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Anesthesiology ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809324


WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: The pediatric surgical load in low- and middle-income countries is growing; more than 50% of the population are children and up to 85% may require surgery.Data on perioperative mortality rates are sparse and inconsistently collected, but some studies indicate high rates in Africa. WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a series of 24 Kenyan hospitals, an innovative, robust data tool for collecting more accurate mortality rates found cumulative rates of 0.8% at 24 h, 1.1% at 48 h, and 1.7% at 7 days postoperatively.In this sample, the 7-day mortality was more than 100 times higher than in high-resource settings and associated with American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status III or more, surgery at night or over the weekend, and not using the Safe Surgical Checklist. Mortality was also higher in primary hospitals compared to secondary or tertiary hospitals. BACKGROUND: The global surgery access imbalance will have a dramatic impact on the growing population of the world's children. In regions of the world with pediatric surgery and anesthesia manpower deficits and pediatric surgery-specific infrastructure and supply chain gaps, this expanding population will present new challenges. Perioperative mortality rate is an established indicator of the quality and safety of surgical care. To establish a baseline pediatric perioperative mortality rate and factors associated with mortality in Kenya, the authors designed a prospective cohort study and measured 24-h, 48-h, and 7-day perioperative mortality. METHODS: The authors trained anesthesia providers to electronically collect 132 data elements for pediatric surgical cases in 24 government and nongovernment facilities at primary, secondary, and tertiary hospitals from January 2014 to December 2016. Data assistants tracked all patients to 7 days postoperative, even if they had been discharged. Adjusted analyses were performed to compare mortality among different hospital levels after adjusting for prespecified risk factors. RESULTS: Of 6,005 cases analyzed, there were 46 (0.8%) 24-h, 62 (1.1%) 48-h, and 77 (1.7%) 7-day cumulative mortalities reported. In the adjusted analysis, factors associated with a statistically significant increase in 7-day mortality were American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status of III or more, night or weekend surgery, and not having the Safe Surgery Checklist performed. The 7-day perioperative mortality rate is less in the secondary (1.4%) and tertiary (2.4%) hospitals when compared with the primary (3.7%) hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have established a baseline pediatric perioperative mortality rate that is greater than 100 times higher than in high-income countries. The authors have identified factors associated with an increased mortality, such as not using the Safe Surgery Checklist. This analysis may be helpful in establishing pediatric surgical care systems in low-middle income countries and develop research pathways addressing interventions that will assist in decreasing mortality rate.

Lancet Glob Health ; 7(4): e513-e522, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879511


BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal mortality is high in Africa, but few large, prospective studies have been done to investigate the risk factors associated with these poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study was done in patients having caesarean delivery in 183 hospitals across 22 countries in Africa. The inclusion criteria were all consecutive patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to participating centres having elective and non-elective caesarean delivery during the 7-day study cohort period. To ensure a representative sample, each hospital had to provide data for 90% of the eligible patients during the recruitment week. The primary outcome was in-hospital maternal mortality and complications, which were assessed by local investigators. The study was registered on the South African National Health Research Database, number KZ_2015RP7_22, and on, number NCT03044899. FINDINGS: Between February, 2016, and May, 2016, 3792 patients were recruited from hospitals across Africa. 3685 were included in the postoperative complications analysis (107 missing data) and 3684 were included in the maternal mortality analysis (108 missing data). These hospitals had a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 per 100 000 population (IQR 0·2-2·0). Maternal mortality was 20 (0·5%) of 3684 patients (95% CI 0·3-0·8). Complications occurred in 633 (17·4%) of 3636 mothers (16·2-18·6), which were predominantly severe intraoperative and postoperative bleeding (136 [3·8%] of 3612 mothers). Maternal mortality was independently associated with a preoperative presentation of placenta praevia, placental abruption, ruptured uterus, antepartum haemorrhage (odds ratio 4·47 [95% CI 1·46-13·65]), and perioperative severe obstetric haemorrhage (5·87 [1·99-17·34]) or anaesthesia complications (11·47 (1·20-109·20]). Neonatal mortality was 153 (4·4%) of 3506 infants (95% CI 3·7-5·0). INTERPRETATION: Maternal mortality after caesarean delivery in Africa is 50 times higher than that of high-income countries and is driven by peripartum haemorrhage and anaesthesia complications. Neonatal mortality is double the global average. Early identification and appropriate management of mothers at risk of peripartum haemorrhage might improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in Africa. FUNDING: Medical Research Council of South Africa.

Lancet ; 391(10130): 1589-1598, 2018 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306587


BACKGROUND: There is a need to increase access to surgical treatments in African countries, but perioperative complications represent a major global health-care burden. There are few studies describing surgical outcomes in Africa. METHODS: We did a 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older undergoing any inpatient surgery in 25 countries in Africa (the African Surgical Outcomes Study). We aimed to recruit as many hospitals as possible using a convenience sampling survey, and required data from at least ten hospitals per country (or half the surgical centres if there were fewer than ten hospitals) and data for at least 90% of eligible patients from each site. Each country selected one recruitment week between February and May, 2016. The primary outcome was in-hospital postoperative complications, assessed according to predefined criteria and graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Data were presented as median (IQR), mean (SD), or n (%), and compared using t tests. This study is registered on the South African National Health Research Database (KZ_2015RP7_22) and (NCT03044899). FINDINGS: We recruited 11 422 patients (median 29 [IQR 10-70]) from 247 hospitals during the national cohort weeks. Hospitals served a median population of 810 000 people (IQR 200 000-2 000 000), with a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 (0·2-1·9) per 100 000 population. Hospitals did a median of 212 (IQR 65-578) surgical procedures per 100 000 population each year. Patients were younger (mean age 38·5 years [SD 16·1]), with a lower risk profile (American Society of Anesthesiologists median score 1 [IQR 1-2]) than reported in high-income countries. 1253 (11%) patients were infected with HIV, 6504 procedures (57%) were urgent or emergent, and the most common procedure was caesarean delivery (3792 patients, 33%). Postoperative complications occurred in 1977 (18·2%, 95% CI 17·4-18·9]) of 10 885 patients. 239 (2·1%) of 11 193 patients died, 225 (94·1%) after the day of surgery. Infection was the most common complication (1156 [10·2%] of 10 970 patients), of whom 112 (9·7%) died. INTERPRETATION: Despite a low-risk profile and few postoperative complications, patients in Africa were twice as likely to die after surgery when compared with the global average for postoperative deaths. Initiatives to increase access to surgical treatments in Africa therefore should be coupled with improved surveillance for deteriorating physiology in patients who develop postoperative complications, and the resources necessary to achieve this objective. FUNDING: Medical Research Council of South Africa.

Hospitais , Mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Feminino , Saúde Global , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Adulto Jovem