (95% CI 20.7% to 23.2%)). Overall, health insurance coverage was low (7.9% (95% CI 7.8% to 7.9%)) and pro-rich; concentration index=0.4 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.4, p<0.001). Exposure to media made the greatest contribution to the pro-rich distribution of health insurance coverage (50.3%), followed by socioeconomic status (44.3%) and the level of education (41.6%). CONCLUSION: Coverage of health insurance in SSA is low and pro-rich. The four countries that had health insurance coverage levels greater than 20% were all characterised by substantial funding from tax revenues. The other study countries featured predominantly voluntary mechanisms. In a context of high informality of labour markets, SSA and other LMICs should rethink the role of voluntary contributory health insurance and instead embrace tax funding as a sustainable and feasible mechanism for mobilising resources for the health sector.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde , Pobreza , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(1): 290-308, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus care at five public health facilities in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two counties where diabetes patients aged 18 years and above were interviewed. Data on care-seeking costs were obtained from 163 patients seeking diabetes care at five public facilities using the cost-of-illness approach. Medicines and user charges were classified as direct health care costs while expenses on transport, food, and accommodation were classified as direct non-health care costs. Productivity losses due to diabetes were classified as indirect costs. We computed annual direct and indirect costs borne by these patients. RESULTS: More than half (57.7%) of sampled patients had hypertension comorbidity. Overall, the mean annual direct patient cost was KES 53 907 (95% CI, 43 625.4-64 188.6) (US$ 528.5 [95% CI, 427.7-629.3]). Medicines accounted for 52.4%, transport 22.6%, user charges 17.5%, and food 7.5% of total direct costs. Overall mean annual indirect cost was KES 23 174 (95% CI, 20 910-25 438.8) (US$ 227.2 [95% CI, 205-249.4]). Patients reporting hypertension comorbidity incurred higher costs compared with diabetes-only patients. The incidence of catastrophic costs was 63.1% (95% CI, 55.7-70.7) and increased to 75.4% (95% CI, 68.3-82.1) when transport costs were included. CONCLUSION: There are substantial direct and indirect costs borne by diabetic patients in seeking care from public facilities in Kenya. High incidence of catastrophic costs suggests diabetes services are unaffordable to majority of diabetic patients and illustrate the urgent need to improve financial risk protection to ensure access to care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Renda , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(2): e1166-e1178, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, including Kenya, is of economic importance due to its increasing prevalence and its potential to present an economic burden to households. In this study, we examined the patient costs associated with obtaining care for hypertension in public health care facilities in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among adult respondents above 18 years of age, with at least 6 months of treatment in two counties. A total of 212 patients seeking hypertension care at five public facilities were interviewed, and information on care seeking and the associated costs was obtained. We computed both annual direct and indirect costs borne by these patients. RESULTS: Overall, the mean annual direct cost to patients was US$ 304.8 (95% CI, 235.7-374.0). Medicines (mean annual cost, US$ 168.9; 95% CI, 132.5-205.4), transport (mean annual cost, US$ 126.7; 95% CI, 77.6-175.9), and user charges (mean annual cost, US$ 57.7; 95% CI, 43.7-71.6) were the highest direct cost categories. Overall mean annual indirect cost was US$ 171.7 (95% CI, 152.8-190.5). The incidence of catastrophic health care costs was 43.3% (95% CI, 36.8-50.2) and increased to 59.0% (95% CI, 52.2-65.4) when transport costs were included. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertensive patients incur substantial direct and indirect costs. High rates of catastrophic costs illustrate the urgency of improving financial risk protection for these patients and strengthening primary care to ensure affordability of hypertension care.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal , Gastos em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Hipertensão/economia , Logradouros Públicos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 33(4): 1159-1177, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Purchasing in health care financing refers to the transfer of pooled funds to health care providers for the provision of health care services. There is limited empirical work on purchasing arrangements and what is required for strategic purchasing in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted this study to critically assess the purchasing arrangements of the county departments of health (CDOH) who are the largest purchasers of health care in Kenya. METHODS: We used a qualitative case study approach to assess the extent to which the purchasing actions of the CDOH in Kenya were strategic. We purposively sampled 10 counties and collected data using in-depth interviews (n = 81), focus group discussions (n = 4), and documents review. We analyzed data using a framework approach. RESULTS: County departments of health did not practice strategic purchasing. The government's (national and county) role as a steward for the purchasing function was characterized by poor accountability and inadequate budgetary allocations for service delivery. The absence of a purchaser-provider split between the CDOH and public health care providers undermined provider selection based on performance and quality. Poor public participation and ineffective complaints and feedback mechanisms limited public accountability and responsiveness to the needs of the people. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that while there are frameworks that could promote strategic purchasing of the CDOH, strategic purchasing is impaired by poor implementation of these frameworks and the inherent weaknesses of a public integrated purchasing system that lacks purchaser-provider split.


Assuntos
Financiamento Governamental , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Governo Local , Saúde Pública , Grupos Focais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(3): e000904, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29989036

RESUMO

Background: The inclusion of universal health coverage (UHC) as a health-related Sustainable Development Goal has cemented its position as a key global health priority. We aimed to develop a summary measure of UHC for Kenya and track the country's progress between 2003 and 2013. Methods: We developed a summary index for UHC by computing the geometrical mean of indicators for the two dimensions of UHC, service coverage (SC) and financial risk protection (FRP). The SC indicator was computed as the geometrical mean of preventive and treatment indicators, while the financial protection indicator was computed as a geometrical mean of an indicator for the incidence of catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the impoverishing effect of healthcare payments. We analysed data from three waves of two nationally representative household surveys. Findings: The weighted summary indicator for SC increased from 27.65% (27.13%-28.14%) in 2003 to 41.73% (41.34%-42.12%) in 2013, while the summary indicator for FRP reduced from 69.82% (69.11%-70.51%) in 2003 to 63.78% (63.55%-63.82%) in 2013. Inequities were observed in both these indicators. The weighted summary measure of UHC increased from 43.94% (95% CI 43.48% to 44.38%) in 2003 to 51.55% (95% CI 51.29% to 51.82%) in 2013. Conclusion: Significant gaps exist in Kenya's quest to achieve UHC. It is imperative that targeted health financing and other health sector reforms are made to achieve this goal. Such reforms should be focused on both, rather than on only either, of the dimensions of UHC.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 22(4): 442-453, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28094465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective coverage (EC) is a measure of health systems' performance that combines need, use and quality indicators. This study aimed to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health system provides effective and equitable maternal and child health services, as a means of tracking the country's progress towards universal health coverage. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Demographic Health Surveys (2003, 2008-2009 and 2014) and Service Provision Assessment surveys (2004, 2010) were the main sources of data. Indicators of need, use and quality for eight maternal and child health interventions were aggregated across interventions and economic quintiles to compute EC. EC has increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 50.9% in 2014, but remains low for the majority of interventions. There is a reduction in economic inequalities in EC with the highest to lowest wealth quintile ratio decreasing from 2.41 in 2003 to 1.65 in 2014, but maternal health services remain highly inequitable. CONCLUSIONS: Effective coverage of key maternal and child health services remains low, indicating that individuals are not receiving the maximum possible health gain from existing health services. There is an urgent need to focus on the quality and reach of maternal and child health services in Kenya to achieve the goals of universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Equidade em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Quênia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 13: 242, 2013 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23816278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving high rates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings comprises serious, but different, challenges in both the first months of treatment and during the life-long maintenance phase. We measured the impact of a health system-oriented, facility-based intervention to improve clinic attendance and patient adherence. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental, longitudinal, controlled intervention study using interrupted time series analysis. The intervention consisted of (1) using a clinic appointment diary to track patient attendance and monitor monthly performance; (2) changing the mode of asking for self-reported adherence; (3) training staff on adherence concepts, intervention methods, and use of monitoring data; (4) conducting visits to support facility teams with the implementation.We conducted the study in 12 rural district hospitals (6 intervention, 6 control) in Kenya and randomly selected 1894 adult patients over 18 years of age in two cohorts: experienced patients on treatment for at least one year, and newly treated patients initiating ART during the study. Outcome measures were: attending the clinic on or before the date of a scheduled appointment, attending within 3 days of a scheduled appointment, reporting perfect adherence, and experiencing a gap in medication supply of more than 14 days. RESULTS: Among experienced patients, the percentage attending the clinic on or before a scheduled appointment increased in both level (average total increase immediately after intervention) (+5.7%; 95% CI=2.1, 9.3) and trend (increase per month) (+1.0% per month; 95% CI=0.6, 1.5) following the intervention, as did the level and trend of those keeping appointments within three days (+4.2%; 95% CI=1.6, 6.7; and +0.8% per month; 95% CI=0.6, 1.1, respectively). The relative difference between the intervention and control groups based on the monthly difference in visit rates increased significantly in both level (+6.5; 95% CI=1.4, 11.6) and trend (1.0% per month; 95% CI=0.2, 1.8) following the intervention for experienced patients attending the clinic within 3 days of their scheduled appointments.The decrease in the percentage of experienced patients with a medication gap greater than 14 days approached statistical significance (-11.3%; 95% CI=-22.7, 0.1), and the change seemed to persist over 11 months after the intervention. All facility staff used appointment-keeping data to calculate adherence and discussed outcomes regularly. CONCLUSION: The appointment-tracking system and monthly performance monitoring was strengthened, and patient attendance was improved. Scale-up to national level may be considered.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agendamento de Consultas , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato
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